Norwich Guildhall

Norwich Guildhall


Norwich Guildhall - História


Lado sul da guildhall de Norwich.
A entrada na extremidade oeste teria sido originalmente uma entrada para a torre sudoeste.
Foto e cópia de S. Alsford

O início da construção de uma nova guildhall, em 1407, deve ser entendido no contexto das mudanças constitucionais que resultaram da carta régia de 1404, incorporando o bairro, concedendo status de condado, substituindo prefeito e xerifes pelo ex-executivo do ballival, e dotando o prefeito e quatro colegas com poderes de Ministros de Paz. Isso se seguiu a um período em que a classe dominante estava consolidando seu poder, com alguma resistência de outras partes da comunidade, e precedeu um período de disputas ainda mais intensas sobre a constituição (veja a página "História da Norwich medieval: Uma divisão de interesses".

Em algum ponto nos meses que se seguiram à concessão da carta patente, uma resolução estabeleceu um corpo de 80 cidadãos para participar das assembleias, aparentemente em nome e no lugar da comunidade em geral. Anteriormente, um comitê eleitoral foi escolhido para agir pela comunidade na eleição de oficiais de justiça agora que os anos 80 deveriam agir pela comunidade, mas seu poder se restringia a fazer nomeações & # 150, a decisão final cabendo ao prefeito e ao conselho, no estilo londrino. Isso não agradou à comunidade.

Nas disputas que se seguiram, houve reclamações sobre a substituição de uma carta real (1380), em sua concessão do poder de fazer estatutos, da comunidade pelo conselho municipal (representando a comunidade) como o agente para dar aprovação a qualquer tais estatutos. Os patriciados contra-atacaram tentando fazer com que as referências à comunidade, como entidade constitucional, fossem retiradas do foral da cidade. A resolução da disputa introduziu um procedimento mais complicado para eleger os vários funcionários, ao mesmo tempo que os membros do conselho superior recebiam o status de membros vitalícios e o título digno de vereadores, e não se pretendia mais que representassem a comunidade, esse papel caindo para o corpo maior (reduzido a 60) agora firmemente estabelecido como um conselho inferior.


Empena leste de Norwich Guildhall.
A torre do relógio foi um enfeite de 1850.
Foto e cópia de S. Alsford

A construção de uma nova casa para o governo cívico refletiu a ambição da classe dominante de ter um controle mais completo e incontestável da governança. A introdução de novos nomes & # 150 prefeito, vereadores, wards, guildhall & # 150 sugere uma emulação de Londres. Ao mesmo tempo, a nova prefeitura era um símbolo do status aprimorado do bairro incorporado. Foi sugerido que a escala da guildhall, sem precedentes fora de Londres, pode dever algo ao exemplo das "grandes prefeituras que enfeitavam as ricas cidades de tecido dos Países Baixos, com as quais Norfolk tinha estreitos contatos comerciais" [I. Dunn e H. Sutermeister, The Norwich Guildhall, City of Norwich, ca.1978].

O Guildhall substituiu um salão mais antigo, o Tolbooth, em seu local inclinado no lado norte do mercado por uma estrutura menos impressionante, em termos de tamanho e materiais de construção, o Tolbooth servia para administração judicial e financeira, mas as assembléias eleitorais tinham que ser realizada em uma grande capela em outro local. As mudanças no início do século XV, aumentando os poderes judiciais dos oficiais da cidade e o número de diferentes tribunais, bem como substituindo a assembleia popular por um considerável conselho de duas camadas, devem ter sido fatores na decisão de gastar em um novo edifício . Esse edifício acomodaria uma prisão maior do que seu antecessor, bem como os arquivos e o tesouro da cidade, todas as funções exigindo uma estrutura robusta e durável. A função original do Tolbooth, como o ponto de coleta de pedágios de mercadorias trazidas ao mercado e provavelmente de taxas de licença para barracas, foi transferida posteriormente & # 150 se não tivesse sido anterior & # 150 para Murage Loft, outro edifício em o mercado, originalmente para cobrança de pedágios especiais para a construção de paredes.


Lado norte da guildhall de Norwich.
As duas faixas distintas, talvez imitando nave e capela-mor de uma igreja, podem ser vistas.
Foto e cópia de S. Alsford

O edifício central foi concluído em 1412, graças à imposição de impostos locais especiais três vezes durante o período de construção e à impressão de mão-de-obra (aparentemente não remunerada, exceto para os carpinteiros, pedreiros e outros artesãos), com trabalhos por vezes a partir de do amanhecer ao anoitecer. Doações e legados de cidadãos também contribuíram para o que deve ter sido um custo considerável, em comparação com as receitas anuais que faziam parte do orçamento normal da cidade. A elevação de um telhado, em telhas de chumbo, permitiu em 1412 que o edifício começasse a ser utilizado, primeiro para alojar reclusos na prisão nas caves abobadadas. As bancadas do tribunal de prefeituras estavam sendo instaladas no mesmo período.

O trabalho continuou para equipar, aprimorar e construir complementos para o Guildhall ao longo do século. Um pórtico de vários andares foi construído na década de 1420, embora tenha sido reconstruído em 1723 e novamente na era vitoriana, de fato, toda a extensão do lado sul (ver foto no topo) é pós-medieval. O edifício é construído com o mesmo material que as igrejas medievais de Norwich: entulho de sílex com revestimento de pederneiras e fragmentos de sílex. As castelações ao redor do telhado são mostradas na ilustração mais antiga e podem ser medievais. A maioria das janelas provavelmente era de vidro, e algumas continham imagens de vitrais, das quais um pouco sobreviveu. O efeito da construção deve ter sido, e pretendido, instilar alguma reverência e respeito nos cidadãos.

O frontão leste é decorado de forma semelhante ao guildhall de Lynn: um padrão de xadrez usando pederneira em contraste com pedra de pedra, possivelmente simbolizando o escritório de contabilidade da cidade (tesouro). Sua janela é a única que sobreviveu às renovações vitorianas. Os armários abaixo dela são, no entanto, uma adição do século XVI. Mais abaixo, no nível do solo, onde uma fonte de água vitoriana está agora colocada contra a parede, pode ter sido originalmente uma entrada para a cripta, a ilustração mais antiga do edifício mostra o que parece ser uma entrada com grades ou janela para o porão. Contra essa parede, os escribas montaram barracas, onde os cidadãos podiam comprar seus serviços, alguns relacionados a fazer cópias de registros oficiais. Na extremidade oposta (oeste) do edifício ficavam duas torres, uma abrigando o tesouro, que ruiu no início do período Tudor, e a segunda sobrevivendo até o século XVIII.

A faixa maior (oeste) tinha em seu andar superior uma sala de reuniões para o conselho pleno, de dois andares de altura, que também servia como tribunal dos xerifes, uma câmara privada foi incorporada em uma das extremidades. A cadeia menor, aparentemente construída sobre as fundações do Tolbooth, abrigava em seu nível superior uma câmara menor onde o conselho interno de vereadores se reunia, dobrando como a corte do prefeito. No andar térreo, havia prisões para homens e mulheres, uma pequena capela na varanda atendia às necessidades dos presos. As masmorras na cripta eram para criminosos mais perigosos.


  1. 1 design holandês pode inspirar a reformulação da rotatória do perigo
  2. Dois restaurantes de Norfolk nos cinco principais & # 39secret & # 39 lugares para comer na costa inglesa
  3. 3 Príncipe William, George e Charlotte começam corridas em Sandringham
  1. 4 Condição rara mata & # 39 surpreendente & # 39 motorista de caminhão
  2. 5 & ​​# 39Mais como março & # 39 - Então, quando teremos o sol de volta?
  3. 6 Venda de máquinas marca o fim da história da agricultura familiar & # 39s.
  4. 7 Você pode correr, Sr. Hancock, mas não pode se esconder
  5. 8 Farke sobre sua situação de contrato na cidade
  6. 9 loja de cactos vendendo plantas de £ 95 é inaugurada na cabine telefônica de Norwich
  7. 10 Aviso sobre golpe de gravações de chamadas não solicitadas na Amazônia em Norfolk

• Na quinta-feira, 20 de novembro às 18h, Frank Meeres falará sobre assassinatos e delitos leves: Norwich Guildhall e os criminosos da cidade.

Junte-se ao historiador e arquivista Frank para uma palestra sobre a história do prédio e sua participação nos julgamentos de alguns dos criminosos mais famosos da cidade. Hereges, assassinos e ladrões foram julgados por seus crimes no Guildhall. Saiba mais sobre a punição imposta pelo roubo de duas garrafas, a trágica história da jovem Jane Sellers e como ela foi usada durante as grandes pragas.

