5 de junho de 1945

5 de junho de 1945

5 de junho de 1945

Alemanha

Está decidido que a Alemanha será dividida em quatro setores, cada um ocupado por uma das potências aliadas. O plano original não incluía a França. Berlim será ocupada em conjunto

Diplomacia

Os franceses sugerem que deve haver uma Conferência Aliada sobre o Oriente Médio

Pacífico

Okinawa: Fuzileiros navais em Oruku apreendem aeródromo de Naha



Eventos históricos em junho de 1945

    EUA, Reino Unido, URSS e França declaram autoridade suprema sobre a Alemanha & quotFree People & quot estréia em Amsterdam Warner Bros cartoon & quotA Gruesome Twosome & quot estrelando Tweety premieres nos EUA -10] Tropas australianas desembarcam na Baía de Brunei, Bornéu do Norte

Evento de Interesse

9 de junho 71º Kentucky Derby: Eddie Arcaro a bordo do Hoop Jr marca sua terceira do recorde de 5 vitórias em Derby

Evento de Interesse

9 de junho Após uma vitória de 8-7 sobre o Phils, o gerente do Brooklyn, Leo Durocher, é preso sob a reclamação de um fã de que Durocher o agrediu.

    Destroyer americano William D Porter (& quotWillie Dee & quot) afundado por kamikaze US 7º regimento de fuzileiros navais conquista cume de Kunishi Ridge, Okinawa Heerjansdam time de futebol forma Orokoe península Okinawa capturada, com 6.000 mortos do partido político holandês ANJV estabelecido no edifício Concert, Amsterdam 70º Preakness: Wayne D Wright a bordo da Polinésia vence em 1: 58,8

Evento de Interesse

18 de junho William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw), político fascista e locutor de propaganda nazista, acusado de traição na Inglaterra

    EUA derrotam as forças japonesas em Okinawa 77º Belmont: Eddie Arcaro a bordo do Pavot vence em 2h30.2 Último desafio japonês organizado quebrado (Tarakan) Formas de governo de Schermerhorn na Holanda. dia Sede Geral Imperial da Indonésia em Tóquio anuncia queda de Okinawa Inglaterra vence o segundo teste de críquete da Vitória em Bramall Lane por 41 corridas

Carta das Nações Unidas

26 de junho Carta das Nações Unidas assinada por 50 nações em São Francisco


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Se você for um assinante, faça o login para obter acesso e obrigado por sua assinatura.

1. “USS Pittsburgh" no Dicionário de navios de combate da Marinha Americana.

2. ADM John E. Gingrich, USN, Biografias em história naval, Comando de História e Patrimônio Naval.

3. “USS Pittsburgh" no Dicionário de navios de combate da Marinha Americana.

4. Oficial Comandante [John Gingrich] para Comandante em Chefe, Frota dos EUA, Relatório de Danos - Tifão de 5 de junho de 1945, datado de 26 de junho de 1945, RG19, Arquivos Nacionais, College Park, MD (doravante NARA), 1.

6. Bob Drury e Tom Calvin, Tufão de Halsey: a verdadeira história de um almirante lutador, uma tempestade épica e uma provação incalculável (Nova York, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2007).

7. ADM Horacio Rivero, USN, "Reminiscences of Admiral Horacio Rivero Jr., U.S. Navy (Retired)," (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, maio de 1978), 151.

8. Relatório de Danos, 26 de junho de 1945.

9. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junho de 1945, RG24, NARA.

11. Carta, Russell Barr para Alva e Hazel Barr, sem data, em posse do autor.

12. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junho de 1945.

13. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, "An Episode Recalled", em Corsário, o USS Pittsburgh Boletim da associação, janeiro de 2010, 9.

14. Fergus Hoffman, "Two-Thirds of Cruiser Limps in for New Bow", Seattle Post Intelligencer, 18 de julho de 1945, 2.

15. "Reminiscences of Admiral Horatio Rivero, Jr., U.S. Navy (aposentado)," 153.

16. Robin Coons, "Crew Averts Disaster in Raging Sea", Seattle Times, 13 de julho de 1945.

17. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junho de 1945.

18. Fergus Hoffman, "Two-Thirds of Cruiser Limps in for New Bow."

19. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, “An Episode Recalled.”

20. Rivero, "Reminiscences", 155.

21. Robin Coons, “Crew Averts Disaster in Raging Sea,” 1, 7.

22. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junho de 1945.

24. Fergus Hoffman, “21 Men Saved Pittsburgh,” Seattle Post Intelligencer, 19 de julho de 1945.

25. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, "An Episode Recalled," (continuação) em Corsário, o USS Pittsburgh Boletim da associação, julho de 2010, 10.

26. “Gale espalha a vasta frota americana na área de 125 milhas”, Seattle Daily Times, 13 de julho de 1945.

27. Fergus Hoffman, “21 Men Saved Pittsburgh.”

28. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junho de 1945.

29. “USS Munsee," no Dicionário de navios de combate da Marinha Americana.

30. E. W. Mills, Chefe do Bureau em exercício, a Chefe de Operações Navais, Assunto: Classe CL55 e Classe CA 68: Estrutura da Força da proa, 30 de julho de 1945 (RG38, NARA).


Hoje na História da Segunda Guerra Mundial - 5 de junho de 1940 e # 038 de 1945

80 anos atrás - 5 de junho de 1940: Começa a batalha da França: alemães lançam ofensiva ao sul da França.

A Grã-Bretanha anuncia novas medidas de emergência: greves proibidas, feriados desencorajados e mineiros e fazendeiros não devem deixar seus empregos sem permissão do governo.

Encouraçado USS Indiana em um tufão perto de Okinawa, 5 de junho de 1945 (Arquivos Nacionais dos EUA: 80-G-342732)

75 anos atrás - 5 de junho de 1945: O Conselho de Controle Aliado se reúne, concordando com a divisão da Alemanha e Berlim em quatro zonas de ocupação (britânica, americana, francesa, soviética).


Arquivo # 256: & quotCornhusker CAP News Vol. 3, No. 5 junho-julho 1945.pdf & quot

bilização vai ser aquela que você
não vou esquecer e um que você não pode pagar
para faltar.

Com ênfase na formação de novos amigos
navios, descobrindo o que está próximo na avia
por meio do representante do fabricante

tives, voando em vários tipos de missões,
cuidando de todo o trabalho provisório
para novos membros e complementá-lo enquanto

no acampamento, participando de um evento bem organizado
plano de recreação, e descobrir o que
serão nossos interesses e programa depois

t h e w a r, a l o n g w i t h c on f e r n c e s e n d
períodos de perguntas, demonstrações de rádio,

competição de rifa e, possivelmente, treinador de link
Tempo. Tudo isso e muito mais formarão nosso

programa este ano.
É muito trabalhoso para o órgão
ize uma mobilização, mas seus oficiais são

disposto e feliz em fazê-lo. Agora está de pé
para cada esquadrão e comandante de vôo
der e cada membro do CAP para obter esses
membros antigos de volta à ativa

todos os novos membros possíveis e
trazê-los todos para esta mobilização.

Gostaríamos de ver quatrocentos pré
s e n t t h i s y e a r.

Governador Dvi ^ ight Griswold de Nebraska assina Proclamação anunciando
CAP WEEK em Nebraska. Olhando em frente estão, da esquerda para a direita, o Tenente W. G. Brown,
Esquadrão CO Lincoln, Capitão Kenneth D. Kimmel, CO Grupo 762, Tenente C. £.
Taylor, Diretor Executivo, Lincoln Squadron e Lt. H. C. Henderson,
Oficial de Inteligência .— ^ (Foto cortesia do Lincoln Squadron.)

Semana CAP obsoleta
CAP WEEK começou com a Proclamação do Governador Griswold e # 039s de 13 a 20 de maio como
Semana de Recrutamento CAP, e vários Ma

Fique atento aos avisos de pré-registro e

yors da cidade fizeram proclamações semelhantes.

boletins especiais. As refeições serão servidas
por um dólar por dia o mesmo que o anterior

todas as escolas secundárias devem ter assembleias especiais

ano. G e t y o u n i d o r m e n s h a p e n w.

em que um membro do Wing Staff apareceu

Novos podem ser obtidos no

No Omaha, os arranjos eram feitos em

Sumnier Camp For Cadels
No Kearney Army Air Field
Os arranjos estão progredindo rapidamente
para o acampamento de verão dos cadetes em
a Base Aérea de Kearney de 13 a 25 de agosto.
A cota de duzentos cadetes tem
foi superado e tem sido bom

falar. Mais de duzentos cadetes foram

necessário para reduzir a frequência solicitada

Oficial de Abastecimento de Ala. Recapitule o seu
cortesia militar como muitos oficiais do Exército

clubes foram anfitriões de representantes do Wing Staff
tativos, que falaram na Patrulha Aérea Civil.

