A verdadeira história que inspirou “Star Wars”

A verdadeira história que inspirou “Star Wars”

Quando George Lucas desenvolveu o enredo de “Guerra nas Estrelas” e criou seus heróis e vilões, ele aproveitou elementos de teologia, misticismo e mitologia, bem como seu conhecimento de filmes clássicos. E condizente com uma história ambientada "há muito tempo", a história da vida real também desempenhou um papel central na formação da ópera espacial do cineasta.

“Eu amo história, então enquanto a base psicológica de‘ Guerra nas Estrelas ’é mitológica, as bases políticas e sociais são históricas”, Lucas disse ao Boston Globe em uma entrevista em 2005. Na verdade, o cineasta é tão aficionado por história que colaborou na publicação do livro de 2013 “Guerra nas Estrelas e História”, editado pelas professoras de história Nancy R. Reagin e Janice Liedl. Escrito por uma dúzia de historiadores importantes e revisado e confirmado por Lucas, "Star Wars and History" identifica as inúmeras figuras e eventos da vida real que inspiraram a franquia de ficção científica, incluindo o seguinte:

Alemanha nazista
Não há nada sutil sobre essa alusão histórica em "Star Wars". Afinal, as forças de assalto de elite fanaticamente devotadas ao Império Galáctico compartilham um nome comum com os lutadores paramilitares que defenderam o Partido Nazista - stormtroopers. Os uniformes dos oficiais imperiais e até mesmo o capacete de Darth Vader se assemelham aos usados ​​pelos membros do exército alemão na Segunda Guerra Mundial, e a ascensão gradual de Palpatine de chanceler a imperador refletia a ascensão política semelhante de Adolf Hitler de chanceler a ditador. O Império não foi o único lado em "Guerra nas Estrelas" que criticou as imagens nazistas, no entanto. A cena final da "Guerra nas Estrelas" original de 1977, na qual a Princesa Leia entrega medalhas aos heróis rebeldes Luke Skywalker e Han Solo enquanto os soldados ficavam atentos, ecoou os massivos comícios nazistas em Nuremberg, capturados no filme de propaganda de Leni Riefenstahl de 1935, "Triunfo da Vontade. ”

Richard Nixon
Embora existam paralelos entre o imperador Palpatine e ditadores como Hitler e Napoleão Bonaparte, a inspiração direta para o antagonista do mal da saga foi na verdade um presidente americano. De acordo com J.W. "The Making of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi", de Rinzler, quando questionado se o Imperador Palpatine era um Jedi durante uma conferência de história em 1981, Lucas respondeu: "Não, ele era um político. Richard M. Nixon era seu nome. Ele subverteu o senado e finalmente assumiu e se tornou um cara imperial e ele era realmente mau. Mas ele fingiu ser um cara muito legal. ” Em uma entrevista de 2005 publicada no Chicago Tribune, Lucas disse que originalmente concebeu "Star Wars" como uma reação à presidência de Nixon. “Era realmente sobre a Guerra do Vietnã, e esse foi o período em que Nixon estava tentando concorrer a um [segundo] mandato, o que me fez pensar historicamente sobre como as democracias se transformam em ditaduras? Porque as democracias não são derrubadas; eles são doados. "

Guerra vietnamita
A guerra de guerrilha travada pela Aliança Rebelde contra o Império Galáctico espelhava a batalha entre uma força insurgente e uma superpotência global que estava acontecendo no Vietnã quando Lucas escreveu “Star Wars”. O cineasta, que foi originalmente criado para dirigir o filme da Guerra do Vietnã "Apocalypse Now" no início dos anos 1970 antes de passar para "Star Wars", disse em um comentário de áudio sobre o relançamento de 2004 de "Return of the Jedi" que o vietcongue serviu de inspiração para os peludos Ewoks que viviam na floresta, que foram capazes de derrotar um oponente muito superior, apesar de suas armas primitivas. Como William J. Astore escreve em "Star Wars and History", tanto os vietcongues quanto os Ewoks foram bem servidos por seu "conhecimento superior do terreno local e capacidade de se misturar a esse terreno".

Roma antiga
As instituições políticas de “Star Wars” - como o Senado, a República e o Império - e os nomes pseudo-latinos de personagens como os chanceleres Valorum e Palpatine ecoam os da Roma antiga. Como observa Tony Keen em “Star Wars and History”, a arquitetura do planeta Naboo se assemelha à da Roma imperial, e a corrida de vagens em “A Ameaça Fantasma” rivaliza com a corrida de carruagens romanas vista na tela em “Ben-Hur. ” A transição da República Galáctica democrática para o Império Galáctico ditatorial ao longo da franquia também reflete a da Roma Antiga. “É claro que a estrutura básica da história de Lucas deriva da queda da República Romana e do subsequente estabelecimento de uma monarquia”, escreve Keen.

Cavaleiros Templários
Embora a elite Jedi - que guarda a paz e a justiça na República Galáctica - tenha semelhanças com os samurais japoneses e os monges Shaolin, eles também ecoam a ordem militar monástica medieval dos Cavaleiros Templários. Os Templários, escreve Terrance MacMullan em “Star Wars and History”, “eram mais estimados que outros cavaleiros por sua austeridade, devoção e pureza moral. Como os Jedi, eles praticavam a pobreza individual dentro de uma ordem militar-monástica que comandava grandes recursos materiais. ” Um conselho de 12 membros de anciãos liderado por um grão-mestre governou os Jedi e os Templários, e as roupas Jedi até se pareciam com as vestes brancas com capuz usadas pelos monges guerreiros cristãos que faziam votos de pobreza, castidade e obediência. Muito parecido com o Grande Expurgo Jedi ordenado pelo Chanceler Palpatine em "A Vingança dos Sith", o Rei Filipe IV da França aniquilou os Cavaleiros Templários depois de prender centenas deles em 13 de outubro de 1307, e subsequentemente torturá-los e executá-los por heresia.

Guerra Fria
A relação tensa entre os Estados Unidos e a União Soviética, com a ameaça de aniquilação nuclear espreitando em segundo plano, dificilmente era história quando "Guerra nas Estrelas" estreou em 1977. A ameaça ao planeta representada por armas nucleares foi encapsulada na tela em a arma definitiva de destruição em massa - a Estrela da Morte - que destruiu o planeta natal da Princesa Leia, Alderaan, uma orbe azul que se assemelhava muito à Terra. A própria “Guerra nas Estrelas” entrou no reino da história da Guerra Fria depois de ter sido adotada pela mídia na década de 1980 como um apelido para a Iniciativa de Defesa Estratégica proposta pelo presidente Ronald Reagan, que teria usado lasers para defender os Estados Unidos contra mísseis nucleares.


Guerra das Estrelas fontes e análogos

o Guerra das Estrelas Sabe-se que a franquia da mídia de ficção científica foi inspirada por muitas fontes. Isso inclui religiões do sul e do leste asiático, Qigong, filosofia, mitologia clássica, história romana, zoroastrismo, partes das religiões abraâmicas, confucionismo, shinto e taoísmo e incontáveis ​​precursores cinematográficos. O criador George Lucas afirmou: "A maior parte da realidade espiritual do filme (s) é baseada em uma síntese de todas as religiões. Uma síntese através da história de como o homem percebeu o desconhecido e o grande mistério e tentou lidar com isso ou lidar com ele " [1]

Lucas também disse que cavalaria, cavalaria, paladinismo e instituições relacionadas nas sociedades feudais inspiraram alguns conceitos na Guerra das Estrelas filmes, mais notavelmente os Cavaleiros Jedi. A obra do mitologista Joseph Campbell, especialmente seu livro O herói com mil faces, influenciou diretamente Lucas, [2] e foi o que o levou a criar o "mito moderno" de Guerra das Estrelas. Acredita-se que o fluxo natural de energia conhecido como Força tenha se originado do conceito de qi / chi / ki, "a energia vital que permeia todo o universo".

Para comemorar o 30º aniversário de Guerra das Estrelas, The History Channel estreou um evento de duas horas cobrindo todo o Guerra das Estrelas saga intitulada Star Wars: The Legacy Revealed. Apresentando entrevistas de nomes como Stephen Colbert, Newt Gingrich, Nancy Pelosi, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, Peter Jackson, acadêmicos aclamados e outros, o programa aprofundou-se no conceito épico heróico e nas influências da mitologia e outros motivos que foram importantes em fazer Guerra das Estrelas. Os assuntos incluem pecados do pai e redenção do pai, maioridade, saída do mundo comum e outros.