• Na quinta-feira, 27 de novembro às 18h, Maurice Morson falará sobre os assassinatos de Norwich.

Quem era Martha Sheward e por que seus restos mortais foram enterrados sob o Guildhall? Que provações ocorreram? E quem foi o assassino preso do lado de fora pelo chefe da polícia?

Em sua palestra, Maurice, um ex-policial da cidade que se tornou chefe do CID de Norfolk e agora é um autor talentoso, revelará alguns dos horríveis assassinatos que ocorreram na cidade.

• Os ingressos para ambas as palestras custam £ 5. Para obter mais informações, acesse www.heritagecity.org

Torne-se um apoiador

Este jornal tem sido uma parte central da vida da comunidade por muitos anos. Nosso setor enfrenta tempos de teste, e é por isso que pedimos seu apoio. Cada contribuição nos ajudará a continuar a produzir jornalismo local que faça uma diferença mensurável para nossa comunidade.


Uma linha do tempo de Norwich

Leia sobre algumas das datas mais importantes da história de Norwich, incluindo quando o Castelo de Norwich, a Catedral de Norwich e outros edifícios históricos e importantes foram construídos. Quando a Peste Negra atingiu Norwich, a Rebelião de Kett & rsquos e quando o fogo devastador atingiu a cidade. Veja datas importantes na história da loja de departamentos Jarrold, Colman & rsquos Mustard, The University of East Anglia, Aeroporto Internacional de Norwich e Norwich City Football Club.

Norwich é um pequeno povoado anglo-saxão, ao norte do rio Wensum, com sua própria casa da moeda. Durante o século 10, Norwich cresceu rapidamente, espalhando-se para a margem sul do rio

Os dinamarqueses queimam Norwich - com os prédios feitos de madeira e palha, isso foi fácil. No entanto, Norwich foi reconstruído e logo começou a florescer

Normans começam a trabalhar no castelo de Norwich

Na época do Domesday Book, Norwich tinha uma população de cerca de 6.000 habitantes e era uma das maiores cidades da Inglaterra. A principal indústria era a fabricação de lã

O bispo muda sua cadeira de Thetford para Norwich

Começa o trabalho de construção de uma nova catedral de sílex e argamassa

Norwich concedeu foral da cidade de Ricardo I, um documento que concede ao povo certos direitos

O Grande Hospital foi fundado pelo Bispo Walter de Suffield com os beneficiários originais sendo estudiosos pobres, pobres doentes e famintos e padres idosos

Durante uma guerra civil, Norwich é demitido por barões rebeldes, mas logo se recuperou

Há motins em Norwich - com um desacordo entre homens religiosos e os cidadãos de Norwich sobre deveres, limites e direitos

Catedral consagrada na presença de Eduardo I

Em 1278 Cow Tower é construído para coletar pedágios

Norwich tem uma população de cerca de 10.000 habitantes e a principal indústria é a lã. Neste momento também existe uma importante indústria de couro

A peste / peste negra atinge Norwich

O Bridewell foi construído e usado como prisão entre 1583 e 1828

Durante a Revolta dos Camponeses, os rebeldes capturam Norwich. No entanto, eles não mantiveram Norwich por muito tempo, com o bispo reunindo um exército, os rebeldes recuaram para North Walsham, onde foram derrotados

Norwich recebe um novo foral e ganhou um prefeito e dois xerifes

O Guildhall foi construído entre 1407 e 1413 e serviu como sede do governo da cidade desde o início do século XV. Em 1938 foi substituída pela recém-construída Câmara Municipal

Erpingham Gate, um magnífico portal de pederneira e pedra foi erguido em frente à fachada oeste da catedral por volta de 1420 e foi doado por Sir Thomas Erpingham

Sir Peter Mancroft foi construído entre 1430 e 1455 - a maior igreja de Norwich

Em 1463, a torre da Catedral de Norwich é atingida por um raio e o telhado da nave é destruído. Em 1480, uma nova torre é construída

Norwich sofre um incêndio severo, com mais dois incêndios em 1507. Com a maioria dos edifícios feitos de madeira e palha, o incêndio era um perigo constante

A rebelião de Kett & rsquos em Norfolk foi durante o reinado de Eduardo VI. Enfurecidos pelo tratamento dispensado aos proprietários de terras, muitos fazendeiros se rebelaram e iniciaram uma revolta em Wymondham, destruindo cercas que haviam sido erguidas por proprietários de terras ricos. Liderados pelo fazendeiro Robert Kett, os rebeldes invadiram Norwich em 29 de julho e tomaram a cidade. Os rebeldes foram derrotados na segunda tentativa, desta vez por um exército sob a liderança do Conde de Warwick na Batalha de Dussindale. Kett e muitos rebeldes foram capturados e enforcados

Tecelões vêm para Norwich do que hoje é a Holanda e a Bélgica, fugindo da perseguição religiosa, trazendo seus canários com eles. Os habitantes locais logo adotaram a criação dessas aves como um hobby e, no século 18, Norwich tornou-se famosa por seus canários. Foi aqui que o Norwich City Football Club ganhou o apelido de Canárias.

Um surto de peste mata cerca de um terço da população de Norwich e rsquos

A população de Norwich é de cerca de 25.000, apesar dos surtos de peste em 1625 e 1665

O Hospital Betel, para doentes mentais, é construído

O primeiro jornal em Norwich é publicado em 1721

Projetado pelo arquiteto Thomas Ivory, a Assembly House é construída. Tornou-se um centro de entretenimento para assembleias, concertos e danças, realizado para a pequena nobreza de Norwich

O primeiro banco é fundado em Norwich e foi em 1775 que uma família local, John e Henry Gurney, fundou um banco que ainda hoje sobrevive como parte do Barclays

O Norfolk and Norwich Hospital é fundado

Norwich tem uma população de 36.000

Theatre Royal foi remodelado por William Wilkins, um construtor e arquiteto local

Um corpo de homens chamado Improvement Commissioners é formado para pavimentar, limpar e iluminar as ruas de Norwich

Jeremiah Colman fundou a Colman & rsquos of Norwich em 1814, na fábrica de Stoke Holy Cross no rio Tas, quatro milhas ao sul de Norwich

Varíola mata 530 pessoas em Norwich

Jarrold & amp Sons Ltd foi fundada em 1770 em Woodbridge, Suffolk e mudou-se para Norwich em 1823

Norwich e rsquos a primeira força policial é formada

A ferrovia de Norwich foi inaugurada em 1844

O conselho constrói um suprimento de água pura

A primeira biblioteca pública é aberta em Norwich

Uma rede de esgotos é construída

Fundação da Norwich High School para meninas

Remoção de favelas começa em Norwich

Inauguração da estação ferroviária de Norwich City

Começam as obras de construção da Catedral Católica Romana em Norwich

A prisão de HM Norwich é estabelecida e os prisioneiros são transferidos do castelo para a nova prisão

City College Norwich é fundada

Castelo de Norwich é inaugurado como museu

O Royal Arcade, projetado e construído pelo arquiteto George Skipper, nascido em Dereham, é construído

Os bondes elétricos passam em Norwich & # 45 cobrindo mais de 17 milhas

A população em Norwich é 111.733

É formado o Norwich City Football club e acredita-se que seu icônico hino & # 39On The Ball, City & # 39, amplamente considerado a canção mais antiga do futebol mundial e ainda hoje cantada, data por volta de 1902

Norwich City Football Club muda para The Nest, um poço de giz em desuso

Estreia o primeiro cinema de Norwich & rsquos. Conhecido como TDL ou Theatre de Luxe, foi o primeiro "palácio pictórico" da cidade

Em 1921, a conversão da Capela Católica Romana em um teatro funcional é concluída e o Teatro Maddermarket é fundado

Ethel Colman é a primeira Lady Lord Mayor de Norwich e filha do gigante da mostarda Jeremiah James Colman

O Heigham Park é formalmente inaugurado, com as obras iniciadas em 1921

Woodrow Piling Park é inaugurado em 1927

Sloughbottom Park e Mile Cross Gardens abertos

Abertura oficial do Aeroporto de Norwich no local em Mousehold

Waterloo Park é inaugurado em 1933

Os bondes elétricos param de funcionar em Norwich

O Norwich City Football Club muda-se de seu antigo campo para Carrow Road, o The Nest