Ka Elks Lodge, quatrocentos dólares

aproveite a natação, recreação e coisas assim

The Wing Communications Officer Produ

busca de uniformes para os cadetes em

de interesse em Civil Air Patrol e avia

cedeu uma variedade de transcrições de 5 minutos

ção Menos trabalho e mais informações

cuidando do acampamento. Este é um ex esplêndido

sobre a nossa organização e enviado

amplo de uma grande expressão de ordem fraterna

Planeje suas férias em Ashland e

A maior parte do almoço e serviço de Omaha & # 039s

e jogar será a ordem do dia

para estações de rádio em todo o

Estado. (Continua na página 4)

Pela generosidade do Nebras

foi disponibilizado para o propósito

cante seu interesse e apreciação do
(Continua na página 4)

Publicado a cada mês pelo Nebraska
Wing Civil Air Patrol, 504 South 18th
Street, Omaha 2, Nebraska.

Editor Gerente Capt Stanley B. Marsh
editor

CornM. Oficial. Tenente Coronel Harry B. Sidles
Diretor Executivo Major M. M. Meyers
Ajudante

Oficial de abastecimento, major Rudy Mueller
Oficial de Operações Maj. Vic M. Schroeder
Oficial Médico Capt. A. D. Cloyd
Tr a i n i n g C a p t. G. C. F o l m e r
I n t e l l i g e n c a O f fi c a r. . . . C a p t. S t a n l e y M a r s h

Com. Capitão oficial Harry Burke
E n g. O f fi c e r C a p t. W m. UMA . E r a s e r, J r.

Capitão Gould Dietz de Dever Especial

■ uture ol CAP Id
AV I AT I O N E W S, p u b l i s h e d por M c
Graw-Hill, afirma que Civil Air Patrol & # 039s

Elk & # 039s Club of Nebraska apresenta uniformes para Civil Air

a perspectiva futura é desfavorável, seguindo

Cadetes de patrulha que participarão do acampamento de verão em Kear

divulgação do ap Departamento de Guerra

Nova Base Aérea do Exército. Da esquerda para a direita estão o capitão Leonard

projeto de lei de propriação que fez não, provi

J. Heinsen, CO Omaha Squadron Cadet CO Charles
Martin, aaid Sr. J, C. Travis, Chirman da Guerra dos Alces

para o CAP em 1946, e que o CAP

Liga, originalmente formada para continuar
C A P a f t e r t h o w a r, h a s n o t y t s h o w n
w h a t r o l e i t p r o p o s t o p l a y.
Tenente-coronel Harry B. Sidles, Nebraska
W i n g C o m a n d e r, w a s c a l e d u p on to

Comitê .— (Omaha World-Herald PhotoJ

discutir este item e expressar sua opinião

das notícias e como isso pode afetar
Patrulha Aérea Civil. Declaração do Coronel Sidles
é o seguinte:

& quotIsto não deve ser particularmente alarmante

para qualquer um, pois isso aconteceu em
duas ocasiões anteriores no passado. Como
na verdade. A sede da ala tem
foram informados de que as dotações foram
ainda não foi feito para o Exército Aéreo
Forças, portanto, podemos acreditar
que o fut & # 039 -e da AAF pode ser un
favorável.

& quot Em vista do fato de que AAF por
sonnel e vários veículos de transporte

cles e ajudas de treinamento estão sendo atribuídos
t o C A P, n o s h o u l n o t l o k t o u n f a v o r

capaz quanto ao futuro e ações pós-guerra
vidades da Patrulha Aérea Civil. & quot

NOVOS PLANOS DE TREINAMENTO CHEGARAM,
AINDA ATERRADO

Chegaram seis PT * 17 e # 039s no Dia de Decoração para
uso por Nebraska Wing Civil Air Patrol
em dar voos de orientação a cadetes.
Pendente de recebimento de ordens de operações, o
aviões estão aterrados. Esses pedidos devem

chegam logo, no entanto, e então os aviões
será imediatamente colocado em uso em seu
função designada.

A edição de junho da Elk & # 039s Magazine,

publicação nacional do Benevolent e

Base Aérea do Exército de Kearney. O resultado
foi que a Loja subscreveu as neces
sary $ 1.400,00 para os uniformes, e fazer

nações inundaram a sede do Elk & # 039s
de lojas locais em todo o estado.
Então

Ordem Protetora dos Alces dos Estados Unidos

acampamento será inteligentemente transformado em novo

tes, trouxe uma história sobre as atividades e
programa de treinamento da Patrulha Aérea Civil, por

uniformes, o que dará ao grupo aquele
aparência de precisão de corte limpo que adiciona
tanto para um porte militar, e orgulho
em sua aparência que é tão im

F a i r f a x D ow n e y, w h i c h i s t h e b e s t c o v

erage de nossa organização já trouxe
à nossa atenção.

O artigo cobre todas as fases do nosso
atividades desde o início da Civil
Patrulha Aérea, e incidentes individuais des

p o r t a n t m o r a l e f a c t o r.
O Benevolente e Protetor Ou

berço foram retirados do experimento

der of Elks - The Nebraska Wing
S t a f f T h a n k s Yo u, T h e S q u a d r o n s
Obrigado, os cadetes, obrigado,

iences de CAP Squadrons throughput a

A l C i v i l A i r P a t r o l T h a n k s Você!

A melhor coisa sobre a história de Downey e # 039
h o w e v e r, i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s t r u a. Nós

todos leram alguns muito rebuscados
histórias sobre Civil Air • Patrol, escritas
por pessoas que pensam que os fatos são menos rápidos

cinante do que ficção. Membros da Ci
vil Air Patrol sabe que nossa história é

uma fase de guerra incomum e interessante
época da América, nascida do patriotismo na
cru e desenvolvido pelo homem & # 039s melhor em
princípios - aprender e dar.
A Patrulha Aérea Civil de Nebraska tem outro
razão para ser grato aos Elks. Conhecer

o trabalho do Comitê de Guerra Elk & # 039s

T, quatro oficiais do CAP abordaram o Sr.

Comitê, com a sugestão de que eles

vença o acampamento de verão no

J, C. Travis de Omaha, presidente do
fornecer novos uniformes para os dois hun

Membros do Esquadrão Omaha 3 em A & amp
Curso de Mecânica Eletrônica na Omaha Uni
v e r s i t y. L t. G l e n F i s h e r i n s p e c t s
w i n g s p a r. - (P h o t o por W / 0 H. E.
Wohlford.)

N w U é I T e N ba k Wn
e nt n h e r s a i g
BOYSTOWN

A licença da estação é emitida para o tenente-coronel Har

r y B. S i d l e s, W i n g C o m a n d e r, e n d c o v
ers quaisquer unidades agora licenciadas ou a serem li
incensado

Um vôo de cadetes foi organizado em

Membros do Esquadrão Omaha 1 que op

Capitão Baldwin tem prêmio de vôo
Plano

Capitão Arthur Baldwin, Grupo Com
mander em Fremont, desenvolveu planos
para conceder a cinco cadetes uma bolsa de estudos para voar
de dez horas cada. Os fundos devem ser arrecadados

Padre Flanagan & # 039s fanious Boystown por

erar uma série de unidades para o

sed por assinatura popular de mer

C a p t a i n W. C. G a r n e r e m e m b er s de
seu Omaha Squadron 3, no momento

a maioria construiu seus próprios rádios. o

cantos, e as indicações são de que o

seção de rádio se reúne uma vez por semana para trabalhar

Eles serão levantados sem dificuldade. Quão

aproximadamente cem meninos têm
inscrito no treinamento de Patrulha Aérea Civil, e

na construção e reconstrução de seus equipamentos

e v e r, b e c a u s d a s u m e r v a c a t i on

período em que o plano está sendo adiado até

as aulas acontecem uma vez por semana. o
O vôo é, anexado ao Esquadrão 3 e
Os membros do esquadrão são os instrutores.
—Clay County Squadron—
Um novo esquadrão foi ativado neste

mês passado, . com sede no

ensliuB! Grupos de fotos de esquadrão
Sgt. Wilbur Lyon, seção de fotos lea
der do Omaha Squadron 1, escreveu recentemente

para a Eastman Kodak Company em Ro

O Comandante Qf fi cer, Tenente Milton A.