O Longo Caminho para & aposUma Nova Esperança & apos

Lucas e Kurtz compraram em torno de um tratamento de 12 páginas de Guerra das Estrelas para vários estúdios de Hollywood. A United Artists recusou. E a Universal também. No entanto, a 20th Century Fox, incentivada pelo burburinho inicial de Graffiti, decidiu dar algum dinheiro à dupla para desenvolver o roteiro.

Mas ir de um esboço para um roteiro final levaria anos. Na verdade, os primeiros rascunhos de Guerra das Estrelas seria irreconhecível até para os fãs mais obstinados: Luke Skywalker é um velho general grisalho, Han Solo é um alienígena parecido com um sapo, há um personagem principal chamado Kane Starkiller e o lado negro da força é chamado de & # x201Co Bogan. & # x201D & # xA0

Lucas lutou para controlar seu épico espacial. A história era densa demais, desequilibrada em tons e suas cenas elaboradas seriam proibitivamente caras de filmar. Seu amigo e mentor, Francis Ford Coppola, expressou dúvidas sobre os primeiros rascunhos. Até mesmo Lucas & # x2019 parceiro Kurtz descreveu o segundo rascunho como & # x201Cgobbledygook. & # X201D

Mas a cada rodada, a história melhorava. No segundo rascunho, publicado em 1975, Luke Skywalker é um menino de fazenda, não um general mais velho, e Darth Vader é o ameaçador homem de preto com quem estamos familiarizados hoje. O terceiro rascunho apresentou Obi-Wan Kenobi e enfatizou a tensão entre Leia e Han Solo. & # XA0Reconhecendo que teve problemas para escrever diálogos, Lucas trouxe a ajuda dos escritores Willard Huyck e Gloria Katz (embora o diretor tenha reescrito a maioria das alterações) . Para Lucas, Guerra das Estrelas estava finalmente entrando em foco. Em 1º de janeiro de 1976, ele concluiu o quarto esboço do roteiro, o que acabou sendo usado quando a produção começou na Tunísia em 25 de março de 1976.

Lucas e Kurtz orçaram originalmente US $ 18 milhões para o filme. A Fox ofereceu US $ 7,5 milhões. Ansiosos para começar a atirar, eles aceitaram a oferta e o resto era história.

Lançado em 1977, Guerra das Estrelas deu início a uma nova era de produção de filmes com seus efeitos especiais, construção de mundo fantástica e mistura cativante de mito e conto de fadas. Embora o orçamento final tenha sido de US $ 11 milhões, o filme arrecadou mais de US $ 513 milhões em todo o mundo durante seu lançamento original, preparando o cenário para uma franquia que duraria décadas e criaria gerações de fãs em todo o mundo & # x2014 todos conectados por um amor comum por uma galáxia distante , longe. & # xA0


Guerra nas estrelas: o samurai real e sedento de sangue que inspirou Darth Vader

A aparência e a história de vida do infame senhor da guerra Date Masamune compartilham muitos paralelos com Darth Vader de Star Wars.

É bem sabido que George Lucas se inspirou para Guerra das Estrelas da cultura samurai do Japão feudal, mas parece que ele tinha uma figura histórica específica em mente para a base de Darth Vader. O vilão mais famoso da história do cinema tem muito em comum com um dos mais icônicos e temíveis senhores da guerra da história japonesa, Date Masamune.

Date Masamune foi inspirador para a criação de Darth Vader não apenas por sua distinta armadura negra, mas também por sua história de vida e complicada reputação de ser caridoso e vingativo. Masamune subiu na hierarquia do Japão feudal para se tornar um dos senhores da guerra mais poderosos do país, assim como a ascensão de Vader ao governante da galáxia.

Lucas foi fortemente inspirado pela cultura samurai e religiões orientais por seus guerreiros espirituais, os Jedi e os formidáveis ​​Sith Lords. Ele era um grande fã do proeminente diretor japonês Akira Kurosawa, que fez um filme chamado Kagemusha, em que Lucas foi produtor executivo. Mais notavelmente, o capacete de Vader pode ser rastreado até o equipamento de samurai, especialmente a icônica armadura negra de Masamune. Masamune usava um capacete de aro com um escudo estendido ao redor da parte de trás e dos lados de sua cabeça, muito parecido com o capacete pelo qual Vader é conhecido. Os primeiros esboços de Vader de Ralph McQuarrie são assustadoramente reminiscentes de Masamune em sua armadura de corpo inteiro, tornando a conexão inegável.

A vida quase mítica de Date Masamune também fornece vários paralelos com o infame Guerra das Estrelas vilão. Masamune nasceu em 1576. Filho mais velho de um senhor feudal da região de Tohoku no Japão, Masamune perdeu a visão do olho direito quando criança após contrair varíola, semelhante a como Anakin perdeu muitos de seus membros e faculdades corporais na batalha de Mustafar. Masamune foi abandonado por sua mãe por causa de sua deficiência visual, tornando-o um herdeiro menos adequado para o trono da família. Anakin também cresceu com apenas um dos pais, embora tenha sido sua mãe quem ficou para criá-lo.

Masamune nasceu em meio à instabilidade política no Japão e participou de campanhas militares com seu pai desde pequeno. Ele se tornou um guerreiro implacável e um líder capaz de seu clã familiar, sucedendo seu pai, e certamente provando uma inspiração para a ascensão meteórica de Anakin a Cavaleiro Jedi e eventualmente Lorde Sith. A ferocidade de Masamune permitiu que ele subisse ao poder, mas também preocupou outros senhores que temiam suas ambições. Este conflito é visto na história de Anakin também, já que as habilidades impressionantes de Anakin o tornaram um grande Jedi, mas também foram alimentados por uma raiva profunda que preocupou o Conselho Jedi.

Masamune tinha uma reputação imponente entre outros senhores feudais e não gostava de traidores. Um grupo de samurais insurgentes sequestrou o pai de Masamune, provocando uma rápida retaliação do exército de Masamune. Quando Masamune alcançou os sequestradores em fuga antes que eles cruzassem um rio para seu domínio, seu pai ordenou que as tropas de Masamune atirassem nos sequestradores. Eles obedeceram e esmagaram a rebelião, além de matar o pai de Masamune. Como punição pelo assassinato de seu pai, Masamune matou o parente de todos os homens envolvidos no sequestro. Isso soa assustadoramente familiar sobre como Anakin matou todos os Tusken Raiders depois que eles sequestraram e causaram a morte de sua mãe, Shmi.

Masamune se tornou o mais poderoso senhor da guerra no norte do Japão, mas suas conquistas sangrentas no campo de batalha também foram acompanhadas por atos de caridade que ele executou enquanto estava no poder. Masamune construiu a infraestrutura marítima do Japão com tecnologia ocidental que ele aceitou com entusiasmo. Ele também facilitou a difusão do cristianismo e apoiou uma das únicas missões diplomáticas no Japão feudal, a primeira expedição marítima japonesa a circunavegar o mundo. Tanto Masamune quanto Vader construíram um império florescente baseado no avanço tecnológico e liderança severa que inspirou obediência.

Os paralelos entre Date Masamune e Darth Vader são estranhos. Lucas não se inspirou apenas no formidável traje de guerra do samurai, mas também em sua vida notável e árdua. Parece apropriado que o Sith mais temível da galáxia seja baseado em uma figura igualmente imponente na história japonesa, que se exaltou na cultura pop. A Força é certamente forte com Masamune.


As incríveis histórias, arte e história encontradas em & # 8216Guerra das Estrelas e o poder da fantasia & # 8217

Estar diante de uma fileira de vestidos da Rainha Amidala & # 8217s é como espiar por trás da cortina antes de um desfile de alta costura. Veludo forrado à mão dá lugar a gossamer seda chiffon substanciais grosgrains misturam-se com finas filigranas e uma divertida capa de penas. Alguns parecem um pouco desconfortáveis ​​& # 8212 um vestido realmente exige que o usuário fique montado em uma bateria de carro para iluminar uma série de globos em sua base rígida & # 8212, enquanto outros são simplesmente cobiçados, mas cada um tem o ar inconfundível da realeza.