Em abril, Norwich foi atingido por bombardeio aéreo por forças alemãs

Uma nova Biblioteca Central é construída em Norwich

Norwich City Football Club vence a Copa da Liga

A Norwich University foi fundada em 1963 e admitiu seu primeiro grupo de 87 alunos neste ano

Aeroporto de Norwich mudou-se para Horsham St Faith

Os primeiros voos charter nas férias começam a sair do Aeroporto de Norwich

Norwich City Football Club é promovido à primeira divisão

A loja de mostarda Colman & rsquos abre em Norwich, fechando em abril de 2017

Norwich Arts Center é inaugurado

O Sainsbury Center for Visual Arts, localizado no campus da University of East Anglia & rsquos e projetado pelos arquitetos Norman Foster e Wendy Cheesman, é inaugurado

É fundado o Norwich Puppet Theatre. Foi aberto ao público pela primeira vez em 1980, após a conversão da igreja medieval de St. James, no coração de Norwich

Sewell Barn Theatre estreia

Norwich City Football Club vence a Copa da Liga

Abertura do terminal do aeroporto de Norwich

O lançamento oficial do Norwich Research Park

O shopping center Castle Mall é inaugurado, tendo levado cerca de 4 anos para ser concluído, ocupando cerca de 7 hectares no centro de Norwich

Biblioteca Central de Norwich incendeia-se

Norwich Playhouse é inaugurado no que antes era um malte do século 19

Riverside Leisure Complex é inaugurado

Fundação de Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital

O Fórum está concluído, construído no local da Biblioteca de Norwich anterior, que incendiou em 1994

Abertura do shopping center Chapelfield

99.9 Radio Norwich começa a transmitir

O edifício do Theatre Royal foi remodelado

Em 2009, Norwich sediou o primeiro evento do Orgulho Gay da city & rsquos, para as comunidades de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais e trans da região

Começa o Festival de Cinema de Norwich

Um total de 132.512 pessoas vivem na cidade de Norwich, de acordo com o censo de 2011

A loja de mostarda Colman & rsquos fecha em abril de 2017

O texto acima é uma linha do tempo de Norwich e se destina a servir como algo de interesse e não pretende ser totalmente preciso. Embora muito cuidado tenha sido tomado para pesquisar metodicamente essas datas e eventos em Norwich, pode haver algumas imprecisões (por exemplo, durante a pesquisa, datas diferentes foram encontradas em livros e material online para o mesmo evento!)

Se você gostaria de ver algo adicionado a esta linha do tempo que você acha que não deveria ter sido esquecido, por favor, entre em contato.


Tipo de local:

Acesso ao saguão e Café Caley's Cocoa:
Seg - Sex, 10 - 4.30
Sáb 10h30 - 5h
Dom 11-3

Passeios pelo histórico Guildhall - todas as sextas-feiras (exceto feriados) 10 e 2

Descubra a história única de The Guildhall, a maior e mais elaborada prefeitura medieval da província da Inglaterra, nesta excursão de uma hora saindo dos Guildhall Guides, que revela a herança oculta do edifício.

Veja a elaborada Câmara do Conselho do Prefeito com sua madeira decorativa e vitrais impressionantes, a sala do tribunal vitoriana virtualmente intacta com seus painéis de carvalho, e o subsolo atmosférico que antecede o Guildhall e era usado para acomodar criminosos perigosos.

As áreas deste edifício funcionam atualmente como escritórios, pelo que algumas áreas estão sempre inacessíveis.


O brasão de armas de Norwich

Brasões projetados para identificar grupos de soldados no calor da batalha também eram usados ​​por vilas e cidades para se identificarem e a fonte de sua autoridade.

Ambos os símbolos na bandeira de Norwich são marciais e apontam para uma longa relação com a coroa que conferia certos privilégios à cidade. Este brasão cívico é descrito como: & # 8220Gules, um castelo de torres triplas e cúpula de prata na base de um leão passante guardante Ou & # 8221 . Simplificando: escudo vermelho, castelo de prata, leão de ouro. Existem, no entanto, muitas variações estilísticas: muitas vezes, o castelo de três torres não tem uma cúpula.

Não abobadado ou abobadado. O brasão da cidade de Norwich na prefeitura (1938). À esquerda, na porta da Bethel Street para o Departamento do Tesoureiro & # 8217s e à direita, dentro do & # 8216Rates Hall & # 8217.

O castelo, é claro, é normando, mas foi cerca de um século após a Conquista que o leão da cidade apareceu durante o reinado dos Plantagenetas. A associação entre o leão e a coroa inglesa parece ter começado durante o reinado do rei João, mas foi o irmão mais velho de João, Ricardo Coração de Leão, que está particularmente associado ao leão passant guardant [1] isto é, caminhar com a pata dianteira levantada (passante) e cabeça voltada para a esquerda, rosto completo (guardião) Esta é a versão do animal que figura em todos os emblemas heráldicos da cidade & # 8217. Exceto & # 8230 guardando a entrada da Prefeitura, Alfred Hardiman & # 8217s leões de bronze de influência assíria são duas de nossas melhores esculturas cívicas, mas eles estão em desacordo com outros leões de Norwich por não olharem para a esquerda. Isso pode ser porque os arquitetos viram um leão exposto na Exposição do Império Britânico de 1936 antes de encomendar seu gêmeo [2].

Olhando para frente, um dos leões de Alfred Hardiman & # 8217s (1938) fora da Prefeitura [3]

A conexão com Ricardo I se relaciona com a carta de 1194 na qual ele permitia que os cidadãos elegessem seu próprio Reeve - equivalente ao & # 8216presidente & # 8217 do distrito [4]. A fundação do autogoverno é geralmente datada de acordo com a Carta de Richard & # 8217, embora possa ter havido um certo grau de independência municipal antes disso [5].

O Guildhall, o maior edifício cívico medieval fora de Londres, foi construído entre 1407 e 1412 para administrar os poderes autônomos conferidos à cidade por Henrique IV. A carta patente do rei de 1404 concedeu o status de condado à cidade e, como Londres, permitiu que os cidadãos elegessem um prefeito [6]. Os documentos emitidos pelo conselho foram autenticados com o brasão da cidade & # 8217s na forma de um selo de cera aplicado diretamente ou pendente.

Esquerda e direita: selos de cera C15 antigos da Colman & # 8217s Collection Norfolk Record Office COL5 / 1. Centro: & # 8220O comum, ou selo da cidade, agora em uso & # 8221 Blomefield 1806 [6]

O orgulhoso status da cidade como & # 8216civitas& # 8216, uma forma de cidade-estado, é reconhecida no mapa de Cuningham & # 8217s 1558 de Norwich, que é provavelmente o mais antigo mapa impresso sobrevivente de qualquer vila ou cidade inglesa.

Mapa de Norwich pelo cidadão William Cuningham, & # 8216Doctor in Physicke & # 8217 1558 (British Library)

No canto superior direito podemos ver o castelo e o leão aumentados por dois apoiadores que, como veremos, aparecem em várias formas ao longo da história da cidade & # 8217s.

Um século antes disso, por volta de 1450, o vereador John Wighton - cuja oficina de vitrais fez a grande janela leste de São Pedro Mancroft - envidraçou a janela da câmara do conselho no Guildhall. Ele fez isso para o prefeito e rico comerciante de lã Robert Toppes, que dirigia seu negócio em Dragon Hall, na King Street [ver 7 para um relato mais completo do vidro pintado da Norwich School].

Entre os dois anjos está o brasão de Toppes & # 8217, superando o brasão da cidade abaixo de cada anjo.

Brasão da cidade em meados de C15, da janela de Toppes no Guildhall

Em frente à entrada traseira do Cinema City, as armas da cidade podem ser vistas entre uma série de 13 escudos esculpidos na extremidade leste da igreja de St Andrew & # 8217s e datados da reconstrução da igreja de 1500-1506.

Norwich arms on St Andrew & # 8217 Church ca 1505. Observe o castelo simplificado e o leão contrário

Um belo exemplo C16 do brasão da cidade pode ser visto em Surrey House, o primeiro edifício C20 projetado para a Norwich Union por George Skipper. O vitral é uma relíquia da casa do Conde de Surrey & # 8217, que anteriormente ficava neste local onde hoje é a Surrey Street.