c h e s t e r, N e w Yo r k, t on q u i r e a b o u t o b

M e y e r, i s i n t h e C i v i l i a n T r a i n i n g B r a n c h
lá. Ele era anteriormente um membro da

treinamento de material para ser usado em
trabalho de classe. Em resposta, ele recebeu um
quantidade ilimitada de material de treinamento
e literatura, junto com listas de

palestras de slides de treinamento que podem ser ob

um dos maiores e mais fortes do
Nebraska Wing. Seus oficiais estão todos en

tado gratuitamente a título de empréstimo.

medido no trabalho de instrução civil no

campo, e todas as instalações de treinamento de

fotografia para manter o treinamento atualizado

a base foi colocada à disposição
ses e reuniões serão realizadas no

dados. Escreva para a Eastman Kodak Co.,
C a m e r a C l u b D e p a r t m e n t, A t e n t i on M r,
UMA . C. S c h m i t t, R o c h e s t a r, N e w Yo r k. a l

então para Agfa, Inc., Binghampton, New

Pessoal do Esquadrão vem de
várias localidades perto da base aérea, e

do Esquadrão Civil Air ^ Patrol. Clas

deve ser conhecido como Clay County Squad

Esta é uma oportunidade para outro esquadrão
que

Tenente Roy L, Highfield foi nomeado

oficial comandante do Grupo 761,

Capitão Paul G. Gordon, CO do

sucedendo o capitão M. J. Warren no

Grand Island Squadron, anuncia que
por gratuidade de patrocínios locais especiais

publicar. Este grupo consiste no Omaha
S q u a d r o n s a n d & # 039 B l a i r. N e w G r o u p O f
f fi c e r s a r e: E x e c u t i v e O f fi c e r, C a p t. C.

arranjado (incluindo indivíduos agora

C. G a r n e r Tr a i n i n g O f fi c a r, L t. G. T.

Os prêmios de tempo serão feitos da seguinte forma:

M o r k I n t e l l i g e n c o O f fi c a r, L t. J. K e n

n e t h E w i n g C o m u n i c a t i on s O f fi c a r,
Capitão Leonard J. Heinsen e Operações
O f fi c e r, L t. C. D. Como.
—Omaha Squadr & ltm No. 4—

Omaha tem outro esquadrão, seu com
O comandante oficial é o tenente G, T. Mork, para
meramente líder dos voos C. e D do Squa
dron 3. Além do Esquadrão e Cadete

Esquadrão de med Omaha No. 4 tem um empate
em cada sessão de aula quinzenal, o
vencedor recebendo observação de uma hora e # 039s

voo em um avião do Esquadrão. Este Squadson também tem um plano muito bom pelo qual
membros podem ganhar seu observador & # 039s

asas. Por um dólar a hora, pago em
uma piscina para despesas, os membros podem obter

quinze horas de tempo de observador em um esquadrão
plano do membro ron & # 039s.
LINCOLN SQUADRON HOLDS
REVEJA

No domingo, 17 de junho, Lincoln Squadron
se reuniram no Aeroporto Union para um aumento de bandeira
i n g c e r e m o n ia. F i r s t h e r e w a s m i l i t a r y
exercício em que tanto menino & # 039s quanto menina & # 039s seg

ções participaram, seguidas pela bandeira

Tenente G. T. Mork, CO do novo para

H a r v a r d A r m y A i r F i e l d, H a r v a r d N e b r.

o Esquadrão Lincoln.
Este esquadrão começa com um grande
adesão, e deve rapidamente se tornar

Tenente Mork de Omaha No. 4 promove

v i n g a s S q u a d r o n s t a ff of f fi c e r s) voar
Ao final de cada oito semanas de trem

subindo. Então veio a revisão formal

e inspeção, com o Capitão Kimmel, Grp.
C o m a n d e r, L t. H. C. H e n d e r s on, L t. O r l o

Powell e WO Harriet Turner, esquadrão
membros da equipe ron, na revisão
ficar de pé . L t. W. G. B r o w n i s C o m e n d i n g
Oficial do Lincoln Squadron.

Spadron 1 Hies Breaklast Mission
Dez aviões tripulados pelo Esquadrão Omaha

ing, os dois membros de alta classe irão, cada um

ron 1 pilotos e observadores decolaram em

ser premiado com oito horas de voo duplo

madrugada de 24 de junho. Objetivo era Fre

No final de cada quatro semanas de trem

ing, os quatro membros de alta classe vão
cada um receberá uma hora de observação

Capitão Arthur Baldwin, Grqup Com
m a n d e r, e n d o t h e r F r e m o n t C A P p e r s o n
nel conheceu o capitão Leonard Heinsen e o grupo # 039s

tempo de vôo livre. Seleção do mem
bers concedidos tempo de vôo serão feitos
nas qualificações de atendimento, exame

no aeroporto e os levou para o Caminho

ized voos anexados em Ashland e

graus de ção, comportamento e co

missões lar no Esquadrão Omaha & # 039s

planos para os próximos meses.

Voo em Omaha, Esquadrão 4 tem órgão

finder Hotel para um ótimo café da manhã.

Este foi o primeiro de uma série de simi

Rede CAP-WERS para Nebraska
O Nebraska Wing recebeu um
licença da estação pela Federal Communi

Comissão de cátions para operar um WERS
rede. As cartas de chamada atribuídas são KCHK.
Dezoito unidade receptor-transmissora & # 039s

estavam prontos quando o pedido de licença
foi enviado e agora está operando. Unidades
I e 2 estão localizados em Lincoln, o outro

Dez aviões do Esquadrão 1 de Omaha se alinham no aeroporto de Fremont antes do embarque

off para retornar a Omaha, - (Foto por Seção de Fotos do Esquadrão 1,)

(Continuação da página 1)
Os Esquadrões 1 e 3 de Omaha cooperaram em

C a p t. W. C, G a r n e r, C O f O m a h a
Esquadrão 3, anunciou que o vencedor

O pedido deve ser feito para as neces

de vôo de uma hora em seu PT-19 para o

vacinas adicionais para o Wing Medical Of
oficial, Capitão A. D. Cloyd. Não atrase

em ter todos os cadetes inoculados como este é

um requisito para frequentar este acampamento.

seção da cidade. Esquadrão Omaha 2

d o u c h, S q u a d r on I n t e l l i g e n c o O f fi c a r.

meninas ocuparam cabines em saguões de teatro

e a mesa no display do Aeronca Chief
em Brandeis. & quot Tendo este avião em
andar nesta grande loja de departamentos

esforços e cooperação na organização do
Voo de Boystown.

North Platte fez um excelente trabalho em
sua tarefa para observar o especial
semana. Eles tiveram uma exibição muito boa em
uma vitrine, tinha um bom jornal co

.Criado & # 039.muito interesse.

decorando quatro grandes janelas no

Cadet Summer Camp em Kearney AAF

ing e tinha um interesse instrutivo e
experiência ing. Com maior atendimento
permitido este ano e com o profissional
grama já delineada • pela Base Aérea,

este acampamento deve ser o ponto alto
do

(Continuação da página 1)
bom

tem feito para as forças aéreas do Exército.

idade, incluindo uma Proclamação, pelo

A Ala Nebraska é profundamente grata a

Prefeito, e relatar setenta e cinco minutos
do tempo de transmissão de rádio dado ao Civil

t h e B. P. O. E. i n N e b r a s k a.

Os cadetes que participaram do acampamento em
Bruning no ano passado recebeu um trem valioso

As vacinas já estão disponíveis para febre tifóide
inoculações e vacinações contra varíola.

As lojas de departamentos pmaha cooperaram com a Ala NebrasIca durante a CAP WEEK decorando janelas
apresentando Civil Air Patrol. Acima, à esquerda, está a janela em
Sears, Roebuck Co., canto superior direito, a Nebraska Clothing

vida do exército vivida pelos regulares vendidos
iers das Forças Aéreas.

A Patrulha Aérea Civil é profundamente apreciada
ativo do excelente espírito de cooperação evi
condenado pelos oficiais do Kearney
Ar

Co., inferior esquerdo, Browning King, inferior direito, Brandeis *
Loja de departamento. Além da vitrine
Brandeis & # 039 tinham um Aeronca Chief configurado em seu principal
piso, o que atraiu a atenção de toda a cidade.