Aqui, entre uma coleção escolhida a dedo de maravilhas cinematográficas, os curadores por trás da exposição itinerante “Rebel, Jedi, Princesa, Rainha: Guerra das Estrelas e o Poder do Traje ”, conta a história do processo criativo desde as inspirações ecléticas até a manifestação física. O StarWars.com visitou a exposição durante seus últimos dias na cidade de Nova York, de olho na sua inauguração em 13 de novembro no Museu de Arte de Denver.

Ao vestir os habitantes de uma galáxia muito, muito distante, os figurinistas evocam heróis mitológicos e astronautas da vida real, realeza oriental e modelos pré-rafaelitas. Dar vida à visão de George Lucas & # 8217, concebida por artistas como Ralph McQuarrie e Iain McCaig, então desenhada por nomes como John Mollo e Trisha Biggar, exigiu viagens internacionais para encontrar tecidos perfeitos.

Às vezes, até o almoço se transformava em alimento para um cocar deslumbrante. Conforme a história continua, Biggar e sua equipe estavam fazendo uma pausa no trabalho com as prequelas um dia e comendo abalone. “Eles estão olhando para essas conchas e, depois que terminam o almoço, pedem ao garçom que as coloque em uma sacola para cachorro”, diz Saul Sopoci Drake, o desenvolvedor de exposições por trás do show. "Essas conchas em particular acabaram na coroa da Rainha Jamilla."

O uniforme completo de Jamilla é uma das cerca de 70 peças, incluindo os corpos blindados de caçadores de recompensas e andróides, as vestes de monge dos Jedi e Sith e os looks icônicos dos filmes clássicos.

Artesanato e arte

Drake, do Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, e Laela French, diretora de arquivos do Lucas Museum of Narrative Art no Skywalker Ranch, trabalharam juntos para selecionar as milhares de peças cuidadosamente preservadas para iluminar de maneira brilhante o empreendimento criativo e as complexidades de cada fantasia . Para o casamento de Anakin e Padmé, o figurinista Biggar ficou acordado a noite toda antes das fotos para enfeitar o vestido de noiva, que já havia sido feito a partir de uma colcha de renda italiana do século 20 e enfeitado com mais de 300 metros de trança francesa.

A exposição dá aos fãs a chance de chegarem (mas não muito perto e # 8212 sem tocar) para examinar a obra de Biggar. “Quando você os vê de perto, pode realmente apreciar os detalhes, a habilidade e a arte”, diz Drake. “Existia muito tempo, esforço e detalhes. Alguns são obras de arte. Outros são declarações de moda. ”

Pegue, por exemplo, o vasto guarda-roupa de Amidala, partes iguais de alta costura e homenagem cultural. O personagem teve tantas trocas de figurino ao longo de três filmes que alguns vestidos que demoraram meses para serem criados, mas ficaram na tela por meros segundos. Entre os favoritos de Drake e # 8217 está um vestido de senado que ostenta uma opulenta peça para a cabeça inspirada na Mongólia, que junto com tudo o mais no show deve viajar em uma caixa personalizada cuidadosamente embalada. “Em um nível simbólico, quando você olha para este cocar, essa pessoa não está cavando valas. Ela é a rainha de algumas pessoas ”, diz ele. Essas pistas não-verbais, neste caso uma homenagem aos trajes da corte da realeza tibetana na virada do século, imbuem muitos personagens com um propósito claro assim que entram na tela. “Na verdade, em um nível simbólico, há algumas coisas poderosas em jogo aqui.”

& # 8216O vilão definitivo & # 8217

As plataformas ao ar livre onde muitas das fantasias estão empoleiradas tem sido um presente para cosplayers apaixonados. Ocasionalmente, Drake também atendeu seus pedidos de conhecimento dos bastidores. Antes de embalar o show na cidade de Nova York em setembro, ele foi encarregado de medir parte da túnica Obi-Wan Kenobi de Alec Guinness para um homem que estava construindo sua própria vestimenta Jedi e não conseguia aperfeiçoar o cinto. “É uma prova da veracidade da base de fãs”, diz Drake. “Você tem fãs realmente apaixonados que vivem e respiram essas coisas.”

Os vestidos Amidala & # 8217s, especificamente, são surpreendentes em número e esplendor. De perto, pode-se estudar o brocado que forra as suntuosas mangas de sino, os finos colares feitos de miçangas agrupadas e as penas e rosetas que adornam os conjuntos com delicada precisão. Em contraste, as vestes Jedi e Sith parecem enganosamente simples, como as armadilhas humildes dos monges. Mas de perto pode-se ver como as camadas de tecido permitiram que o aprendiz Sith Darth Maul e a túnica # 8217 se espalhassem em esplendor coreografado, ou examinar as manoplas de couro finamente lapidadas de Mirialan Jedi Luminara Unduli.

Era importante para Drake rastrear as influências culturais que se combinaram para tornar as peças familiares e totalmente únicas. A biblioteca própria de George Lucas e # 8217 no Skywalker Ranch engloba uma vasta coleção de materiais de referência. “Esta biblioteca rivaliza com algumas bibliotecas universitárias em termos de profundidade e amplitude”, diz Drake. “Todos esses trajes, de uma forma ou de outra, são um tanto familiares para nós. Vimos aspectos deles na história cultural e mundial. ”


Os estilos de quimonos japoneses são um tema recorrente, nas camadas externas dos trajes reais e nas vestimentas das humildes vestes Jedi. Os macacões laranja dos astronautas reais do Mercury 7 influenciaram os uniformes dos pilotos rebeldes, enquanto o Império segue as dicas da moda da Alemanha nazista. Até o biquíni inesquecível usado pela Princesa Leia no palácio Jabba & # 8217s deve sua inspiração a outras escravas retratadas na tela prateada.

Embora em menor número, as peças da trilogia original se destacam como pedras de toque da cultura de uma simplicidade mais sutil em comparação com a elegância prequela de grande orçamento. Carrie Fisher & # 8217s Princesa Leia & # 8217s vestido branco até o chão, apertado com um cinto prateado, é elegantemente simples e surpreendentemente diminuto. A placa torácica de Darth Vader era originalmente pouco mais do que um bloco de madeira pintado, diz Drake. “É tão interessante ver os detalhes dos trajes clássicos”, acrescenta. "Literalmente, são pedaços de madeira." Mas na tela, a magia do cinema e o simbolismo se fundem. "Mesmo antes de ouvi-lo falar ou respirar, você sabe que ele é o vilão definitivo."

Abuso de soldado

Acontece que Mark Hamill era meio baixo para um stormtrooper. Sua armadura teve que ser feita especialmente para caber em seu corpo, French diz, e o capacete que ele usava foi catalogado no arquivo. Mas outros trajes de Stormtrooper autênticos são mais difíceis de encontrar quase 40 anos após a estreia do filme original & # 8217s.

Drake conseguiu garantir um Retorno do Jedi -conjunto vintage de armadura para o show, completo com arranhões, sujeira e rachaduras. Apenas 50 stormtroopers foram moldados para Uma nova esperança , e muitos deles foram reutilizados para a sequência. Mas eles foram completamente reformulados e revisados ​​para Jedi com capacetes mais altos e mais magros, diz French. “Minha suspeita é que eles simplesmente não sobreviveram ao abuso e ao uso” dos dois filmes anteriores.

“Durante o período em que eles estavam filmando alguns desses filmes & # 8230, eles não estavam pensando em manter essas coisas para uma exposição em um museu em 2016”, diz Drake. “Embora a armadura seja feita para parecer e soar como metal, é basicamente de plástico. Está realmente batido. Você pode dizer que o ator está rolando na terra. Ele está ficando amassado, rachado, os nove metros inteiros. Isso realmente dá a você uma avaliação do que o arquivo faz para preservar algumas dessas coisas. ”

A coleção impressionante abrange toda a franquia de sete filmes, estreando algumas peças de Star Wars A força desperta antes mesmo do filme ter estreado.