Do Conde de Surrey & # 8217s C16 casa em Surrey Street, Norwich

O conde de Surrey, Henry Howard, filho do duque de Norfolk, foi chamado & # 8220 o menino orgulhoso mais tolo que está na Inglaterra & # 8221 e foi o orgulho que o levou à queda. Surrey foi criado no Castelo de Windsor com o filho ilegítimo de Henrique VIII, Henry Fitzroy. O rei passou a acreditar que Surrey - um ferrenho antiprotestante - planejava usurpar o filho legítimo de Henrique VIII, Eduardo VI, quando ele herdou a coroa. O gatilho, entretanto, pareceu ser quando Surrey exibiu sua descendência da realeza inglesa anexando (esquartejando) as armas de Eduardo, o Confessor às suas. Ele foi executado por traição em seu trigésimo ano, mas seu pai, que deveria ter compartilhado esse destino, foi salvo quando Henrique VIII morreu um dia antes da execução planejada [8].

Contra esse pano de fundo de orgulho excessivo associado aos brasões de armas, o outro vidro armorial na Sala Ante da Casa Surrey [9] assume uma camada extra de significado.

Por volta de 1900, três mosaicos de mármore das armas da cidade foram instalados nas entradas dos edifícios cívicos: o Guildhall, o Castelo de Norwich e o Instituto Técnico (agora Norwich University of the Arts). Mas não consigo encontrar nenhum registro dos artesãos italianos que viviam em torno da Ber Street e que, segundo consta, os tenham feito.

No lado sul do Guildhall está o Bassingham Gateway, originalmente da casa de John Bassingham na London Street, um ourives no reinado de Henrique VIII. Quando a London Street foi alargada em 1855-7, o portal foi comprado por William Wilde por £ 10 e inserido no Magistrate & # 8217s Entrance of the Guildhall [10].

Comparando isso com a fotografia de 1934 de George Plunkett & # 8217s da porta [10], a escultura nítida pareceria ser parte de uma renovação do pós-guerra. O leão agora é decididamente oriental.

Embora existam pequenas variações na forma como são representados, o castelo e o leão são constantes nos braços da cidade. Mais variáveis ​​são os apoios - as figuras de flanco que aparecem em algumas versões das armas. No mapa de Cuningham & # 8217s de 1558 (acima), eles apareciam como querubins.

Em 1511, o telhado da câmara do prefeito & # 8217s no Guildhall desabou e na reconstrução de 1535-7 o tabuleiro de xadrez da fachada oriental recebeu brasões. Os braços do castelo e do leão da cidade foram protegidos por anjos armados e uma forma indeterminada pairando sobre o escudo [3].

A cidade arma um dos três brasões na extremidade leste do Guildhall. (Os braços centrais [não mostrados] eram os de Henrique VIII, mas não são mais legíveis)

Acima deste brasão na parede leste está uma torre de relógio datada de 1850, dedicada ao prefeito Henry Woodcock. Flanqueando o mostrador do relógio estão dois anjos desarmados, cada um segurando os braços da cidade.

Curiosamente, a inscrição dourada na borda inferior do relógio dá o lema dos duques de Norfolk (Sola Virtus Invicta, Somente a virtude é invencível) que, por muito tempo, não tinham nenhuma ligação com a cidade ou condado [3]

Uma ilustração do livro oficial de Blomefield sobre a história de Norwich [6] também tem dois anjos como apoiadores, desta vez armados, mas o objeto acima do escudo é difícil de ler nesta forma.

As armas da cidade de Norwich. De Blomefield [7] 1806

O livro de Hudson e Tingey & # 8217s 1906 sobre a história de Norwich [4] também mostra o escudo ladeado por dois anjos da guarda e, neste caso, o objeto acima dos braços se transforma em um chapéu. Uma fonte descreve isso como um chapéu de guarda-chuva & # 8217s (guarda-chuva & # 8217s?) [2], outra como um gorro de pele [12]. (Depois de postar este artigo, o ex-xerife Beryl Blower me disse que este pode ser o boné cerimonial de Manutenção do prefeito & # 8217 e vejo que Blomefield diz que o boné de manutenção é usado pelo portador da espada em todas as ocasiões públicas).

The Norwich City Arms em relevo na capa de Hudson e Tingey, 1906 [4]

O chapéu também aparece na lâmpada azul da delegacia, que fica na parte oeste da Prefeitura, mas sem anjos da guarda.

Delegacia de polícia, Bethel Street 1938

A própria prefeitura é a Central do Brasão, havia até planos para a torre ser coberta com um anjo antes de ser cortada por razões de custo [3]. As armas da cidade aparecem acima da entrada do Departamento do Tesoureiro da Cidade e # 8217s na Rua Bethel com todos os seus acessórios: o chapéu e os anjos Art Déco flanqueando um tradicional brasão de armas.

Por Eric Aumonier, que também projetou uma escultura Art Déco para o metrô de Londres

Exemplos do & # 8216 conjunto completo & # 8217 também podem ser vistos na janela de vidro gravado acima das escadas que conduzem do andar térreo da Prefeitura & # 8230

Desenhado por Eric Clarke e pintado por James Michie [13]

& # 8230 e no memorial de guerra Lutyens & # 8217, em frente à Prefeitura na rua St Peter & # 8217s.

Os elementos adicionais (chapéu e anjos) que apareceram algum tempo depois da concessão original dos braços do leão e do castelo complicam o que antes era um design simples e eficaz. O College of Arms não reconhece os anjos que os flanqueiam ao dispensar os apoiadores das armas em formato de desenho animado nesses dois projetos de meados do C20 que marcaram um retorno à simplicidade (embora a questão de abobar ou não o castelo ainda não esteja resolvida) .

Abaulado ou não. À esquerda, Hewitt School à direita, Alderson Place, Finkelgate. Esses dois projetos cívicos foram supervisionados pelo arquiteto municipal David Percival por volta de 1958

A versão do lado direito dos braços da cidade também aparece na reconstrução de Percival & # 8217s 1960 na Rosary Road.

© 2018 Reggie Unthank

Obrigado a Clive Cheesman, Richmond Herald do College of Arms pelas informações sobre o brasão de armas de Norwich.


7 razões para amar a histórica Norwich

Norwich é a única cidade inglesa em um Parque Nacional (Norfolk Broads) e até a Revolução Industrial era a segunda maior cidade do país.

‘Norwich tem tudo’ de acordo com Nikolaus Pevsner.

Bem conhecida por seus pubs, igrejas, cena cultural e ruas sinuosas de paralelepípedos, Norwich é a única cidade inglesa em um Parque Nacional (Norfolk Broads) e até a Revolução Industrial era a segunda maior cidade do país.

Aqui, celebramos 7 razões para amar a histórica Norwich:

1. Maravilhas medievais

Norwich é a cidade medieval mais completa do Reino Unido e é o lar de muitas ruas de paralelepípedos intactas do período. Norwich Guildhall é o maior edifício cívico medieval sobrevivente fora de Londres e a cidade tem uma das maiores catedrais normandas da Grã-Bretanha. Ao longo de Elm Hill e em Tombland existem muitos edifícios Tudor distintos.

2. O maior mercado coberto da Europa

Em sua localização atual, o mercado operou por mais de 900 anos, mas o mercado original foi aberto na última parte do século 11 para comerciantes e colonos normandos. Foi reconstruído e redesenhado várias vezes e hoje é o maior mercado coberto da Europa, com barracas de comida e roupa de todo o mundo. Norwich foi um importante centro comercial no século 14, o que tornou a cidade grande e próspera: o Guildhall listado como Grau I foi construído próximo ao mercado para servir como um centro para o governo local até 1938, quando a nova prefeitura foi construída.

3. Uma história religiosa complexa

Dizia-se que Norwich tinha uma igreja para todos os domingos e um bar para todos os dias do ano. Apesar disso, Norwich também foi descrita como a cidade mais "sem Deus" da Inglaterra, quando mais de 40% dos residentes declararam não ter "religião" no censo de 2011. É também a única cidade inglesa a ter sido totalmente excomungada pelo Papa, depois que eclodiram motins no século XIII. St Ethelbert & # 8217s Gate é um monumento planejado, pago pelos residentes locais como penitência pela violência.

4. Uma cidade da literatura

Em 2012, Norwich se tornou a primeira cidade da literatura da UNESCO na Inglaterra e, em 1608, foi o local da primeira biblioteca a ser estabelecida por uma empresa em um prédio de propriedade corporativa fora de Londres. Enquanto isso, o altamente celebrado curso de redação criativa na University of East Anglia produziu o vencedor do Prêmio Nobel Kazuo Ishiguro e vários vencedores do Prêmio Booker.