Tufão do Pacífico, junho de 1945

Em 3 de junho de 1945, os navios do Grupo de Tarefa (TG) 38.1, construídos em torno dos porta-aviões USS Hornet (CV-12) e USS Bennington (CV-20), e os petroleiros do Grupo de Tarefa 30.8 estavam operando a leste de Okinawa, tendo acabado de completou duas semanas de ataques aéreos contra aeródromos japoneses em Okinawa e Kyushu. Embora um distúrbio tropical tenha sido relatado se formando no leste das Filipinas, relatórios de avistamentos confusos e atrasos nas comunicações privaram a Terceira Frota de informações de localização oportunas e precisas. Boletins meteorológicos contraditórios não ajudaram na situação. Em 5 de junho, o pequeno e forte tufão ultrapassou o TG 38.1, que passou pelo centro da tempestade às 07h00 da manhã. Furacão com ventos de 70 nós (80,5 milhas por hora), com rajadas de até 100 nós (115 milhas por hora), danificou quase todos os navios do TG 38.1 e do TG 30.8. No primeiro, o cruzador pesado USS Pittsburgh (CA-72) perdeu seu arco e dois outros cruzadores sofreram danos na estrutura. Todos os porta-aviões da frota sofreram danos à cabine de comando, enquanto o USS Belleau Wood (CV-24) também perdeu um elevador. Os destróieres resistiram bem à tempestade, apenas o USS Samuel N. Moore (DD-747) sofrendo grandes danos à superestrutura. No grupo de reabastecimento, os navios de escolta USS Windham Bay (CVE-92) e USS Salamaua (CVE-96) perderam parte de seus conveses de voo e o navio-tanque USS Millicoma (AO-73) sofreu graves danos na superfície. Um oficial e cinco homens foram perdidos ou mortos, com outros quatro gravemente feridos. Os danos da tempestade destruíram 43 aviões e outros 33 foram levados ao mar. Depois de fortes recomendações contínuas, a Frota do Pacífico estabeleceu procedimentos de despacho consultivo de tufão em linguagem simples não codificada em 10 de junho e, dois dias depois, começou a voar aeronaves B-29 em missões de reconhecimento de tempestade.

Em um dia como hoje. 1807: Oficiais britânicos do H.M.S. Leopard embarcou nos EUA Chesapeake depois de ter zarpado para o Mediterrâneo e exigido o direito de revistar o navio em busca de desertores.

1813: Uma força britânica tentou tomar Craney Island, o forte ali era uma das principais defesas do porto interno de Norfolk e era o lar da fragata & quotConstellation & quot.

1864: Forças da União tentam capturar uma ferrovia que abastecia Petersburgo do sul e estender suas linhas até o rio Appomattox.

1864: EUA Lexington, o alferes interino Henry Booby, resistiu a um ataque surpresa dos confederados em White River Station, Arkansas, e forçou as tropas confederadas de ataque a se retirarem.


1865: O invasor confederado Shenandoah dá o último tiro da Guerra Civil no Estreito de Bering.

1898: Almirante Sampson começa a pousar anfíbio perto de Santiago, Cuba. O tenente-coronel Theodore Roosevelt e o coronel Leonard Wood lideraram os Rough Riders, um regimento de cavalaria voluntário, na praia de Daiquiri na Guerra Hispano-Americana.


1941: Durante a Operação Barbarossa, mais de 3 milhões de soldados alemães invadem a Rússia em três ofensivas paralelas, naquela que é a força de invasão mais poderosa da história. Dezenove divisões panzer, 3.000 tanques, 2.500 aeronaves e 7.000 peças de artilharia se espalham por uma frente de mil milhas enquanto Hitler vai para a guerra em uma segunda frente.

1942: Um submarino japonês bombardeou Fort Stevens, Oregon, na foz do rio Columbia.

1944: O presidente Roosevelt assinou o GI Bill of Rights, autorizando um amplo pacote de benefícios para os veteranos da Segunda Guerra Mundial.

1944: Após um ataque aéreo preparatório a Cherbourg, no qual mais de 1000 toneladas de bombas são lançadas, as divisões do 7º Corpo dos EUA (parte do 1º Exército dos EUA) começam a atacar a cidade de Cherbourg. Existe uma forte resistência alemã.


Voando alto: a história da Força Aérea Auxiliar Feminina 1939-1945

Nota do editor: Maj Egerton Bird morreu em 4 de janeiro de 1982, aos 82 anos.

MARJORIE EGERTON BIRD: OS PRIMEIROS ANOS

James Sydney Bird foi convidado pelo governo do Transvaal a ir à África do Sul para construir uma prisão em Pretória e administrá-la à maneira britânica. James Bird fora governador da prisão de Portland perto de Wentworth, na Inglaterra, por muitos anos, e a administrava bem.
Marjorie e seu irmão, George, foram para a África do Sul com os pais em 1902. Marjorie tinha dois anos na época e George três anos mais velho. Todos viveram em Joanesburgo durante cinco anos até se mudarem para Pretória, onde a pequena cabana atrás da nova Reserva Prisional de Pretória se tornou a sua casa durante os 15 anos seguintes. O pai de Marjorie tornou-se governador da prisão de Pretória e este edifício tornou-se um marco conhecido durante muitos anos.

Eventualmente, Marjorie frequentou a Escola Diocesana para Meninas em Pretória até a morte de seu pai em 1917. Nesse ínterim, o irmão de Marjorie, George, foi enviado de volta à Inglaterra para frequentar o Dartmouth Naval College desde os 13 anos de idade. Sua carreira subsequente na Marinha durou 55 anos , finalmente residindo nos Estados Unidos, onde instruiu os americanos na arte dos torpedos, até sua morte aos 68 anos. George teve duas filhas. Cherry permaneceu nos Estados Unidos enquanto sua irmã, Peggy, mora na Austrália.
Após a morte de seu pai, na tenra idade de 48 anos, Marjorie e a Sra. Bird retornaram à Inglaterra, estabelecendo-se em Dover. Em 1926, no entanto, a mãe de Marjorie morreu e ela voltou para a África do Sul, finalmente garantindo uma posição no Banco Central da África do Sul, onde permaneceu pelos 20 anos seguintes.

PRIMEIRA EXPERIÊNCIA DE VÔO

Em 1936, Marjorie teve sua primeira experiência de vôo. Um amigo persuadiu Marjorie a acompanhá-la ao aeroporto Rand em um domingo para um 'flip' em um avião. Marjorie estava extremamente animada e achou que isso seria ainda melhor do que dirigir um carro (uma verdadeira paixão para ela). Infelizmente, o piloto que a pegou foi um pouco 'exibido' e, como resultado, esse 'salto' foi quase a causa de ela nunca mais voar. O jovem piloto tolo fez tudo que nenhum piloto são faria com um passageiro em seu primeiro vôo. Ele fez um loop - ele rolou - ele desceu em espiral a uma grande velocidade e depois subiu novamente no último minuto. A pobre Marjorie, após o pouso, declarou que nunca mais queria subir de avião. Seus joelhos estavam fracos e vacilantes e seu estômago parecia ter mudado de posição. Que introdução horrível ao vôo!

Major Marjorie Egerton Bird

No entanto, o instrutor-chefe tinha visto seu desempenho e, após admoestar adequadamente o piloto, insistiu para que Marjorie subisse com ele meia hora depois, pois estava determinado que ela deveria ter uma ideia melhor de voar - ele tinha visto a empolgação em seus olhos como ela havia se preparado para aquele primeiro 'salto!' Portanto, agora Marjorie tinha outra chance, e ela percebeu que isso era ainda melhor do que dirigir um carro. Ela aproveitou cada minuto do vôo e foi eternamente grata ao jovem instrutor-chefe. Mal sabia o instrutor da integridade e determinação da pequena senhora ao lado dele - e até que ponto ela deveria ir para melhorar o caminho para as futuras mulheres pilotos e também o tremendo papel que ela desempenharia no esforço de guerra de 1939- 1945. Logo após seu primeiro voo, Marjorie recebeu um pequeno legado de uma tia - e agora todos os seus sonhos poderiam se tornar realidade. Ela começou um treinamento de vôo sério, a um custo de 3 (R6) por hora, eventualmente se tornando a orgulhosa proprietária de sua licença de piloto 'A'. Na verdade, ela obteve sua licença três horas após seu primeiro vôo solo e, depois de mais uma hora, estava competindo com 22 homens na Corrida de Vôo do Aero Club Round the Reef, na qual foi colocada na quarta posição. Sua licença foi endossada para vários tipos diferentes de aeronaves nos quais ela foi treinada por Doreen Hooper. Sua licença também lhe deu direito a passageiros de piloto. Custou a Marjorie 70 (R140) para obter a licença 'A'. Quando ela se qualificou, em 1937, ela se tornou uma das dez mulheres na União da África do Sul a possuir uma licença de piloto 'A'.