Os trajes dos personagens mais centrais & # 8217 estão representados, incluindo criaturas icônicas, como a fibra de vidro esculpida, o plástico formado a vácuo, andróides de alumínio e casaco de iaque e mohair Chewbacca & # 8217s, um lembrete da estatura elevada de Peter Mayhew & # 8217s. O atrito esfregou um pouco do brilho das juntas douradas do C-3PO & # 8217s e algumas marcas e arranhões são aparentes no verniz de sua contraparte & # 8217s. Um esboço simples mostra como Kenny Baker agachou-se em R2-D2, uma perna plantada em ambos os lados para permitir o movimento, mas Drake gosta de examinar o funcionamento interno do andróide & # 8217s por si mesmo quando ele rasga a exposição para transportá-lo para o próximo parada da turnê.

300 peças extras

Nem tudo foi criado especificamente para os filmes originais ou necessariamente retido, observa o francês. A túnica branca de Luke e as botas de cano alto de suas primeiras cenas como um simples garoto de fazenda em Tatooine são uma omissão notável. “Gostaríamos de tê-lo, mas não temos”, diz ela. O mesmo vale para a jaqueta amarela que ele vestiu durante a cerimônia de medalha no final de Uma nova esperança, que parece ter vindo e sido devolvido à Bermans & amp Nathans, uma loja de aluguel de fantasias de Londres.

Quando chegou a hora de filmar as prequelas, French estava no set para supervisionar um sistema mais abrangente de arquivamento e catalogação. Cada fantasia foi salva, diz ela, assim como outras partes que foram para a criação do guarda-roupa.


Cerca de 300 peças extras do arquivo serão entregues especialmente para o show & # 8217s executado em Denver. Cada local & # 8212 a exposição estreou em Seattle antes de passar quase um ano na cidade de Nova York & # 8212 tem a chance de estilizá-lo como seu, dizem Drake e French. Para o público dos museus de arte, isso significa um olhar ainda mais aprofundado sobre o processo de criação do figurino. “Eles estão recriando a sensação do estúdio”, diz French, incluindo padrões de figurino, amostras de teste que Biggar costumava brincar com serigrafia em chiffon e até mesmo nas próprias telas, gravadas com a simbologia Naboo. “É como quando você vê o estúdio de um artista e sua paleta”, diz French. “Temos um pouco desse processo confuso & # 8212, mas muito interessante & # 8212 e é lindo.”

Guerra das Estrelas and the Power of Costume ”estará em exibição em Denver de 13 de novembro de 2016 a 2 de abril de 2017, antes de prosseguir para outros locais ainda a serem anunciados em todo o mundo. French observa que esta parada será a mais a oeste que a exposição está planejando abrir nos Estados Unidos.

Kristin Baver é uma escritora e nerd de ficção científica que sempre tem apenas mais uma pergunta em uma lista inesgotável de curiosidades. Às vezes, ela deixa escapar "É uma armadilha!" mesmo quando não é. Siga-a no Twitter @KristinBaver.


The Real Force Behind & # 8216Star Wars & # 8217: How George Lucas Construiu um Império

Os US $ 20 bilhões em mercadorias vendidas através da série de filmes revelam a ressonância de uma história simples do bem contra o mal - e as pinceladas do autor intelectual do cineasta.

Alex Ben Block

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Sguerras de alcatrão as homenagens certamente têm uma história célebre. Existem Seth Green e # 8217s Frango Robô especiais, o recente episódio de Natal de Alegria, o & # 8220Blue Harvest & # 8221 episódio de Homem de familia, mesmo Mel Brooks & # 8217 1987 paródia Bolas espaciais. E então houve este ano & # 8217s Super Bowl, onde Volkswagen estreou um comercial de 30 segundos intitulado & # 8220The Dog Strikes Back & # 8221 apresentando um cão inspirado por um novo Fusca 2012 para entrar em forma. O comercial corta para a cena Cantina do Star Wars original, cheio de personagens do filme & # 8212 incluindo Darth Vader & # 8212 discutindo sobre qual anúncio é o melhor. Isso nos calcanhares do teaser da montadora & # 8217s em meados de janeiro & # 8220The Bark Side & # 8221 que mostrava um grupo de cães latindo Guerra das Estrelas& # 8216 Música da Marcha Imperial.

O que Guerra das Estrelas tem a ver com a venda de produtos importados alemães bonitos não está totalmente claro. Mas a ligação entre Guerra nas estrelas e a publicidade da Volkswagen & # 8217s é: os anúncios tornaram-se imediatamente virais (assim como praticamente qualquer coisa de Star Wars), não apenas promovendo o novo Fusca, mas também o lançamento de Episódio I: A ameaça fantasma, nos cinemas em 10 de fevereiro em uma nova conversão 3D.

Claro, a vinheta da Volkswagen é apenas uma gota na história da franquia de marketing de Hollywood mais bem-sucedida da história. Um conto de 35 anos, que começou com o original de 1977, agora chamado Star Wars: Episódio IV & # 8212 Uma Nova Esperança. Só no ano passado, a franquia arrecadou US $ 3 bilhões em receita de licenciamento (o próximo produto de filme licenciado mais lucrativo é o de Carros) De sabres de luz vendidos na Target aos mais de 1,5 milhão de devotos que se inscreveram para o RPG online A Guerra das Estrelas: A Velha República desde dezembro para cada pequeno Yoda que aparece na sua porta no Halloween, Guerra das Estrelas está tão onipresente como sempre. & # 8220A grande conquista de Guerra das Estrelas foi pegar um gênero moribundo da ficção científica e restaurá-lo à popularidade, & # 8221 diz Toby Miller, cientista social e presidente de Mídia e Estudos Culturais da UC Riverside. & # 8220George Lucas pegou um gênero que parecia cafona e fez com que parecesse um filme de alto conceito, investindo em novas ideias, tecnologias e pessoas. Por fim, a história e as imagens foram as estrelas e não os atores. & # 8221

De fato, Guerra das Estrelas& # 8216 conto fundamental do bem contra o mal no contexto de uma relação disfuncional pai-filho contém temas que ressoam com espectadores de qualquer idade. Pergunte a qualquer pessoa com crianças: o que antes era um jogo de vaqueiros e índios na pré-Guerra das Estrelas playgrounds se transformou na era pós-Lucas em batalhas morais envolvendo personagens agora facilmente adquiridos. Ao longo do período de Guerra das Estrelas& # 8216 vitalício, US $ 20 bilhões e contando os produtos licenciados foram vendidos, isso além dos US $ 4,4 bilhões em ingressos e US $ 3,8 bilhões em produtos de entretenimento doméstico. Com uma base de fãs em constante renovação, o Cartoon Network tem uma classificação gigantesca em seu sucesso de animação Guerras Clônicas (2,2? Milhões de telespectadores diários), que gerou novos personagens e brinquedos (incluindo a alienígena feminina Padme Amidala e um jovem Obi-Wan). Só na parceria com a Lego, Guerra das Estrelas impulsionou a vacilante marca de brinquedos a novos patamares e mais de 15 milhões de unidades vendidas do Lego Star Wars videogame.

Mas como Lucas, que só se tornou uma figura mais complicada nas últimas duas décadas, manteve esse império do entretenimento mais duradouro e lucrativo? Chame de uma questão de foco & # 8212 na história sobre as coisas. & # 8220I & # 8217m apenas o cara do cinema. A marca e o licenciamento e esse tipo de coisa, é divertido & # 8221, diz Lucas. & # 8220Eu gosto disso, há muitos brinquedos incríveis e camisetas engraçadas, além de dispositivos incríveis e coisas divertidas. & hellip Mas, ao mesmo tempo, meu foco principal é apenas fazer o filme. Não vi o comercial da VW, embora tenha visto o primeiro e tenha achado extremamente engraçado. & # 8221

Tudo começou modestamente. Depois de seu sucesso com Graffiti Americano em 1973, Lucas queria fazer um filme de faroeste no espaço sideral para renovar o gênero. Ele foi rejeitado por vários estúdios, mas encontrou um campeão em Alan Ladd Jr., que então dirigia a 20th Century Fox & # 8212, embora a maioria dos outros executivos da Fox e o conselho da empresa não concordassem. Fox permitiu que Lucas deixasse passar uma taxa adicional de direção de $ 500.000 em troca de manter os direitos de licenciamento e merchandising para si mesmo & # 8212 uma decisão que custaria bilhões ao estúdio.

Começando com o segundo episódio, 1980 & # 8217s O império Contra-Ataca, Lucas assumiu total propriedade e controle. Ele nunca mais trabalharia no mainstream de Hollywood, escolhendo se basear longe da loucura na área da baía de São Francisco, onde ele havia crescido.