5. It’s not all medieval

Alongside its medieval history, Norwich is also home to an array of 20th century buildings, many of which are listed. Denys Lasdun’s Norfolk and Suffolk Terrace (better known as the Ziggurats) at the University of East Anglia are Grade II* listed and amongst the boldest designs of any post-war university. Directly opposite, Foster Associates Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts: a vast hanger-like space, is also Grade II* listed.

In the centre of the city The Forum, designed by Hopkins Architects, was opened in 2001 and the large plaza out front is a well-loved meeting place for young people.

6. The first council to get online

Thanks to its forward-thinking Treasurer, Mr A.J. Barnard, the City of Norwich was one of, if not the first, local authority to use computer technology. The Elliott 405 computer was delivered to Norwich City Hall in 1957, and became operational in April of the same year: the event was celebrated with a press conference and hosted by the Lord Mayor.

7. Strangers and canaries

The symbol of the city, the canary, was an import: brought by refugees from the Low Countries, who came to the area seeking refuge from religious persecution in Holland Belgium in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 20th century the local football team, Norwich City, began to be referred to as the canaries. The weaving trade was also brought by the refugees, and Grade I listed Strangers Hall got its name from the ‘strangers’ from Belgium and Holland who lived there.

Norwich is special as one of England’s great historic cities, and we are concerned about proposals for the planned redevelopment of Anglia Square. Find out more here.


Conteúdo

The county town of Norfolk, Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in the East of England. Its origins are unclear, but by the reign of King Æthelstan (924–939) the city was a major trading centre and one of the most important boroughs in England. [1] The Anglo-Saxon settlement was centred around Tombland, a large open space at the point where the roads into Norwich converged. [1] The plain of Tombland was the site of Norwich's market. [1]

Following the Norman conquest of England (1066–1071), Norwich was radically redesigned. Norwich Cathedral was built immediately to the east of Tombland and much of the old town to the southwest of Tombland was cleared for the motte of Norwich Castle. A new Norman town was built west of the Castle, in an area known as Mancroft. [1] [note 1] The new town at Mancroft included a market of its own to provide for the Norman settlers and merchants moving into the area, and possibly also to supply the castle's garrison. [1] The exact date of the foundation of the market at Mancroft is not recorded, but it is known to have been operational by the time the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086. [1] Granting the right to trade in Norman England was a part of the Royal Prerogative and, as with most fairs and markets of the period, the market at Mancroft was operated under licence from the King. The King's Clerk had jurisdiction over all trade conducted at the market, and tolls and rents were collected on behalf of the King. [3]

Almost no records survive of the Norman market in the 11th to 13th centuries. [1] It is known that shortly after the market's establishment, a tollhouse was built nearby, which served as a collection point for taxes on trade. [1] Although the precise location of the tollhouse is not recorded, it was immediately north of the market on part of the site now occupied by the Guildhall. [1] At some point soon after its construction, the tollhouse also became the centre for the civil administration of the city. [1] Although the Tombland market retained its charter to host an annual horse fair, [4] over time the market at Mancroft supplanted that at Tombland as the principal market of the area. [1] At the end of the 11th century, the Tombland market was removed during construction work on Norwich Cathedral. [4]

By the start of the 14th century, Norwich was one of Europe's major cities. East Anglia was at this time one of the most densely populated areas in England, producing large amounts of grain, sheep, cattle and poultry. Much of this produce was traded in Norwich, an inland port roughly at the centre of the region. [5] The City, meanwhile, had industrialised, its growth based on textiles, leather and metalworking, as well as being the administrative centre of the region. [6] By 1300, Norwich had a population of between 6,000–10,000, [5] with a total of around 20,000 people living in the area. [7] (One 19th century historian estimated Norwich's population pre-1349 at as high as 70,000. [8] ) It was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the country, [5] and was considered the second city of England. [7] Aside from occasional fairs, the majority of all goods produced in or imported to the region passed through the market at Mancroft. [5] While there is some evidence that the market operated daily for a period around 1300, it generally operated on Wednesdays and Saturdays. [5]

Layout Edit

The market had by this time taken on roughly the layout it retains today. It was a long rectangular open space aligned north–south, with the tollhouse (the Guildhall after 1413) marking the northern end and the very large church of St Peter Mancroft marking the southern end. [9] (St Peter Mancroft was built in 1430–55 incorporating an earlier church built in 1075 and was financed by the market's merchants. It retains its association with the market all stallholders retain the right to hold their weddings in the church and to be buried in the churchyard. [10] ) The marketplace sloped downwards from west to east. A long straight passageway called the Nethererowe or Nether Row (later renamed Gentleman's Walk) marked the eastern boundary. Another passage called the Overerowe, or Over Row (later renamed St Peter's Street, and since 1938 occupied by City Hall), marked the western boundary. [9]

The mediaeval market was divided into sections, each dealing with a particular trade. The stalls of the market were arranged in rows. They varied in width from 2 feet (60 cm) to 15 feet (460 cm). [5] Highly valuable, in the early years of the market they were generally owned by major institutions such as trade guilds and religious bodies, and generated a high income from rents. [5] They also provided a steady income for the King, and later the city, from perpetual rents. [3] The marketplace was surrounded by retail buildings, construction of which began in about 1300. These were fixed, permanent structures, some of which had multiple storeys and cellars. [5]

The northern section of the main market place, immediately south of the tollhouse, housed fishmongers, butchers, ironmongers and woolsellers. [9] This section of the market also housed the murage loft after 1294, where tolls to fund the building of Norwich's city walls were collected. [5] The southern section of the main market place, north of St Peter Mancroft, housed a bread market and a number of stalls associated with Norwich's significant cloth and leather industries. A broad space between the main marketplace and the Nethererowe was kept clear for the use of country smallholders, who would set up temporary booths and tents to sell their wares. [3]

South of St Peter Mancroft was a second marketplace dealing in wheat, poultry, cattle and sheep. [9] Pigs, horses, timber and dye were not traded in the main market, but had dedicated markets elsewhere in the city. [5] (The modern Norwich place names of Timberhill, St John Maddermarket and Rampant Horse Street derive from their origins as the sites of the mediaeval timber, dye and horse markets respectively. [5] )

Transfer to city control Edit

In 1341, King Edward III visited Norwich for a jousting tournament, coinciding with the completion of the city's defensive walls. Edward and his mother, Isabella of France, were very impressed by the city and, as a token of appreciation for bearing the costs of the defensive fortifications, Edward granted the franchise of the market to the city in perpetuity. [3] The control by the King's Clerk over trade at the market was ended and tolls and rents from the market from then on went directly to the city's bailiffs (the rulers of the city). [3]

With the powers of the King's Clerk abolished, the bailiffs of Norwich set about regulating the operation of the market for what they felt was the greatest benefit to the city. To encourage fair competition among the market's traders, it was forbidden to sell foodstuffs before the Cathedral bell had tolled for Lady Mass (6.00 am). [3] The practice of forestalling (meeting merchants on their way to the market either to buy their goods for resale, or to prevent them from attending the market and thus make goods of the type they were selling scarce and hence more expensive) was forbidden. Trading anywhere other than in the market was strongly discouraged and the right to re-sell goods at a profit was restricted to Freemen of the city. [3] [note 3] The prices of bread and beer were fixed, [note 4] and a set of standardised weights and measures was introduced, against which measures used by merchants would regularly be checked. [3] Shortly after the transfer of the market to the city a market cross was erected near the centre of the main market (opposite the present day entrance to Davey Place), the design of which is not recorded. [11]

In mid-1348, the outbreak of bubonic plague known as the Great Mortality (later referred to as the Black Death), which had swept across Europe during the past year, reached England for the first time with an outbreak in the south coast port of Melcombe. [12] The plague spread gradually over the rest of the country with devastating effect, causing a mortality estimated at between 30%–45%. [13] In late March 1349, the outbreak reached East Anglia and, for reasons which are not understood, increased drastically in intensity. [13] In 1349–50 alone, more than half the population of East Anglia died. [14] In 1369, East Anglia, whose farming economy had collapsed in the wake of the plague, was struck by famine.