ASSOCIAÇÃO DE AVIAÇÃO DE MULHERES DA ÁFRICA DO SUL: NASCE UMA IDEIA

Miss Egerton Bird relata sua primeira concepção de treinamento de vôo extensivo para mulheres, que culminou na Associação de Aviação Feminina da África do Sul:
'Um dia, não muito depois de tirar minha licença' A ', saí cedo para voar no Rand Flying Club. Depois de algumas palavras animadoras para meu instrutor, subi na cabine de minha máquina e finalmente taxiei para a pista do aeródromo e voei para o azul. Foi muito bonito e um pensamento me veio - gostaria que mais mulheres pudessem ter a oportunidade de ver uma beleza como esta. Ao inclinar-me para virar para Germiston, vi outro avião pilotado por um homem, um aluno do esquema do governo e outro pensamento passou pela minha mente: "Por Deus, há algo muito errado aqui - estou voando a um custo de 3 por hora e este homem não está voando por NADA! " Estando completamente dominado por essa observação, decidi que algo deveria ser feito para ajudar as mulheres e, de alguma forma, proporcionar voos mais baratos para elas.

Eu voei, com o acelerador totalmente aberto, para Germiston, circulei o aeródromo, fiz uma aterrissagem incrível e taxiei de volta para o Rand Flying Club, saltei da minha máquina, procurei meu instrutor e disse-lhe que tentaria obter voar mais barato para as mulheres.
Ele me lançou um olhar de espanto e depois caiu na gargalhada! Quando ele se recuperou disso, ele disse: "Minha querida Srta. Bird, se você viver até os 90, nunca começará nada para reduzir as taxas de voos para as mulheres - e mesmo que por um milagre você fizesse, o que diabos elas poderiam fazer? O ar seria tão inseguro quanto as estradas. " Eu ri e disse: "Bem, espere para ver." Fui procurar o secretário do clube, que também gostou muito da ideia.

Com o passar dos dias, entrei em contato com amigos interessados ​​em voar e então, um dia, conversando com a Srta. Joan Blake, resolvemos levantar uma petição e encaminhá-la ao Governo para perguntar se algo poderia ser feito sobre voos mais baratos para mulheres. Isso foi feito e uma petição assinada por 150 mulheres interessadas em voar foi enviada ao Excelentíssimo Senhor Oswald Pirow, então Ministro da Defesa. Ele prometeu levar o assunto em consideração. The petition was duly acknowledged and the reply stated that, "Perhaps after the first thousand men pupil pilots were trained then something might be done for women."
The training of a thousand pupil pilots would take approximately two years. This answer was most discouraging. So again I went forth and this time I got in touch with Miss Doreen Hooper, who was a flying instructress and a girl I was very proud to know. She had proved that women were capable of functions outside their traditional roles, and she promised to give us every atom of help she could.

The response was immediate. A meeting of six women interested in the concept was called. The six involved were: Miss Doreen Hooper, Miss Joan Blake, Miss Elaine Percival-Hart, Miss Sylvia Starfield, Mrs Toy Celliers and myself. The meeting convened in Miss Hooper's flat. Over many cups of tea, and much discussion, we decided to form a committee, placing Miss Hooper in the chair. Joan Blake was made the treasurer and I the secretary, the remaining three being members of the committee.

We decided to ask Mrs Deneys Reitz, who was the Member of Parliament for Parktown, if she would take the chair at a meeting to be called later at the Wanderers' Club. Mrs Reitz consented and appeared very interested in the idea. We advertised this meeting in the press, expecting about 50 women to appear. In actual fact, when the meeting was held on the evening of 5 December 1939, we found the hall packed to overflowing 110 women having enrolled for the evening. Everybody was most enthusiastic, and it was decided that we wauld call ourselves the South African Women's Aviation Association (SAWAA). Mrs Bertha Solomon, Member of Parliament for Hillbrow, was also at the meeting, and she and Mrs Reitz and the committee of six were thrilled with the support which the idea was obviously receiving.

Now we had to decide what to do with these 110 women. At last an opening was made when Mr Haswell, Secretary of the Rand Flying Club, who had been approached, gave us the idea of forming a unit of 32 women. He offered to have eight girls every weekend at the Rand Flying Club. He realized that these girls were all keen to do any work given to them, as long as they could learn about planes and flying. Soon after this other Flying Clubs followed suit, and before six months has passed, the 110 members were split into units of 32, working during weekends learning how to handle aeroplanes and everything appertaining to aircraft. As the secretary of the SAWAA, I was receiving letters from all over the Union of South Africa asking for advice as to how to start women's aviation associations in their particular areas. At the end of one year, branches had been formed throughout the Union of South Africa, and the SAWAA possessed between 3 000 and 4 000 members. Each branch was collecting money to give bursaries to any of their members who showed an aptitude for flying.'

  1. To release men from civil aviation in time of National Emergency.
  2. Ferrying and transport work.
  3. Ambulance work.
  4. Flying mail and despatches, and all normal civil aviation work.
  5. Charter work, urgent medical work, etc.
  6. Instructing.
  7. Technical work.

The rapidity with which the idea spread may be deduced from the fact that when, in February 1939, the women of the East Rand had formed their own branch of the SAWAA, in less than one week 100 women had joined in one town - Benoni. The first parade of a Flight of 32 members of the SAWAA was held at the Rand Flying Club, Germiston, on 6 March 1939. In the February of 1940 the SAWAA achieved another 'first'. Six of its members flew over Johannesburg in formation flight. Marjorie was one of the pilots, and this was the first time in the world that women had flown in formation flight.
The need for the SAWAA may be deduced from the fact that, in 1939, there were only 600 licensed civilian pilots in the Union, compared with approximately 30 000 in England, France and Germany and 60 000 in America.

THE FOUNDATION OF THE WOMEN'S AUXILIARY AIR SERVICE

The gathering of war clouds led to a certain change of emphasis in the functions of the SAWAA. The idea of cheaper flying for women was rather overshadowed by the new concept that its members could also be useful in the workshops as well as other work appertaining to aviation, and thereby release men for more important roles at the war front. Consequently, instruction in first aid, fire-fighting, alarms, clerical and administrative work was provided, in accordance with this new emphasis. Military drill was also taught - not without amusement in the opening stages, in which officers had to learn the necessary commands to relay to the novices.
When the Second World War broke out on 3 September 1939, the Association sent a telegram to General Smuts which stated: 'The Women's Aviation Association offers its services to the Govenment.' It was a few months before the offer was accepted. On 24 May 1940, at a parade of the SAWAA, a message was received from the Chief of Staff, General Sir Pierre van Ryneveld, which read, 'I and the Air Force need you, and need you badly.'

On 10 June 1940, the following notice appeared in the 'Government Gazette':

WOMEN'S AUXILIARY AIR FORCE
WOMEN'S AUXILIARY ARMY SERVICE REGULATIONS

  1. There is hereby established a Women's Auxiliary Air Force which shall be associated with and shall act in co-operation with, the South African Air Force.
  2. There is hereby established a Women's Auxiliary Army Service.
  3. The conditions of appointment to and duty in either of the organisations mentioned in Regulations 1 and 2 and all other matters appertaining thereto, shall be as prescribed by further regulation.

Lt Col (Mrs) Doreen Dunning. Portrait by Neville Lewis (1941)

On 1 June 1940, Doreen Hooper was the first woman in South Africa to be called upon to volunteer for full time war service. She was at that time 22 years of age, and entered the WAAFs with the rank of Major, being then known as Major Dunning. Marjorie Egerton Bird was the second woman to be called up ten days later, and then Miss E. Percival-Hart, both with the rank of Captain. Twenty-eight days later 100 girls from the SAWAA volunteered and were accommodated in military camps in Pretoria. Five months later there were 800 WAAFs proudly wearing the orange flash. *[Editors' note: Those who had volunteered for overseas service] The vital role which the SAWAA had played in providing an essential basis for the WAAF was recognized in the re-designation of the SAWAA. On 10 October 1939 Miss Bird announced that she had learnt from Col J. Holthouse, Director General of Air Services, that the Association was henceforth to be recognized as an air auxiliary unit of the South African Air Force, and that the official name of the Association would, therefore, henceforth be 'The South African Womens' Voluntary Auxiliary Air Unit of the South African Air Force.'

THE ROLE OF THE WAAF IN WORLD WAR II

During the Second World War there were some 10 000 WAAFs at one time. They performed in all some 75 different types of work. The military authorities called with increasing frequency on the services of the WAAFs and every one of them was determined that when the call came they would be fully trained and prepared.

In December 1940 the first detachment of WAAFs were sent 'up North' with Miss Muriel Horell in charge. They went to Mombasa in a troopship and from there by train to Nairobi, where a camp was established in a grey stone building rather like a castle. Soon this became too small to hold all the WAAF girls, and they moved to another camp of wooden huts.
In September 1940 the WAAF was sent to the Middle East, where their headquarters were in an hotel in Cairo.