Lucas expandiu seu departamento de efeitos especiais para Industrial Light & amp Magic, que se tornou um parceiro fundamental para cineastas que precisavam de efeitos de última geração. Seu Skywalker Sound forneceu uma gama de serviços técnicos. Com o passar dos anos, ele teve divisões de computador (uma das quais se transformou na Pixar), impressões de livros e outros empreendimentos, enquanto fazia filmes, incluindo a série de sucesso Indiana Jones.

While the movies have been lucrative, it is the licensing and merchandising that has brought a bonanza. Even Lucas was unprepared for the huge instant success of Guerra das Estrelas in 1977, driven in part by a series of comic books released as a setup to the theatrical experience. Lucas had sold toy-merchandising rights to his movie to Kenner (then a division of cereal maker General Foods) in advance of the opening for a flat fee of $100,000 after another company turned him down. However, Kenner wasn’t ready for the explosion of interest, either.

Unable to meet the demand by Christmas 1977, Kenner sold an “Early Bird Certificate Package,” which included a kind of I.O.U. that could be redeemed later for four Guerra das Estrelas action figures (Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Chewbacca and R2-D2), a display stand, stickers and a Guerra das Estrelas fan club membership card. In 1978, Kenner brought out four more action figures from the movie’s Cantina scene, and soon after that the line grew to 20 items. By the end of 1978, Kenner had sold more than 40 million of the figures for gross sales of more than $100 million.

For the release of Empire Strikes Back, Lucasfilm and Kenner were ready, doing mail promotions and adding figures including Boba Fett. That was the beginning of the era of TV-driven marketing tied to a movie, according to Derryl DePriest, vp global brand management for Hasbro, which acquired Kenner in 1991 and later Galoob, another early Guerra das Estrelas toy licensee: “That’s been the lasting legacy of Star Wars. The impact it has had on really big event-style merchandising.”

Hoje Guerra das Estrelas is consistently among the top five licensed toy brands, bringing in retail sales of more than $3 billion in 2011. “It truly is incredible for any property to remain a top seller within licensed merchandise for such a long time,” says Anita Frazier, industry analyst for NPD Group, which tracks licensing. In 1999, as part of a drive to relicense Guerra das Estrelas timed to the launch of the second trilogy of movies, Lucas agreed to a construction-toy license with Lego. It was the first time the Danish company had licensed any movie or TV show. “We felt this was something we could re-create for a fantastic Lego experience,” says Jill Wilfert, Lego’s vp global licensing and marketing. “It has wildly exceeded everyone’s expectations.”

Since Howard Roffman became head of licensing in 1986, Lucasfilm has operated with a group of fewer than three dozen employees who do everything from track in exacting detail every story arc and character in the Star Wars universe, to ensuring quality standards are met. Lucas does not get personally involved in that oversight, but the buck still stops with him on every major decision. “We don’t put out anything there is not a consumer demand for,” says Roffman. “George doesn’t want to damage the reputation of Guerra das Estrelas in any way in the retail marketplace.”

Lucas keeps a tight rein on his world but isn’t a micromanager, according to Jim Gianopulos, co-chairman and co-CEO of 20th Century Fox, which has released all six of the Guerra das Estrelas movies in North America, and is distributor for Lucasfilm’s 3D rereleases.

“He gets involved he’s the ultimate arbiter,” says Gianopulos. “Obviously, he has many people he respects and trusts, or they wouldn’t be working for him. But ultimately George has been the creator and custodian of the greatest franchise in movie history. In the end, everything flows back to George. He will just know whether it’s right or wrong when he sees it.”

Steven Ekstract, group publisher of License! Global magazine, credits the merchandising and licensing for keeping fans involved between movies. “It keeps kids engaged between movies and TV seasons,” he says. “Guerra das Estrelas is consistently the number-one-selling boys’ toy in the world, year after year, even when there are no new films.” Naturally, merchandise is part of the promotion of the new Phantom Menace: At AMC theaters, ticket buyers will find a Lego feature area, pod-racer 3D glasses, demonstrations of a new Xbox Kinect game and free Hasbro Guerra das Estrelas Fighter Pods.

After he made the second Guerra das Estrelas trilogy, which ended in 2005 with Episode III — Revenge of the Sith, Lucas swore he was done. But the sale of merchandise and continuing interest showed him there was more to do, this time with a new generation. So he expanded the story back a thousand years to create a prequel that became The Clone Wars. First mentioned in Phantom Menace in 1999, it has grown into a whole new world of Guerra das Estrelas. What started as a theatrical release in 2008 has truly found its place as an animated series on Cartoon Network, where it has been the top-rated show for boys for four years.

Lucas currently is working on a comedic take on Guerra das Estrelas for another animated series and a live-action TV series (though he laments that he has yet to figure out how to do visual effects on a TV-show budget). Still, it sends a chill through the empire when Lucas says he may not be minding the store forever. He is even more central to the face and focus of his business than his friend Steve Jobs was to Apple. But lately Lucas has been bandying about the word “retirement” — or at least his idea of what that means.

With a personal fortune Forbes estimated at $3.2 billion in 2011, Lucas says he is “having a great time. I’ve got one daughter in martial arts, one daughter who is a writer — which is sort of another version of martial arts — and my son is in college. So things are good.”

But first he has to work on the script for Indiana Jones 5, finish the expansion of an animation studio in Singapore, oversee a new season of Clone Wars and ready the 3D rerelease of Episode II for 2013.

Whether anyone else will be able to follow his recipe seems unlikely. “What you are talking about here is the marrying of the genius of the product with the brilliance of the original creative endeavor,” says Jon Dolgen, former chairman and CEO of Viacom Entertainment Group. “You can have hard work, diligence and creative control — but pick another movie and I don’t know that you would end up in the same place.”


‘The Imperial March (Darth Vader’s Theme)’

In the movies: In the original trilogy, this theme follows the villainous Darth Vader in the prequels, it presages the dark fate of Anakin Skywalker. (Spoiler for the few strangers to “Star Wars”: Anakin and Vader are the same person.) The music is always a cue to the audience that evil is afoot.

In classical music: The march’s underlying rhythm recalls another celestial score: Gustav Holst’s “The Planets.” The subjects of Holst’s suite, however, are more mythological than astronomical. “Mars,” which resembles Darth Vader’s march, is subtitled “The Bringer of War.” This wouldn’t be the only time “Mars” inspired a film composer Hans Zimmer nearly quoted it directly in “Gladiator.”


6 The Senate Of Rome

The senate was one of the biggest plot points in the prequel trilogy. It was dominated around the fall of a republic, with Revenge of the Sith in particular showing how Palpatine could bend the senate to his will.

The senate was largely inspired by the Roman Senate, but connections to the German political system in Weimar Republic of the 1920s can also be seen in Palpatine’s rise to power that mirrored Hitler’s, with both dictators even holding the title of ‘chancellor.’


Holograms

When you're trapped in the tractor beam of an Imperial Star Destroyer and facing certain doom, there's no better way of sending a mayday message than via hologram. But while specially designed glasses have been used to create the illusion of 3D images for decades, free-standing holographic videos have been hard to reproduce.

In recent years, an old stage trick invented by John Pepper in the 19th century to give the illusion of a ghostlike apparition on stage has been revived, most notably to seemingly resurrect deceased rapper Tupac Shakur at the Coachella music festival in 2012. The method relies on a superthin sheet of foil hung at a 45-degree angle from the stage that is invisible to the naked eye but reflects images from a projector. The trick gives the illusion of a 3D image but only if you are standing in front of it.

Closer to the mark is the Voxiebox "swept surface volumetric display" made by Voxon, the result of a merger between two groups of Australian and American inventors. 3D models are sliced into hundreds of horizontal cross sections before a superfast projector beams them onto a flat screen that rapidly moves up and down. The human eye blends these projections together to create a 3D image that can move and be viewed from any angle, just like during Princess Leia's message to Obi-Wan Kenobi in "Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope."


How the Abandoned ‘Star Wars’ Expanded Universe Inspired ‘Force Awakens’

Meet Jacen Solo, Kyle Katarn and the other characters who paved the way for Kylo Ren, Finn and the new movie heroes.