Although the market continued to operate, in the immediate aftermath of the plague it was at a much reduced level and many stalls were left empty for some years after. [15] The famine of 1369 overwhelmed Norwich's burial grounds, necessitating an expansion of St Peter Mancroft's churchyard. The southernmost rows of stalls in the main marketplace, which had been occupied by drapers and linen merchants, [9] were removed to clear space for an enlarged churchyard. [15] By 1377, the population of Norwich had fallen from at least 20,000 before the outbreak to below 6,000. [14]

Although social order was maintained throughout the plague years, the economy of the region was devastated. [16] [note 5] However, the surviving merchant community were very influential in the city and, in the wake of the catastrophe, set about increasing the council's influence around the market, buying many of the surrounding shops. [15] The council also bought a set of wharves along King Street near Dragon Hall in 1397 and decreed that all goods entering Norwich by water be unloaded there. This ensured almost complete control of Norwich trade by the merchants who now dominated the council. [15]

The market soon began to recover from the plague years to become a major trading hub again. Records of 1565 show 37 butchers' stalls alone in the market, and Norwich also became a major centre for the import of exotic foods. Sugar, figs and prunes were traded in the market in the 16th century, and it is recorded that 20,000 oranges and 1,000 lemons were provided for the 1581 St Bartholomew's Day fair. [17]

Guildhall and new market cross Edit

In 1404, Norwich secured a royal charter granting it autonomy as "The County of the City of Norwich". The local council was restructured into a body headed by a Mayor and administered by Sheriffs and Aldermen the Mayor also formally became Clerk of the Markets, but in practice the running of the markets was always delegated to deputies. [15]

By this time, the tollhouse was proving inadequate as the seat of local government and between 1407 and 1413 it was demolished, along with an adjoining site which had housed a vegetable market, and was replaced by a new Guildhall. In keeping with Norwich's status, it was one of the largest civic buildings in England outside London and housed all aspects of local government and justice for the new council. [15] [note 6] The Guildhall cost between £400–£500 to build. [18] (As it was built primarily using pressed labour, modern equivalents of the building costs are virtually meaningless. The annual income of the city council at the time the Guildhall was built was around £120. [18] ) The eastern face of the Guildhall was built in a distinctive black and white checked design, representing the exchequer. [18] The undercroft of the tollhouse was retained for use as a dungeon, while a new basement served as a lock-up from the opening of the Guildhall until the 1980s. [18]

The murage loft in the market, redundant since the completion of the city walls, took over the functions of the old tollhouse and became the offices of the market supervisor and the collection office for market tolls and taxes. [15]

Between 1501 and 1503, Mayor John Rightwise had the original market cross demolished [19] and replaced with an elaborate new cross. This was octagonal in shape, stood on a plinth 30 feet (9 m) wide, and rose to a height of 60 to 70 feet (18 to 21 m). The central structure contained an oratory, occupied by a priest. [11]

Rightwise's new market cross only survived in its original form for a short time. During the English Reformation of the 1530s, the rood on the pinnacle was pulled down and the oratory became a storeroom. The octagonal plinth became a shopping arcade of small stalls. In 1549, a temporary gallows was erected at the cross for the mass execution of 60 of the participants in Kett's Rebellion, who had congregated in the marketplace during their brief capture of Norwich. [20] In 1574, a local law was enacted demanding that all unemployed men were to assemble at the market cross each morning at 5.00 am, along with the tools of their trade, and remain there for an hour in the hope that they would be offered work a bonesetter was hired to treat any men who claimed they were unfit for work through injury. The success of this scheme is not recorded. [19]

By the 17th century, the building was known as the Market House, and was used for the sale of grain and other goods sold by the bushel a set of approved measures were chained to the pillars for public use. [11] The archaic title of "Keeper of the Cross" was bestowed on the man appointed to sweep the marketplace weekly. [21] [note 7]

The market cross also served as the focal point of Norfolk's parliamentary elections. Candidates would bring large crowds of voters in by cart from the surrounding countryside and ply them with large quantities of free alcohol to ensure their support. [22] Candidates would pay for lodgings for the voters, but, in closely fought elections, more voters than usual would be shipped in and every inn in the city would fill, forcing voters to sleep in and around the cross. Sir Thomas Browne described the voters around the market cross as "like flocks of sheep" during the unusually close elections of 1678, at the height of the Exclusion Crisis. [22] Following the counting of the vote, the winning candidate would be carried three times around the market, followed by torch-bearers and trumpeters. By this time, the crowds would generally be extremely drunk on the liquor provided by the candidates, and elections would often degenerate into drunken revelry or fighting. [22]

Although it was popular with travelling vendors, particularly of small fancy goods, [11] the maintenance of the market cross was costly and unpopular with Norwich's citizens. In 1732 the cross was demolished, and the stone was sold for £125. [21] In 2005 the base of the cross was rediscovered in excavations during renovation of the market area, but has since been re-covered. [23] Its site is now outlined in red stones embedded in the market floor. [19]

With few fixed structures in the main marketplace, the plain traditionally served as a public open space on days when the market was not operational. [21] Before the Reformation in the 1530s, its main use was as a venue for religious festivals, particularly the annual procession of the Craft Guilds at Corpus Christi. [21] Most public religious festivals were abandoned following the Reformation and the subsequent dissolution of many of the mediaeval guilds, and the leading event on Norwich's civic calendar became the annual inauguration of the mayor, which took place each May. [25] [note 8]

The inauguration ceremony was conducted by the civic authorities and by the surviving, and still powerful, Guild of St George, and combined elements of a public festival and a religious carnival. [26] Four whifflers (city officials carrying swords) marched ahead of the procession to clear a path. Behind the whifflers, the incoming and outgoing mayors rode side-by-side, preceded by trumpeters and standard-bearers carrying the banners of England and St George, and followed by the city's Sheriffs and Aldermen in ceremonial gowns of violet and red, respectively. The procession was flanked by the city's waits (musicians playing loud wind instruments, usually the shawm) (a mediaeval double reed wind instrument with conical wooden body), and accompanied by dick fools (clowns carrying wands and wearing red and yellow gowns adorned with bells and cats' tails) and a man costumed as a dragon. [26]

As well as the mayoral inaugurations, the marketplace was also the setting for other public events, particularly mourning processions on the deaths of monarchs, coronation celebrations, [note 9] royal birthdays and celebrations of military victories. [26] Firework displays and bonfires would be held on these occasions, accompanied by the local militia firing volleys and the ringing of the bells of the surrounding churches, while local residents and shopkeepers would illuminate their windows with lit candles. [26] Often, particularly in the 18th century, temporary triumphal arches would be erected beside the Guildhall. [22] Free beer would traditionally be distributed at these events, which would on occasion degenerate into drunken disorder. [27]

The market was also the location for public punishment of wrongdoers, and stocks and a pillory were set at a prominent position at the eastern end of the Guildhall. The stocks were used for the punishment of relatively minor offences such as breaching the regulations on the price of bread, public brawling or incivility to the Mayor [22] wrongdoers would on occasion also be paraded around the market wearing paper hats bearing details of their offence. [19] The pillory was used for more serious offences such as sedition. On at least two occasions in the late 16th century people convicted of sedition were nailed to the pillory by their ears on completion of their time on the pillory their ears were cut off. Public whippings of criminals were also conducted in the marketplace. [22] Although not all executions in the period are recorded, it is known that public hangings also took place in the market square and around the market cross. [20]

By the 17th century, the market had also become the venue for many travelling entertainments. Exotic animals were displayed, including lions, tigers, camels and jackals, and displays by conjurers, puppeteers, singers, acrobats and other entertainers also regularly took place. Displays of human deformities were also popular records exist from the 1670s and 1680s of the Mayor granting exhibition licences to, among others, "a monstrous man with 2 bodies brought from the Indies by Sir Thomas Grantham", "a girl of sixteen with no bones", "a monstrous hayrie child", and "a monstrous man taken from amongst the hills of Corinthia, he feeds on the roots of trees etc". [20] Stages erected by charlatans selling medicines and demonstrating miracle cures were often erected near the Guildhall, prompting regular complaints from fishmongers that the crowds were blocking access to their stalls on at least one occasion one of these travelling doctors had his licence withdrawn 'because of possible damage to the city's economy by the distraction of "idle minds" from their work'. [20]

Improvements in Norfolk's road infrastructure and the development of the stagecoach system made Norwich an increasingly popular destination with travellers. Norwich was recovering from the plague years and was a major city, with attractions and social events second only to London itself. The increasingly prosperous country landowners of Norfolk and Suffolk began visiting Norwich more frequently and staying for longer when they did so. [28]