The range of WAAF activities during World War II may be gauged from the following summary of the Service's functions:
Artisans Metal workers, welders, wood workers, doping**, fabric work, fitters and turners, inspectors, all mechanical work.
[**Editors' note: 'Doping' refers to the impregnation of materials with chemicals in order to prevent deterioration (e.g. on aircraft wings and parachutes)]
Armament Instructors Qualified officers, who lectured at WAAF stations.
Administrative and Camp Staff Organization of discipline, stores, clerical (i.e., work in registry, records and filing general office duties.)
Cooks and Caterers Camp staff. One fully qualified dietician.
Communication Pilots Officers with 'B' licences, used in the Communications Squadron of the WAAF.
Despatch Riders Carrying communications from one station to another.
Hygiene - Aerodromes Details (trained) working on SAAF stations.
Intelligence Used on Signals Staff. Generally girls who spoke four or five languages.
Link Trainer Instructors 'A' licence WAAF pilots (with approx. 100 hours) trained to instruct on the Link Trainer.
Motor Transport Details used as heavy transport, lorry drivers and also light transport drivers (e.g., cars and light vans).
Meteorological Assistants and Observers
Fotógrafos Work at developing and printing, etc.
Parachute Packers Fully qualified details who packed parachutes and supplied parachutes. Some were instructors.
P.T. Instructors Trained officers who were responsible for all P.T. Instruction at the WAAF camps.
Shorthand Typists Used as private secretaries and for general shorthand/typing in SAAF offices.
Stores Used in air stores and 'Q' stores. *** [*** Editors' note: 'Q' stores refer to items of personal equipment]
Wireless Operators Used on SAAF stations. Fully trained at SAAF radio signals.

The WAAF's activities with regard to communication pilots and Link Trainer instructors point to the role of women pilots in wartime, and it is apposite to expand upon this role.

WOMEN PILOTS WITH THE WAAF

There were 36 'A' licence pilots in the WAAF in 1941, and the following concerns a few of them.
Best known was Doreen Dunning (better remembered as Doreen Hooper). At the outbreak of war she had more than 2 000 flying hours to her credit. At the incredibly early age of 24 she was the youngest officer in the British Commonwealth to attain the rank she held. Fair haired and blue eyed, she had a quiet, forceful personality combined with outstanding ability and tact which made her eminently suitable for the responsible administrative post that she held.
She took her 'A' flying licence at the age of 18. A year later she qualified as an instructor. Before passing her 'B' licence, she took second place in the Union's first air race when pilots competed for the Governor General's Cup over the Vereeniging-Durban- Vereeniging route.

Marjorie Egerton Bird was second-in-command of the WAAFs, and her early background has been discussed above.

The Assistant Deputy Director of the WAAF, Miss Elaine Percival-Hart, was also a pilot. She had her first lessons in 1928 from Dick Bentley who flew out from England in a 'Moth'. Miss Hart got her 'A' licence in 1936, had a passenger endorsement and had many hours flying, with Doreen Dunning as instructor.

Two women who were well known in South African aviation were Miss Rosamund Everard (in private life Mrs Steenkamp) and Miss Sybil Starfield. Rosamund Steenkamp was the first woman in the world to pilot a jet aircraft in Britain's Air Transport Auxiliary Service (ATAS) (whilst still holding the rank of Captain in the SAWAAF). In August 1945 she flew a Meteor Mark III, the type which regained the world's air speed record for Britain with a speed of 606mph (975 kph). She was killed in a flying accident at Littlewick Green, 5 km west of Maidenhead, in Berkshire, England. There was low cloud at the time, and the Spitfire that she was piloting crashed into a hill. She was at that time 33 years old and had over 4 000 flying hours to her credit. She was attached to the Communications Squadron of the WAAF, which ferried important officials to various military centres. Membership of this particular unit was one of the most envied and coveted jobs in the WAAF.

Rosamund Steenkamp. This photograph was taken when Capt Steenkamp was an instructor at the Witwatersdrand Technical College. She was killed in 1946.

Miss Sybil Starfield was one of the founder members of the SAWAAF in 1938 - one of the original six, in actual fact. She was a qualified pilot and for some years a leading figure in women's aviation circles within South Africa. She played a prominent part in recruiting campaigns for the unit, travelling to all the principal centres of the country. Most tragically, in September 1944 the news was cabled that Captain Starfield was missing at sea presumed drowned, as a result of a torpedo action against her ship whilst she was en route to England. She had sailed from South Africa in June 1944, having been seconded to the ATAS.

Another well known personality was Miss Rhenia Slabbert of Kroonstad, who, like Rosamund Everard, was attached to the Communication Squadron of the WAAF.

In 1942 a major re-organization occurred within the WAAF. This re-organization consisted of the amalgamation of all administrative work with the SAAF administrative functions. The fundamental reason for this rationalization of functions was that the WAAF was maintaining a very large WAAF directorate, and most of the work was being duplicated by the SAAF sections. The merger with SAAF administrative duties was therefore dictated by the necessity of saving overlapping and duplicated staff. The directorate remained, but with only a few senior officers serving within it, their function being to direct the policy of the WAAF organization and to maintain a watch over the general welfare and well-being of all the WAAFs on full-time service.

RESIGNATION OF LT COL DUNNING: REPERCUSSIONS

The resignation of a senior officer in the WAAF provided the occasion for a manifestation of Gen Smuts's great courtesy. In October 1943 Lt Col Dunning resigned on a point of principle affecting her work. Maj Muriel Horrell took over her duties as senior officer responsible to Air Headquarters.
After Lt Col Dunning had telegraphed the news of her resignation to Maj Egerton Bird, then stationed in Port Elizabeth, the latter was stunned and flew to Pretoria to interview Gen Smuts. Maj Bird informed Gen Smuts that she was convinced that there must be some mistake.

A short while after the interview Gen Smuts had an apology to Lt Col Dunning inserted in the press, which read as follows:- 'I find that I owe you my amends for a statement I made in Parliament last session in connection with questions put to me about your resignation from the Defence Force. I then said that you had resigned without permission and that I would not have tolerated this in the case of a male officer. My attention has since been drawn to the statement as being incorrect and unfair to you. I have, therefore, made enquiries and have been informed by the Adjutant General that you did ask for permission and were given leave to resign. I can but express to you my regret about a statement that was made inadvertently, and under a mistaken impression of the facts. I thought too highly of your services to have intentionally cast any reflection on you.
My only feeling was probably one of regret and annoyance that such good service should have been terminated without previous consultation with me. Please accept my assurance that in my own mind there remains nothing but regret at your leaving us and gratitude for the part you took in a movement for women's service which led to fruitful and far-reaching results.
I am giving a copy of this letter to the Press to remove any wrong impression my remarks in Parliament may have made unintentionally.' There can surely be few instances of a head of state publicly apologizing to a member of the armed forces, especially in war-time.

Maj Egerton Bird was placed in charge of the Women's Dispersal Section of the Directorate of Demobilization. By the end of December 1945 1 955 women had been demobilized. In January 1946 alone, 626 women had been through the dispersal camps. In her new role, Maj Egerton Bird was responsible for the demobilization. of former members of the:
WAAF (Women's Auxiliary Air Force)
WAAS (Women's Auxiliary Army Service)
WAMP (Women's Auxiliary Military Police)
SWANS (South African Women's Naval Service)
SAMNS (South African Military Nursing Service)

Extensive assistance was provided to enable women to overcome the profound transition from war to peace. This help consisted of:- grants for educational and vocational training vocational guidance officers who assisted women to choose training suitable to their capabilities the provision of courses, both full-time and part-time (two of the most popular were shorthand-typing and nursing) demobilization readjustment officers, who assisted women who were not physically or mentally fit schemes for sheltered employment for women, which were put into operation when the need arose assistance for those exservice women who wished to establish businesses (including the establishment of guest farms). Perhaps the greatest problems confronted those women who had been trained as artisans during the War as there were not sufficient factories in the country to absorb all these girls. All the discharge benefits available to men were also provided for those women with equivalent service. The Headquarters of the entire operation was in Pretoria, and the Director of demobilization was Maj Gen (later Lt Gen) Geo E. Brink, CB, CBE, DSO.