Graeme McMillan

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[Warning: This story contains plot details from Star Wars: The Force Awakens that could be considered spoilers. Read further at your own risk.]

Fans of the Guerra das Estrelas Expanded Universe &mdash the spinoff novels and comic books that were pushed out of canon last year &mdash might have found Star Wars: The Force Awakens an even more nostalgic experience than the majority of viewers, thanks to a number of “new” concepts in the movie calling back to ideas that were explored in the EU a long time ago.

Those involved in the new movies have previously said that the Expanded Universe is “not off-limits” when it comes to inspiration for the newly established Guerra das Estrelas canon, and here are some ways in which The Force Awakens proved that to be true.

Kylo Ren Is Jacen Solo

The son of Han Solo and Leia Organa who turned to the Dark Side after being trained by Luke Skywalker? That not only describes Adam Driver’s Kylo Ren , but also Jacen Solo, one of three children of Han and Leia in the Expanded Universe chronology. Jacen was at the heart of many EU stories, including the Young Jedi Knights YA prose series &mdash which, as the name suggests, centered around Luke’s class of new Jedi &mdash and the later Legacy of the Force series, which tells the story of his transformation into Darth Caedus , a Sith Lord at odds with his family and ultimately killed by his twin sister, Jaina . (Also worth noting: Kylo Ren’s birth name was Ben, after Ben Kenobi . In the Expanded Universe, Ben is the son of Luke Skywalker.)

Luke Is A Terrible Teacher In Every Timeline

As can be seen above, Luke’s attempts to rebuild the Jedi Order have unfortunate effects in both the canonical Guerra das Estrelas saga and the Expanded Universe. He was, however, far luckier in the EU, where Jacen managed to go rogue without pushing Luke into exile as a result. Indeed, in the EU timeline, Luke did succeed in his mission, with the Jedi once again rising to prominence throughout the galaxy with Luke as its leader. In both new canon and the Expanded Universe, Yavin IV &mdash the moon that was the home for the Rebel Alliance in the original Guerra das Estrelas movie &mdash became the home base for the new Jedi Order it remains to be seen if Luke returns there in Star Wars: Episode VIII to try again.

Starkiller Base Is the Sun Crusher (And Is Also Named After Luke Skywalker)

Starkiller Base &mdash the planet-sized weapon that the First Order control in The Force Awakens &mdash is far from a new concept in Guerra das Estrelas lore it is, after all, a bigger (and more destructive) Death Star at heart. No surprise, then, that something along these lines has popped up in the Expanded Universe. The difference is the Sun Crusher, the threat at the heart of the Jedi Academy prose trilogy, was the size of a regular star fighter … but still contained the capability to destroy star systems, albeit by destroying the sun and leaving the surrounding planets to collapse in the aftermath.

O nome do Force Awakens base is also all over the EU &mdash it’s the codename of Darth Vader’s apprentice in the Force Unleashed video games and tie-in stories, as well as a starship, a (separate, unrelated) destructive weapon and one of Luke’s childhood friends on Tatooine. Why does it appear so often? Because it was an earlier version of Luke Skywalker’s name in one of George Lucas’ first drafts of the Guerra das Estrelas screenplay.

Finn Is a Name I Haven’t Heard In a Long Time

John Boyega’s character might not have had a name before Poe Dameron (Oscar Isaac) gave him one, but the name “Finn” has an almost-Starkiller-like history in Guerra das Estrelas mythology: in the Expanded Universe alone, there was a Sith Master with that name millennia before the events of the prequel trilogy, as well as a soldier who fought an invading force years after the events of Return of the Jedi (in the Star Wars Tales e Star Wars: Invasion comic book series, respectively), as well as characters in The Clone Wars animated series.

Similarly, Finn’s backstory parallels the Expanded Universe history for Han Solo, who was an Imperial pilot before becoming a smuggler, as well as Kyle Katarn, the lead character of the Jedi Knight videogame series who was a Stormtrooper before defecting to the Rebellion. (Like Finn, Katarn used a lightsaber at times, going on to become an instructor at the Jedi Academy.)

Histórias relacionadas

A Closer Look at 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens' Character Mystery (Spoilers)

The First Order Is The Nagai

Unsurprisingly, the notion of the remnants of the Empire forming a new opposition to the Republic is an idea that appeared before The Force Awakens. In Expanded Universe mythology, the Empire staggered on for a decade or so after Return of the Jedi before essentially collapsing to in-fighting less than half a century later, but in Marvel’s original 1980s comic books &mdash which continued for two years after the release of Jedi, marking the first time anyone had attempted to tell a “What Happened Next” story in the series &mdash a number of Imperial forces were co-opted by a group of aliens called the Nagai. They also had a Sith Lady amongst their number, pre-dating The Clone Wars‘ Asajj Ventress by decades &mdash to torment the new Republic just as it was coming together.

In the larger Expanded Universe, the position that Supreme Commander Snoke holds in The Force Awakens &mdash that is, the leader of a post-Empire Imperial organization &mdash is taken first by Grand Admiral Thrawn, an Imperial officer with grand ambitions, and later a clone of Emperor Palpatine himself, who managed to temporarily tempt Luke Skywalker to the Dark Side of the Force. Both, as is tradition, were defeated and order was (temporarily) restored to the galaxy.

Chewbacca Is Lucky This Time Around

While Han Solo was sent to the great trash compactor in the sky during the climax of The Force Awakens, it was another Millennium Falcon pilot who died in the Expanded Universe &mdash in fact, Chewbacca was killed in the 1999 novel Vector Prime while saving the life of Han Solo’s son, strangely enough (No, not Jacen it was Anakin, Han and Leia’s youngest). His death was commemorated in a 2000 comic book series called Star Wars: Chewbacca, which told the character’s life story, introducing a new version of his wife and child from the much-maligned Star Wars Holiday Special.

Given that Han canonically had a wife pre-Leia thanks to the current Marvel comic book series, it’ll be interesting to see if Han receives a similarly revelatory comic book tribute after his death, or if that portion of his life remains the purview of future movies &mdash although any movies could easily pull as much inspiration from the character’s Expanded Universe history as The Force Awakens has managed to use for the galaxy at large.


Guerra das Estrelas at 40 | Paul Huston on Making Models and History for Star Wars: A New Hope

This article is part of a special StarWars.com series in honor of Guerra das Estrelas 40th anniversary today, May 25.

Paul Huston has roamed the halls of Industrial Light & Magic for more than 40 years, with the distinction of lending his artistry and leaving his mark on all eight Guerra das Estrelas films so far. Huston started out on the original trilogy as a model maker and storyboard artist, returned for the Special Edition of Star Wars: A New Hope as a digital matte artist, and continued to use those skills throughout the production of the prequels and beyond. But back in August of 1975, he was just a 24-year-old kid one year out of architecture school taking a job to work with his former professor Jamie Shourt. The artist, now “66 and almost a half” recently sat down with StarWars.com to reminisce about the early days of ILM, discuss how the hot-rod aesthetic influenced the saga’s iconic ships, and explain how plastic egg packaging for a line of pantyhose helped shape the rebellion’s Y-wing fleet.

StarWars.com: Your first task was to help storyboard artist Joe Johnston put together the “bidding” storyboards that would help put a cost on the visual effects shots for A New Hope. What was it like working on the original Guerra das Estrelas film in those first weeks and months?

Paul Huston: Well, it was really exciting! It was kind of a revelation to walk into a little warehouse and then have it be full of all of these really interesting drawings and blueprints, [concept artist] Ralph McQuarrie’s drawings, and Joe’s drawings. It was really something that I never imagined that I would ever be able to do. And I was nervous about being able to keep up at the level, to keep up with Joe on storyboards. And I worked really hard to do that. It was a pretty small group at that time. I think there was maybe 10 people in the place. They were just starting to hire people and just starting the model shop going and we had a little room upstairs. The art department was this little plywood-floored room with wooden doors on sawhorses for drawing tables and cinderblock and plywood walls, and it was all really pretty rough. It kind of added to the charm. The most important thing was more the work that was going on there rather than location itself.

StarWars.com: What does your office space look like now compared to, you know, a wooden door on a sawhorse?