By the end of the 17th century many of the strict regulations regarding trade in Norwich were lifted or relaxed, and Norwich became a fashionable shopping town. Shops catering for the growing wealthy classes, such as booksellers, vintners and gunsmiths, grew around the market plain, [28] especially in the large buildings along the eastern side of the market, the Nethererowe, which became so popular with the gentry it became known as Gentleman's Walk. [29] Gentleman's Walk acquired a number of luxury shops, including John Toll's drapers from which Elizabeth Gurney (later Elizabeth Fry) watched the election of 1796, [30] the wine and spirit dealership of Thomas Bignold who in company with other local shopkeepers founded a mutual association to provide fire insurance for the area's shops which became Norwich Union, [31] and Saunders Coffee House, patronised by the young Horatio and William Nelson. [30]

By this time, a row of stalls bordering on St Peter Mancroft's churchyard had developed into a row of three- and four-storey houses running east to west, and a second row of buildings running north to south ran through the main market square. This row of houses cut off the main market from the eastern strip housing the butchers and fishmongers, known as the Upper Market, leaving only two narrow passageways as direct links between the two-halves of the market square. [32] (Although the buildings dividing the upper and lower markets were demolished in the 1930s, one of these connecting passages survives as Pudding Lane. [32] The name "Pudding Lane" derives from "ped", an archaic word for the large baskets from which itinerant traders sold goods in the market. [33] )

With increased numbers of people visiting Norwich, trade boomed in the inns around the marketplace. [32] In addition to the existing taverns, at least four very large coaching inns opened along Gentleman's Walk. By the latter half of the 18th century, stagecoaches were leaving one or other of the inns almost daily to London, and the inns also served as the hub of a network of frequent services throughout East Anglia. [34]

Built around long narrow yards, as well as serving food and drink and providing lodgings, these coaching inns also served as temporary warehouses, auction rooms and gambling halls for travellers doing business in the market. [35] The best known was the Angel, parts of which dated to the 15th century. As well as providing the other functions of the Norwich inns, its yard also served as a popular theatre and venue for other performers. (Despite its significance as a city, Norwich did not have a dedicated theatre until 1758. [35] ) However, in 1699 part of the building collapsed during a performance by Thomas Doggett's troupe of players, killing a woman and injuring many of the audience. The reputation of the Angel was severely damaged, and although still used for small-scale entertainments such as puppet shows, it was never again used for full-scale theatrical performances. [35]

Meanwhile, the livestock market south of St Peter Mancroft was becoming overwhelmingly crowded on market days. Eventually part of the eastern side of the castle mound was levelled, and in 1738 the livestock sales were moved to this new site. The old hay market remained on the old site for more than a century, until it was also moved to the new livestock market site in the early 19th century. [32] The new livestock market was one of the last significant livestock markets in a British city centre, and developed a reputation as "the cruellest in the country". [36] [note 10]

The relocation of the livestock market had done little to resolve the problems of congestion in and around the market. [39] Many of the mediaeval access routes to the market were too narrow for wheeled transport, and the narrow alleys were also dark, dangerous and mostly unpaved. [40] Although the market had been resurfaced during the 18th century, this had been with flint pebble cobblestones which were easily dislodged and trapped refuse. [41] William Chase, editor of the first Norwich Directory, lobbied in the late 18th century for civic improvements and a rationalisation of the streets around the market. However, the economy of Norwich depended heavily on the textile industry, which had suffered badly from the loss of export markets during the French Wars, and funds for improvements were limited. By the beginning of the 19th century the only significant improvement had been the paving of Gentleman's Walk. [40] In 1805 a number of Improvement Commissions were established to propose solutions to the problems facing the area, but little action was taken. Local councils had no powers to levy rates to fund general civic improvements and as a consequence funds for improvement works had to be raised either through tolls and rents, via public appeals, or through long term borrowing, and the city was initially unable to raise sufficient funds. [39]

In 1813 the yard of the King's Head coaching inn was widened to create Davey Place, [35] a new street between the market and Back of the Inns, at that time a narrow passageway which ran parallel to Gentleman's Walk behind the coaching inns. [42] (Although the inns no longer remain, Back of the Inns survives as a street name. [43] ) In 1820 the Gasolier, Norwich's first gas lamp, was installed in the market outside the entrance to Davey Place. [39] Exchange Street, a new road running north from the northeast corner of the market, was completed in 1828 and a roadway was installed alongside the existing footpath. [42] [44] London Street, the main road connecting the market with the older areas of the city around Tombland and the Cathedral was widened in 1856. [42] In 1860 the decrepit fish market adjacent to the Guildhall, by now over 700 years old, was replaced with a new neoclassical building. [45] In 1863 Gentleman's Walk was paved properly with York stone, and in 1874 the cobbles of the marketplace were replaced by timber blocks. [39] Although by this time the market operated on all working days, Sunday trading laws meant it was closed on Sundays. The market space on Sundays was used for public assemblies and gatherings. [46]

Meanwhile, Norwich railway station had opened in 1844. [47] Although many Norwich residents were reluctant to use the railway, and goods carriers initially found it more convenient to continue to collect goods from the coaching inns, [34] as railway usage gradually increased the number of coaches and carts calling at the inns slowly dwindled, reducing congestion. [44] In 1899 the Angel inn—renamed the Royal Hotel in 1840 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's wedding—finally closed, and was replaced with George Skipper's Royal Arcade, a shopping centre in the Art Nouveau style. [48]

Although the civic authorities initially resisted installing tramways in the city centre owing to concerns about nuisance and disruption, they eventually relented by the end of the 19th century Norwich had a total of 16 miles (26 km) of tram routes, including a route along Gentleman's Walk itself. [44] While schemes to rationalise the layout of the market's stalls had been proposed since the 18th century, they had foundered on the fact that so many of the stalls were privately owned. [44]

In the wake of the First World War the council's Markets Committee began a programme of gradually buying back all the privately owned stalls, with the intention of encouraging demobilised servicemen to work on the market. Within a few years the market was entirely publicly owned, and the council took responsibility for the upkeep of the market. [44] The city also bought out and closed many of the 30 or more inns in the area, transferring their licences to the growing suburbs. [49]

Meanwhile, the Guildhall, designed to serve the post-plague city with a population of around 6,000, was hopelessly inadequate as the administrative centre of a major modern city. As an interim solution the row of buildings dividing the upper and main markets had mostly been taken into public ownership and converted into civic offices, [44] and in January 1914 the 1860 fish market had also been enlarged and converted into offices. The Liberal welfare reforms of the early 20th century and the Local Government Act 1929 had greatly increased the role of local government in public health and welfare, and by the 1930s Norwich council was suffering from a severe lack of office space. [44]

The council opted for a radical redevelopment of the area around the upper market. [50] The row of buildings from St Peter Mancroft to the Guildhall, which divided the upper and lower markets, were demolished, opening up the marketplace, as were the buildings along the western side of the market. [50] The mixture of stalls and booths which occupied the market itself were all removed, and replaced by 205 stalls in uniform parallel rows, topped with multi-coloured sloping roofs (known locally as "tilts"). [51] [52] During the rebuilding of the market square, the existing stalls were relocated to a number of temporary locations in the area to allow them to continue trading, including the courtyard and rear of the City Hall development and surrounding streets. [53] In 1938 the coverings of the stalls were given the multi-coloured stripes for which they became famous. [54] [55]

In 1932, despite concerns from some local residents and businesses about the huge expense at a time of recession, a new building was envisaged to replace the demolished civic buildings, spanning the entire length of the western edge of the now unified marketplace. From over 140 entries a design by Charles Holloway James and Stephen Rowland Pierce was selected. [50] [56] Heavily influenced by Scandinavian architecture, the design attracted negative criticism at the time, with John Piper saying that "fog is its friend". [57] Opened by King George VI in 1938 as City Hall, [57] [note 11] the building proved extremely successful, and was described by Nikolaus Pevsner as "the foremost English public building between the Wars". [50] Norwich's war memorial, designed by Edwin Lutyens and opened in 1927 outside the Guildhall, was moved to a long narrow memorial garden on a raised terrace between City Hall and the enlarged market shortly after the opening of City Hall. [59] The Guildhall remained in use as a law court until 1985, and its basement remained in use as cells until that time. [18]

Although superficially the market remained little changed in the decades following the 1930s redevelopment, by the 1960s it was falling into disrepair, and it no longer met modern hygiene regulations. [60] A lack of funds delayed improvement works, and renovation works did not begin until February 1976. Hot and cold running water and refrigeration were provided to those stalls handling food, and many of the stalls were converted into lockable units. [51] New electrical mains cables were installed throughout the market, the site was resurfaced, and the elegant but ageing 19th century lavatories were demolished. [60] Aside from the demolition of the Victorian toilets, the only significant visible alteration was the addition of corrugated plastic covers over the walkways between the stalls. [51] [52] Although competition from supermarkets was by this time affecting shopping patterns, and the decline of market gardening meant a virtual end to stall-holders selling their own produce, the market survived competitive pressures. Many stalls diversified into specialist foods, clothing and other goods and the high number of stalls allowed the market to sell a range of goods as great as that provided by the supermarkets. [51]