Editors' Note: There can be few service institutions which owe so much to the tenacity and enterprise - initially within a hostile environment - of a handful of individuals as the WAAF. When one considers that the South African Women's Aviation Association (or Women's Civil Air Guard) held its inaugural meeting on 5 December 1938, and its first flight at the Rand Flying Club, Germiston, on 6 March 1939, and when one then considers the role and size of the WAAF during World War II, its development compares most favourably with that of the Royal Air Force (which, as an independent organization, pre-dated the SAWAA by some 21 years and which, moreover, had extremely influential personalities guiding its development, including Gen Smuts). Throughout the WAAF's development - from its origins in the SAWAA to demobilization in 1945 - certain personalities recur as dominating forces, moulding and directing its purpose Maj Marjorie Egerton Bird, Lt Col Doreen Dunning (Hooper), Capt Sybil Starfield, Maj Elaine Percival-Hart, and others. Indeed, this powerful theme of continuity had its distinctly tragic overtones in so far as Capt Starfield died in the service of women's aviation. It bears emphasis that the WAAF's role included duties which were far from sedentary Rosamund Steenkamp was the first woman to pilot a jet aircraft and, indeed, was killed whilst on flying operations. In a major respect, the efforts of Maj Egerton Bird and her founder-colleagues of the WAAF (as it ultimately became) anticipate by some three decades the struggle for women's equality which has been such a prominent feature of contemporary social history.


Today in World War II History—June 5, 1940 & 1945

80 Years Ago—June 5, 1940: Battle of France begins: Germans launch offensive south in France.

Britain announces new emergency measures: strikes banned, holidays discouraged, and miners and farmers are not to leave jobs without government permission.

Battleship USS Indiana in a typhoon near Okinawa, 5 Jun 1945 (US National Archives: 80-G-342732)

75 Years Ago—June 5, 1945: Allied Control Council meets, agreeing on the partition of Germany and Berlin into four occupation zones (British, American, French, Soviet).


5 June 1945 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956
(1959)

Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority by the Allied Powers, June 5, 1945, pp. 13-18 PDF (2.3 MB)

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D-Day Facts

Definition and Summary of D-Day
Summary and Definition: D-Day in WW2 began at 6:30am on 6 June, 1944 when American, British and Canadian troops landed on the beaches of Normandy to liberate France, and the rest of North West Europe, from German occupation. The codename for the WW2 invasion of France was Operation Overlord, which would become known as D-Day. The 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast chosen for the Allied invasion was divided into five sectors codenamed Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Omaha Beach. By the end of D-Day, 156,000 soldiers landed on the Normandy beaches with more than 10,000 Allied casualties killed, wounded or missing.

D-Day Facts
Franklin Roosevelt was the 32nd American President who served in office from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945, the day of his death. One of the important events during his presidency was the D-Day Normandy landings.

US Troops approaching Omaha Beach, Normandy on D-Day

D-Day Facts: Fast Fact Sheet
Fast, fun facts and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) about D-Day.

What date was D-Day? The date of D-Day and the WW2 Allied landings in Normandy was on 6 June 1944.

Where were the D-Day landings? The location of the D-Day landings was the coastline of Normandy in northern France

What were the D-Day Beaches?
The D-Day Beaches were the fives sections of the Normandy coast chosen for the landings. Their codenames were Omaha Beach, Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Juno Beach, and Gold Beach

What were the D-Day casualties?
There were 10,000 Allied casualties killed, wounded or missing on D-Day. Casualties at each beach were as follows: Utah 589, Omaha 3,686, Gold 1,023, Juno 1,242, Sword 1,304. The total German casualties on D-Day are unknown, but are estimated as being between 4,000-9,000 men.

Who participated in D-Day invasion?
The majority of troops who landed on the D-Day beaches were from the United States, Britain, and Canada however, troops from many other countries including Australia, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway and Poland also participated.

Why was it called D-Day and what does it stand for?
The term 'D-Day' is one of the most famous used in WW2, but what does it mean and what did it stand for. 'D-Day' is a piece of military vocabulary used, when secrecy was essential, to designate the day and hour on which a military operation or exercise was planned to commence when the exact had not yet been determined. An example of this was used during WW1 when Field Order No. 8 from the First Army of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) dated September 7, 1918 read, ". the First Army will attack at H-Hour on D-Day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel salient." The term ' D-Day' is now used almost exclusively in reference to June 6, 1944 which marked the beginning of the Allied invasion of France

Use of the D-Day Military Term
The choice of the letter D has no significance other than that of an unknown date of military significance - it did not stand for doomsday, designated, decision, disembarkation, or death day! Its use was to provide a point of reference from which all other dates could be reckoned. For example, D-Day [minus] 1 would be the day before an operation commenced. D-Day [plus] 1 would be the second day of the operation. This allowed for a military plan to be worked out in advance, even though the actual date of D-Day might remain undecided.

What was Operation Overlord?
Plans for the Allied invasion of France, D-Day, were made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at a conference in Tehran. The codename for the invasion was 'Operation Overlord'. FDR appointed a command team led by US General Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1943 to plan the air, naval and land operations. Operation Overlord was top secret and included the development of Deception campaigns to draw German attention and strength away from Normandy to other parts of France. Hitler had fortified the coast of occupied France and the Allies only advantage was the element of surprise - the Germans did not know where or when the Allies would land. The German High Command were skeptical of an attack on the Normandy coast due to lack of harboring.

What was Operation Fortitude?
The planners of Operation Overlord and D-Day needed to convince the Germans that Pas-de-Calais, the area of France closest to Britain, was the target for the Allied invasion of occupied France. Operation Fortitude was the code name given to the Allied military deception plan to fool the Germans into believing that the invasion of Europe on D-Day would occur at Pas-de-Calais, rather than in Normandy. The Operation Fortitude deception campaign included placing decoys such as inflated rubber tanks, dummy aircrafts, dummy landing craft, dummy parachutists and empty tents along the British coast opposite Calais. The decoys all looked genuine to the German spy planes who flew over the area and helped to mislead the enemy on the Allies true intention for D-Day.

D-Day Facts for kids
The following fact sheet contains interesting information, history and facts on D-Day for kids.

D-Day Facts - 1: The Germans, under the command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, had built defenses right along the north coast of France and beyond, referred to as the Atlantic Wall. The Atlantic Wall consisted of barbed wire, thousands of pillboxes, gun placements and bunkers. Over six million mines had been buried along the beaches of the 'Atlantic Wall'.

D-Day Facts - 2: Operation Overlord needed complex and comprehensive planning. The location of the Allied invasion required firm, flat beaches in close proximity to the warplanes based in England together with easy access to roads to move the invasion force further inland after the initial landings. Five beaches in Normandy met the criteria and the destination of the D-Day landings was selected.

D-Day Facts - 3: Over 1.5 million American troops together with US airplanes, arms and equipment were sent to England in preparation for the invasion of Normandy and D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 4: The 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast chosen for the invasion was divided into five sectors codenamed Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Juno Beach, Gold Beach and Omaha Beach.

D-Day Facts - 5: New technology was developed during WW2 to help troops and vehicles land by sea and used on D-Day. The British invented the 'Mulberry harbor' enabling the Allies to land troops, vehicles and equipment on French soil without having to capture a port first. New tanks, called "Funnies" were designed to assist in the invasion of occupied France.

D-Day Facts - 6: The 'mulberries' were concrete pre-fabricated makeshift harbors with mile long piers and landing ramps that were towed across the English Channel in pieces and put into place on the Normandy beaches.

D-Day Facts - 7: The D-D (Duplex Drive) tank, the 'swimming' Sherman, had a propeller enabling it to travel on the sea as well as land. The 'Bobbin' carpet layer tank was an AVRE adapted to lay reinforced matting on soft beach surfaces allowing armored vehicles to drive across difficult terrain and without sinking on the beach.

D-Day Facts - 8: The front of the Crab tank was fitted with revolving steel chains to detonate the German mines and clear the barbed wire. The terrifying 'Crocodile' tanks had napalm flame throwers that could shoot fire at the enemy. The 'Kangaroo' APC tank was used for the rapid transport of infantry increasing the mobility and providing some protection for the troops.

D-Day Facts - 9: The planners of Operation Overlord and D-Day needed to time the Normandy invasion to coincide with a moonlit night, a low tide and good weather. The Allied ships had to arrive at low tide in order to see beach obstacles and the gunners on the ships attacking the coastline also required a low tide Moonlight was needed so that the paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines could see where to land.

D-Day Facts - 10: There were only a few days in June when the required conditions for the Normandy invasion and D-Day would apply: from June 5 - June 7. On June 5 the weather was bad with strong winds, high waves and low clouds making the invasion impossible.

Facts about the D-Day Facts for kids
The following fact sheet continues with interesting information, history and facts on D-Day for kids.

D-Day Facts - 11: Weather forecasts for June 6 indicated a brief improvement and, although conditions were far from perfect, General Eisenhower made the decision to launch the D-Day invasion

D-Day Facts - 12: On June 6, 1944 nearly 7000 ships carried an estimated 156,000 Allied soldiers to the Normandy beaches on D-Day, the majority of them were American, British and Canadian.