Paul Huston: Well yeah… [Laughs] Now the [Letterman] Digital Arts Center that was built, I think they finished it in about 2005, and it was one of the most prestigious office locations in San Francisco since it opened. It’s right on the edge of the bay. You can look out and see Alcatraz. You can see the Golden Gate Bridge. It’s just a beautiful 180-degree view from the upper floors and it’s almost a park-like setting surrounded by landscaping and the Palace of Fine Arts is just to the north. It’s just spectacular. And really nothing like its beginnings for sure.

StarWars.com: Right, although, I imagine the work that’s going on inside is nothing like its beginnings either.

Paul Huston: Yeah, it’s always really what the business demands. People aren’t that interested in seeing something that they’ve seen over and over again. You can only fool them for so long until you have to change your act. So the bar is constantly being raised and then also, fortunately, so are the tools. Computers are getting faster all the time and the software is being improved constantly and directors keep coming up with incredible ideas of what they want, how they want to impress people with their vision. And it’s been that way since I started. What we were doing in 1975 was pretty advanced for the state of the art in Hollywood at the time. And to the extent that they weren’t really able to hire people from the traditional disciplines to do it. It required a lot of experimentation.

StarWars.com: You couldn’t know then that we’d still be talking about this movie 40 years later. But was there a sense inside ILM that what you were doing was cutting edge?

Paul Huston: Oh sim. You know, at the time some of the studios had small visual effects or special effects departments, but they were pretty much using traditional, not-as-high-tech approaches in the materials and the machines they used at the time to make miniatures and make props, just partly because of the amount of miniatures that we had to make and the number of versions. For the film industry, it was unusual to use epoxies and resins and silicone castings, and we did a lot of development in that area, trying different kinds of molding techniques and techniques for the way that we would blow up the ships, how we developed the materials for blowing things up, and the materials and the processes that we used to make the exploding models. Up to that point, there had been a lot of blue screen and yellow, sodium screen shooting for matting elements together, but I think at that time just the number of shots that we had to do it was way higher that what had been attempted before. And then also the computer motion control that was kind of the heart of the whole place was really state of the art. I went to Disney and saw their motion control camera system — they had a huge room that was full of those old wheel-type, tape-drive computers to run their track and they had all kinds of stories about how the cameras would get out of control, which never really worked out well. Our system was really compact and effective and efficient and repeatable. And it was all designed and built there and everybody knew the same group of people who were building the motion control system were also building the motion control system for Douglas Trumbull for Close Encounters [of the Third Kind] So those were the two facilities in L.A. in Hollywood and the world that were doing motion control at the time. And it was that group that did it all, designed it all, and fabricated it all. So yeah, I think it was well known within the company that we were on the edge of things.

StarWars.com: When you were trying to get the shot of blowing something up, like the Death Star, how many models were you making for that and how many times are you able to film it?

Paul Huston: When I started, [special-effects supervisor] John Dykstra’s main emphasis was on getting storyboards for the sequence because a script has a description that can be really general or specific, but it’s not really visual. Once the storyboards are done and the director has signed off on them, those are the shots that he’s going to do, that’s how he’s going to tell the story, and that’s the progression of action.

A storyboard shows you how far the camera is away, how much it’s moving, how much detail you see, how long the shot is, if there’s different moves, all that kind of stuff feeds into the general knowledge of the crew. And they decide, or we would decide, “Well, we need this kind of miniature for this, this could be a matte painting, or this could be two or three different scales of miniature,” if you have a sequence where you’re getting closer and closer and you know you’d have the blue screen.

The blue screen at that time was not that big, what would fit in that stage in that small warehouse, and that was kind of your maximum dimension that you could build anything and shoot it in blue screen. Or some of the sets we would build on the stage and just have black curtains behind them. But the planning was all based on, you know, specifics of the shot and how long it would be and what the camera movement would be, what’s the motion blur, how much you would actually see. What the lighting might be. Whether it’s daytime or nighttime, all of that stuff determines what the technique would be and how it would be approached.

StarWars.com: How were you blowing things up back in those days? What were you using?

Paul Huston: Well, we built the initial models for stage photography and some of them we knew would be one-off models and they could just be assembled from materials and kit parts and they’d be standalone models. But we knew there were a lot where we would need to do a bunch of duplicates and then also that we’d do explosion models. At the time I started, it wasn’t really decided how we’d approach things. I think they were still even thinking if they had to do lots of models, just assemble a bunch of them. As things developed, we started molding them because it was a lot faster than doing individual assemblies, and then just from that it dawned on people that, well, we could make all these so we could cast them and then we could cast the entire model. And from that point it got a lot more complicated.

We did experiments with different kinds of explosives including acetylene gas and powder to find out how fast an explosion that we needed to get and for them to be long enough to be impressive. It turned out that the acetylene went so fast that sometimes you’d not even get one frame at 48 frames-per-second, so that one kind of went out the door. We also tried different ways of putting things together. In the explosion tests we found out the explosions are really not very powerful. It’s a big bang, but it’s not very forceful, so from that we knew that we had to make pretty fragile explosion models. Because of the size of the blue screen, they all had to be pretty small and for the explosions to look very good on a small size they had to be shot high speed with a lot of light, so then we kind of figured that all out from doing different tests. It ended up that we used a lightweight foam that mixed together, put it into a mold, and then it expands and forms a real hard outer surface against the mold surface. It’s full of air bubbles or gas bubbles inside so it’s very light and it has a hard outer skin that can be painted, but it’s very light and it’s fairly fragile. After we cast the parts and put them together we cut them in the way that they would break apart. Different explosions would have different kind of cut patterns to have them break apart in different ways.

We rented another stage that had a dirt floor and it had a different fire clearance, and it was in a different neighborhood so that they could get permission to blow things up. And while they were in the process of preparing the models there right before they’re being blown up, the pyro guy Joe Viskocil would say, “Well, let’s have one where it’s a lot more fragile than that,” or “Cut this area a lot more.” So there’s a lot of customization of it. But that was mainly the TIE fighters and the Y-wings and the X-wings.

StarWars.com: The gritty “used future” feel of the Guerra das Estrelas universe has made it so accessible. Para A New Hope, you were one of many model makers creating the now iconic look of the ships. Can you walk us through the process of taking the sketch of one of these ships and finding the right parts, the right media, and the right feel to create the model for the production?

Paul Huston: First, there would be a drawing, an art department sketch by Joe, and for some of the models Steve Gawley would do a three-view plan with the dimensions. I think most of the spaceship models for A New Hope were done that way. And then Joe would say, “Well, just disregard all that [Laughs] and make it better.” That was his way. He wanted people to have input and try to make things better. It was fun working that way, too. You couldn’t go wrong at all by just following what he drew, but there was freedom to make things up.

Then there would be a phase of building an armature, which at the time was various kinds of aluminum, either like a machine block of aluminum or an aluminum pipe or something that could be mounted on the blue screen pylon. When that armature was built, then we would start kind of assembling plastic parts around it that were supported by it. So, for example, the Y-wing, the armature would be a pipe from the front to the back of the center engine piece, and then a cross brace of aluminum between the two rocket engines. The engines were plastic kit parts from some rocket kit and then the front part was — remember L’eggs, the hosiery product? So the front egg shape was a L’eggs container. We just bought a bunch of those and stuck them on. That’s part of model making. Half the time you’re just trying to find something that’s already been made that is the shape that you want.

And then there’s a really long phase of adding tiny, little details from kit model parts to make the bigger shapes look like they actually do something or are connected visually to the other pieces. Part of George [Lucas]’s brief on all this stuff was to make it simple and geometric so it could be read easily and he thought those shapes were really more interesting, anyway. You know, that things weren’t too complicated, so a lot of it was basic geometric shapes modified a little bit and with a lot of small details that didn’t really change the shape, but added the feeling that there was some kind of a function that all these parts had. Like an engine would have vents and pipes going into it and the body parts would have panel lines.

StarWars.com: Was it George’s directive that if you put a pipe in it had to go somewhere adding to that authenticity?

Paul Huston: No, there wasn’t any direction. That was just something that was kind of understood. The people that were there doing it, all those guys were kind of closet hot rodders. I call it a hot-rod aesthetic, where it’s really cool to see the exhaust pipes coming out or to have a big hole in the hood so you can see the supercharger. John Dykstra had a Mini — you could eat dinner off the roof of it. To open up the hood and look at the engine, you would see polished bright, brilliant copper fuel lines and a perfectly clean air filter. Just really kind of an appreciation for mechanical art or engineering function and materials. Joe Johnston had motorcycles when he was a teenager and I had raced motorcycles for awhile. And it’s California car culture, anyway. John and Joe and Steve Gawley all went to Long Beach State for industrial design and it’s an industrial design aesthetic as well.