While the 1976 renovations prolonged the life of the 1930s market, by the 1990s the market was once more becoming decrepit. The covers erected in 1976 over the walkways blocked sunlight, leaving much of the market dingy and poorly lit. The walkways themselves, already narrow, were becoming even more restricted as stalls erected external displays and additional weatherproofing. Removable shutters used to secure the stalls overnight were stacked against the sides of the stalls during trading hours, causing further obstruction, while on those stalls fitted with doors the doors opened outwards to maximise the limited space inside the units. In addition, the floors of stalls followed the slope of the hill, a gradient of about 1:12, causing health problems for those market workers who had to stand at this angle for prolonged periods during the day. [61] Norwich City Council decided that these problems needed to be addressed, and in December 2003 invited the public to choose between three proposals for a rebuilt market. [62]

These plans were extremely controversial. All three envisaged reducing the number of stalls from 205 to 140–160 to increase space, and all three involved splitting the market into isolated clusters of stalls, significantly altering its character and appearance. o Eastern Daily Press organised a campaign against the perceived unattractiveness of the designs, the proposed reduction in the number of stalls which would mean stallholders losing their jobs and the remaining stallholders facing rent increases to cover the difference, and the change to the character of central Norwich that such a radical redesign of the market would entail. A petition of over 12,000 signatories rejecting all three proposed designs was gathered. [63]

Following a public meeting on 26 January 2004 the council backed down, and Hereward Cooke, deputy leader of the council, said that "We are finding out what the stall-holders and people of Norwich want and we will try our best to fulfill their wishes". Architect Michael Innes proposed a new design, which was accepted by the council. [63] The new design was put in place in 2005. [64]

Innes's design retained the market's layout of parallel rows of stalls with striped coloured roofs. The new stalls were built as steel and aluminium prefabricated units consisting of four stalls each, each stall having a level floor accessed by a step. These "pods" were arranged in rows, with 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) wide walkways between the "pods". Transparent retractable canopies were installed above the aisles, which could be opened and closed centrally. [65]

To allow the market to continue trading while the rebuilding took place, a set of temporary stalls were built in Gentleman's Walk and surrounding streets. A third of the market's stalls at a time traded from these temporary stalls while their stalls in the main market were replaced, a process taking four months for each third of the market. [64] The rebuilding was officially completed on 25 March 2006. [66] Although generally popular with traders and shoppers, the redesign was criticised by Os tempos, who described it as "an anaemic shopping mall for health and safety inspectors: straight lines, wipe-clean boxy cubicles, all life and love drained out." [67]

Meanwhile, in November 2004 engineers identified cracks in the terrace supporting the Memorial Gardens, and they were closed to the public as a potential hazard. Eventually in 2009 work began on renovating the gardens. Lutyens's memorial was dismantled and cleaned, and reassembled at a higher level to be visible from the street it was also rotated 180° to face City Hall, rather than the market. The terrace was strengthened, and the gardens were landscaped around a new sculpture by Paul de Monchaux on the original site of the memorial. [68]

Supermarkets continued to affect shopping patterns. In 1979 fruit and vegetable stalls occupied 70 of the market's 205 stalls by 1988 greengrocers occupied only 28 stalls, and by 2010 there were only seven remaining fruit and vegetable stalls on the market. [69] A wide variety of other stalls have taken their place, and the market remains active. One of the largest markets in Britain, it is a tourist attraction as well as remaining heavily used by local residents, and is a focal point of the city. [66]


Norwich Guildhall - History

Norwich Guildhall. The southern side view from outside City Hall

Norwich Guildhall é um Grade I building on Gaol Hill in Norwich, Norfolk. It was constructed between 1407 and 1413 to enable the greater self-governing powers conferred upon Norwich by the Carta of 1404 to be administered more efficiently.

Henry IV had introduced a ‘Charter of Incorporation’ to Norwich, granting special privileges to the city and raising its importance to a new level. The charter allowed burgesses to elect a Mayor, collect taxes and hold their own courts of law and with the removal of the popular assembly, was a chance for the government to become more locally representative. Crucially, the charter gave Norwich cidade status.

O edifício
By 1435 the tower and porch had been added and in 1440 all of the city records were brought over, a reminder of its political responsibility. By 1453 the final windows of the magnificent building were glazed, essentially marking the building’s completion.

An upper council (of twenty-four Aldermen, one Mayor and two Sheriffs), with members from ‘dignified’ society and given life-long membership, were to govern alongside the associated lower council, whose sixty members were to act as representatives from the local community. These changes to the political structure instigated a sense of civic pride among the citizens of Norwich many felt that the growth in the city’s responsibilities and self-governing power should be marked by the establishment of an equally fitting civic building.

Prisoners first occupied the crypts of the building in 1412. In 1511 both the tower at the west end and the roof of the Council Chamber, collapsed. The roof was reconstructed between 1534 and 1537 by Augustine Steward, at a cost of over £200. The destruction forced the Council Chamber to move to the east end of the building. As part of the works, the exterior wall of the eastern face of the new Chamber was faced with chequered flint work and freestone, and a central panel containing a fragment of the Arms of Henry VIII, flanked by the City Arms and the arms of the St George’s Company.

In 1635 the Guildhall was almost accidentally demolished as salitre diggers went down too far. 1723 saw the reconstruction of the porch, and in 1747, after the destruction of the Shire Hall, the Guildhall took on further responsibilities and additional alterations were made. In 1850 the clock tower was erected as a gift from the Mayor, Henry Woodcock.

More renovations came in 1857, when the doorway of a house belonging to a Tudor goldsmith was taken down from its original location in London Street and placed in the south-west corner of the Guildhall. Additions to the south side of the building were constructed in 1861 by Thomas Barry, the City Surveyor, and further work was undertaken in 1908.

The Mayor and Officials Royal procession from Guildhall to open City Hall at Norwich in 1938

The Norwich Guildhall served as the seat of city government from the early 15th century until 1938, when it was replaced by the newly built Câmara Municipal. At the time of the building’s construction and for much of its history Norwich was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in England, and today the Guildhall is the largest surviving medieval civic building in the country outside of London.

As well as various courts, a prison and a chapel, the building contained facilities for accounting and tax collection, accommodation for civic officials (it remains the home of the Sheriff’s parlour today) and storage space for records, money and civic regalia. The Assembly Chamber (or Sheriff’s Court) was designed for meetings of the full medieval council. It now contains a virtually intact late Victorian courtroom.

The council chamber (or mayor’s court) is more elaborate with oak panelling, a 16-bay roof with tie-beams, renaissance decorative woodwork and stained glass. o undercroft, beneath the east end pre-dates the building, and is thought to be an original feature of the earlier toll-house on this site. It was used to accommodate more dangerous criminals.

o Norwich’s Heritage Economic and Regeneration Trust (HEART) has taken on a 25-year lease of the iconic landmark from Norwich City Council. As of January 2015 the building will be another place to explore Norwich’s past.

The Gates
The porch previously had a pair of iron gates to its outer threshold. These are thought to date from the 1720s and were removed several decades ago. They were recently ‘rediscovered’ and the City wishes to reinstate them.

I was asked to examine the paint on the gates.

NOTAS
This has been taken from a variety of sources including Norwich HEART, Wikipedia and the Eastern Daily Press


Amazing Then and Now photos Show How Norwich Has Changed from the Norwich Blitz

During World War II, the German forces heavily bombarded Norwich and its surrounding areas, known as ‘The Norwich Blitz.’ The bombing was also launched in several other Britain’s cities in 1940. However, Norwich was not attacked until April and May 1942 as part of the so-called Baedeker raids. Targets were chosen for their cultural and historical value and not as strategic or military targets.

The furious bombing was launched on the evening of 27 April 1942, and it lasted for two days. There were further attacks in May and a heavy bombardment on 26 and 27 June in which Norwich Cathedral was damaged. Norwich Castle, the City Hall, and the Guildhall escaped while many residential streets were destroyed.

Here is a fantastic set of then and now photographs that show the Norwich landmarks immediately after the attack and how they look years later. Two pictures of the exact location in a single frame with the same angle.