D-Day Facts - 13: The D-Day invasion began whilst it was still dark to hide the ships crossing the English Channel towards Normandy.

D-Day Facts - 14: 11,590 Allied aircraft supported the D-Day landings flying 14,674 sorties of which 127 planes were lost. The Allied airmen targeted German bunkers, radar sites and bridges.

D-Day Facts - 15: Huge naval forces consisting of 6,939 vessels with 195,700 Navy personnel participated in the D-Day assault including 52,889 US ships, 112,824 British ships, and 4,988 vessels from other Allied countries bombarded Normandy with thousands of shells..

D-Day Facts - 16: The three miles wide Utah Beach was westernmost of the five landing beaches and vital for the early capture of the vital port of Cherbourg. The D-Day landing was made by the US 4th Infantry Division and an airborne drop by the US 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. 20,000 men were landed Utah Beach with 1,700 military vehicles. Casualties were less than 300 men.

D-Day Facts - 17: The 5 mile stretch of Sword Beach was the furthest east of the five beaches targeted for D-Day, located about 9 miles to the north-east of the vital city of Caen. The D-Day landing was made by units of the British 3rd Division together with French and British commandos. 29,000 men landed with 630 casualties.

D-Day Facts - 18: Juno Beach was the second beach from the east among the five landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of WW2 and assaulted by units of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division. The Canadians suffered 1,200 casualties out of 21,400 troops who landed at Juno Beach.

D-Day Facts - 19: The 5 mile wide Gold Beach was the centre beach of the 5 landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of WW2 and taken by units of the British 50th Infantry Division on D-Day. The British suffered 400 casualties out of 25,000 troops who landed at Gold Beach.

D-Day Facts - 20: The 6 mile wide Omaha Beach, between Utah and Gold, was the largest of all the beaches and assaulted by the U.S. 29th and 1st infantry divisions led by Omar Bradley. The Americans suffered 2,400 casualties out of 34,000 troops who landed at Omaha Beach on D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 21: The Normandy landings at Omaha Beach on D-Day resulted in the greatest number of casualties during the D-Day offensive. Many the soldiers were drowned during the approach from ships offshore before they even reached Omaha Beach.

D-Day Facts - 22: The Omaha Beach troops were without armored support as most of the DD (Duplex Drive) 'swimming' tanks had foundered in the heavy swell of the sea.

D-Day Facts - 23: The Omaha troops were surrounded by great cliffs and faced heavy enemy fire from a German fortress on top of the cliffs at Pointe de Hoc and from German trenches and guns built into the bluffs.

D-Day Facts - 24: Many of the Omaha troops were mown down as soon as the doors of the landing crafts opened. Those who survived had to cross 300 yards littered with man-made booby traps. The landing crafts were forced together and the large groups of Americans storming Omaha Beach made easy targets. Despite the carnage the Americans took Omaha Beach on D-Day and began to fight their way inland.

D-Day Facts - 25: The Allied troops took all five of the beaches during D-Day. The Allied invasion of Normandy had been successful.

D-Day Facts - 26: For the D-Day invasion all Allied aircraft had black and white stripes painted on the underside of their wings for easy identification. Likewise, all military vehicles had a white star in a white circle painted on them, regardless of nationality.

D-Day Facts - 27: The French Resistance begin to sabotage the German response to the Normandy invasion on D-Day, by blowing up telephone exchanges and railway lines.

D-Day Facts - 28: All D-Day troops were given 'clickers' as a means of identification in the dark, regardless of language. A click indicated a 'friendly' response - no such response indicated the enemy.

D-Day Facts - 29: By 11 June, 1944 (D-Day + 5), 326,547 troops, 54,186 vehicles and 104,428 tons of supplies had been landed on the Normandy beaches.

D-Day Facts - 30: The "Battle of Normandy" lasted from June 6, 1944 September 1, 1944 and including Operation Overlord (June 6, 1944 August 25, 1944) and Operation Cobra, the breakout from Normandy. Over 425,000 Allied and German troops were killed, wounded or went missing in the "Battle of Normandy".

D-Day Facts - 31: The 1962 movie 'The Longest Day', starring John Wayne, Robert Ryan and Richard Burton, is based on the 1959 book by Cornelius Ryan, tells the story of the WW2 Normandy landings on June 6, 1944 - D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 32: Other notable WW2 movies about the Normandy Invasion and D-Day include Saving Private Ryan (1998 movie), The Americanization of Emily (1964 movie), Overlord (1975 movie), The Big Red One (1980 movie), Ike: Countdown to D-Day (2004 movie) and Red Ball Express (1952 movie)

Facts about D-Day for kids
For visitors interested in the important US battles in WW2 refer to the following articles:


June 22, 1941 – Hitler Calls off Invasion of Soviet Union

Upon the receipt of confirmed espionage of the military preparedness of the Soviet Union, German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler gave the last-minute order scrubbing his intended invasion. Knowledge of Stalin's military buildup was well known, but the exact numbers were suddenly daunting. As seen by Hitler then and later calculated upon declassified documents by state historian Mikhail Meltyukhov in his work, Stalin's Gift, Russians outnumbered the Germans and their allies 1.4-to-1 in infantry and artillery, 2.6-to-1 in aircraft, and stunningly more than 3.8-to-1 in tanks. Hitler had surprise on his side as Stalin, despite the advice of several spies who had given him the exact date of invasion, believed Hitler would hold longer than two years to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and wait until he finished war with Britain. Hitler had already postponed the intended Operation Barbarossa several weeks from its initial deadline in May due to logistical problems, and now he knew certainly he was too late.

Germany and the Soviet Union seemed doomed to fight each other, however. Stalin addressed military academy graduates with, “War with Germany is inevitable,” just weeks before the intended invasion. Both nations were diametrically opposed with policies in Hitler's fascism and Stalin's communism. Both were hopeful for expansion as Hitler called for “elbow room” and Stalin worked to rebuild the Russian Empire, such as dominating Finland in the 1939-40 Winter War. Because Stalin understood Hitler's need for oil to fuel his power would bring him to Baku, the Soviet leader began programs to expand the Russian military by leaps. From '39 to '41, he more than doubled the size of the army and especially built aircraft, which increased from 7,700 to 18,700.

As Hitler and his staff reviewed the numbers, he knew that Germany would be unable to maintain the blitzkrieg he had used successfully against Poland and France without control of the air and against numerically superior tanks, with Russian heavy tanks even arguably superior to Panzers one-on-one. Finally Hitler realized that the Russians were simply too powerful by weight and determined that he would need new kinds of weapons to fight, redoubling his already heavy investment in research and development for rockets, atomic bombs, and more. He let continue the lie that his massing troops on the border with the Soviet Union was keeping them away from attacks by Britain and eventually recalled them for Operation Sea Lion, which had been postponed indefinitely since September, 1940.

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought Britain's near-ally America into the war fully that December. With American resources turned toward the Pacific, Hitler's invasion of Britain began, which quickly turned into a quagmire of resistance and sabotage of nearly every public work. Although Hitler held Western Europe for several years, the Allied counter-attack through Africa enabled Britain to be liberated by the D-Day landing at Devon, June 6, 1944.

In early 1945, with Hitler reeling despite some Soviet support Stalin made good on his original strategy of waiting. Called the “Icebreaker” theory by exiled historian Viktor Suvorov, Russia swept in as liberators across Europe, meeting with American and British allies as they took Berlin and continued toward the Western Front, spreading as far as France and Italy. Churchill and Roosevelt encouraged Russia to relinquish their control of Europe as soon as order could be maintained, but Stalin decided to stay. As war with Japan ended with the new A-bomb, political stakes were raised with the Americans holding a powerful card, but Russia practically fresh for a fight.

War-weary President Truman decided to leave the Russians in Europe, establishing doctrine that would work just to keep the Soviets from expanding further. This, too, would prove a blunder of waiting as the Russians would use captured German scientists, now pampered celebrities outside Moscow, to surpass the atomic bomb with an H-bomb and rocketry capable of intercontinental delivery by the 1950s. An Iron Curtain fell from East France to North Italy and across the Soviet Balkans that looked to expand through the Middle East, Africa, even Latin America, and absorb Chinese Communism into the Soviet-led World Community. Any opposition to the world superpower had to be covert, such as escapes across the Swiss border and arming of Afghan guerillas, as no nation could stand against Stalin's legacy until it eventually collapsed into corruption and civil war.

In reality, Operation Barbarossa proceeded. With army strengths of more than seven million, Hitler and Stalin fought bitterly over Eastern Europe for months until the Germans were finally stopped and held by sheer numbers. Eventually, the tide would favor the Russians, who would come to take much of Eastern Europe under their influence after World War II and hold it until the wave of independence movements in 1989.


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