I think the only place I’ve ever really seen that description of how you create a mechanical look was from Syd Mead. He was describing his technique and he said that was how he went about it — you do basic geometric shapes and then add details to make it look like the things had some kind of function. I read that way after we actually did it, but it just makes sense. I think we just came upon the same technique.

And there’s an interesting aspect of it, too, that’s really abstract. Not only do you want to make it look like it has some kind of mechanical function, but you want to break up the space in interesting ways so it’s not too regular and not too chaotic. It’s kind of an abstract sculpture in a way.

StarWars.com: During those earliest phases of production, you and the rest of the art department were really taking George Lucas’ vision and Ralph McQuarrie’s concepts and turning them into something tangible. What was it like working with George and Ralph, who both seemed to have very clear visions working in accordance with each other? How did you fit into the equation and add your own creativity into the mix?

Paul Huston: The guiding vision was Ralph’s paintings and they had photocopies of them there in the model shop. Ralph would, occasionally, especially when he did a new one, bring it by and we would look at it. It would be on illustration board with a tissue cover and he’d roll the tissue cover back over and everyone would crowd around and “ooh” and “aah” at it for awhile. Just these very small, one-foot-wide and incredibly detailed paintings. We’d be looking at storyboards and thinking, you know, what is this part going to look like? And then Ralph would come in with a painting and you’d go, “Oh!” He had a head start on us, but then eventually he was starting to put what we were building into his paintings. I’m thinking specifically about a painting they did of a TIE fighter over the Death Star and he pretty much followed Joe’s drawing that Joe did for making the mold pieces for the Death Star.

I think Ralph did a group of paintings to help get funding, to help give people an idea of what George wanted to achieve and the direction he was going and those had a slightly different look. When were actually building the models, there were a lot of technical restraints that we had to follow that forced some changes. Like some of the concept models had really spindly parts. They were more delicate. And most of the things that we did had to be supported. You know, we’re supporting actual on-set mechanical devices that had a certain weight and size and everything, so things tended to get a bit thicker and more sturdy. Especially the Y-wing. The Y-wing had a really delicate little neck where the cockpit fuselage joined on to the main engine part. It was really thin and we had to beef that up just to make everything more sturdy. And another thing was that John Dykstra was adamant about not having curved or reflective surfaces because he was afraid that you wouldn’t be able to pull good blue screens — the blue would reflect off a curving surface and you’d always have a bad edge or areas that would get blue and then fall out of the matte. So everything became really cubic and flat-surfaced, which kind of made everyone happy anyway because it’s a lot easier to build flat-surface models than to build models with a lot of curves and compound surfaces.

StarWars.com: There had to be a lot of trial and error, especially at the beginning. Can you describe one of the biggest technical disasters of your early days of model making and, conversely, what you feel is your greatest achievement for A New Hope specifically?

Paul Huston: I think that there was just a huge amount of experience there. Even though it was new, John Dykstra worked on Silent Running. Jamie Shourt [of the optical effects unit] worked on Silent Running. [Model maker] Grant [McCune] and [camera and mechanical designer] Bill Shourt worked on mandíbulas. And, you know, John and Joe went to Long Beach State, where one of the classes they had for industrial designers was that you design some kind of product and then you also design the machines, or whatever the process is, that make that product. And I came from architecture school and knew the building systems and design methodologies. And then also, Jamie and John on Silent Running worked with Doug Trumbull, who had an enormous amount of experience in visual effects from starting with 2001. I think that, you know, the process of design and the process of problem solving was really strong and robust, even at that time.

The thing that stands out most to me for A New Hope was just how starting from nothing in a warehouse, how things got built up over time and also what a long time it took because there weren’t a lot of people and things were just done as they needed to be done and as money was available. Just the way the whole thing came together for me was really amazing. Very few people knew what was going on. The initial group that had come from Silent Running all knew the whole process and what the intended outcome was, but if you walk into a darkened stage with a few lights on and a blue screen, most people would have no idea what was going on.

And model makers would have their focus on model making. They wouldn’t really think about how the model was going to be photographed and we wouldn’t see 50 percent of the detail that was on it, and people in roto were doing roto work and they’d be looking at some tiny little dot of an X-wing and trying to make a matte around it and they’d have a different outlook. Somehow that all came together. And also I was a newbie then, too, and I was learning, so that part of it made a big impression on me.

In the years subsequent it seems like the biggest transition in the business has been the fact that many more people now know all about it. Like a production assistant or a producer knows all about visual effects. And in those days people didn’t really know and everything had to be explained and it just enables a much higher level of aspiration, really just a much higher level of things that you try to do and the things that you have time to do and the number of people that have ability to do a lot of different things.

Paul Huston, furthest left behind the table, with ILM’s army of model makers.

StarWars.com: You have the distinction of working on the original trilogy, the Special Editions, and the prequels, as well as so many other films outside of the franchise. Over that time, you’ve also transitioned from the model shop to digital matte painting. How has your role with ILM changed over the years and what inspired you to leave three-dimensional design for matte artistry?

Paul Huston: I became interested in illustration when I was in architecture school. I started doing storyboards and I just kind of I went from department to department just to keep working, because I wanted to stay there [at ILM] and I wanted to learn, but my initial interests were more in illustration and photography and I was always trying to get into those areas. The matte department kind of combined everything together, plus it was the only department that did everything for a shot, and I thought that was really fun. That was a great way to learn because if you’re only doing a part sometimes you never even know all the changes that things go through to finalize the shot. But in the matte department they did everything, and it also combined painting and photography and I had gotten along really well with the guys in the matte department, so I made an effort to work more and more with them. And then, when digital came along, it was just everything kind of fell into line and all the things that I could do were just all made a lot easier and faster, and my desire to kind of do everything myself — I could suddenly do it. It didn’t require a whole bunch of different people to do something. A single person could do a lot on their own. I just found an area where I could do all the things I was interested in, you know, in one area.

StarWars.com: Considering the technological advancements in the industry, do you ever find yourself nostalgic for those early days of more physical model creation?

Paul Huston: While it is interesting dealing with physical materials and processes and I occasionally miss those activities, in general they were much more difficult, costly, time consuming, unhealthy, and imposed huge limitations on what could be accomplished. The drawbacks far outweigh any nostalgia I might have. I usually refer to that period as “the bad old days.” As an artist, your passion is to realize a vision, and that is much easier these days!

StarWars.com: Looking back, what was your favorite part about working on that first film?

Paul Huston: After the first few months of chaos, and the starting phase of building and detailing the first Millennium Falcon and the hiring of some key model builders, there was a period when the model shop came together as a team and we worked together very efficiently and in harmony. New models just seemed to flow out of the shop. One in particular was the sandcrawler model that I think almost everyone in the shop had some part in building. At that stage there wasn’t much discussion as everyone knew just what to do, it seemed. It was very enjoyable to be a part of that.

StarWars.com: Did you have a favorite model that you built or is there a particular scene that stands out?

Paul Huston: I’m very proud that a model I built with Stuart Ziff was the key model in the first shot that ILM produced. That was the Death Star cannon. I also drew the storyboard for the shot earlier when working on the bidding boards in the art department with Joe Johnston.

StarWars.com: What does A New Hope mean to you 40 years later?

Paul Huston: It is an over used word, but “amazing” is how I consider the impact Guerra das Estrelas has had. Nearly every big tentpole VFX blockbuster follows some part of the framework created by George Lucas with Guerra das Estrelas. Not to mention the impact it had on the videogame and toy industries. It is particularly clear if one experienced the landscape of film entertainment pre-Star Wars.

Então, quando vou ao cinema, não consigo escapar dessa percepção e me sinto muito humilde por ter participado disso e me maravilhar com as melhorias fantásticas que foram feitas no que agora parece ser simples e quase rudimentar realização original.

Kristin Baver é uma escritora e nerd de ficção científica que sempre tem apenas mais uma pergunta em uma lista inesgotável de curiosidades. Às vezes, ela deixa escapar "É uma armadilha!" mesmo quando não é. Siga ela no twitter @KristinBaver.