Status simbólico do trono Mughal

Status simbólico do trono Mughal



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O poder Mughal começou a declinar após a morte de Aurangzeb.

30 anos após sua morte, os mogóis perderam a maior parte de suas posses no sul da Índia. Novos estados foram estabelecidos por 3 nobres principais, Sadat Ali Khan, Murshid ul Kuli Khan e Qamar ud Din Khan, mesmo quando o trono teve 8 governantes em 12 anos. Mas todos se declararam fiéis ao trono mogol, embora cada um individualmente fosse mais forte do que o trono de Delhi.

O Exército de Shahuji, sob tratado com os irmãos Sayyid, simplesmente entrou na capital Mughal e depôs Farrukhsiyar, o imperador governante. Mas o Tratado não tratava de repartir espólios. Shahuji, no tratado, concordou em aceitar o governo do trono mogol no Deccan e, em troca, foi garantido o swaraj, o autogoverno e os direitos à receita no mesmo Deccan mogol.

Os Marathas tinham o controle efetivo de mais de 70% do subcontinente indiano em 1758. Eles haviam saqueado Delhi várias vezes. O império Mughal, não foi um stakeholder, na dinâmica do poder em tudo.

Então por que eles foram mantidos no trono como governantes fantoches? Mesmo depois da Terceira Batalha de Panipat, Ahmed Durrani após a vitória, antes de partir para o Afeganistão, instalou Shah Alam II como imperador Mughal e emitiu um pedido de confirmação a todos os chefes indígenas, para reconhecê-lo como governante.

Em 1772, Mahadji escoltou o então deposto, e até cego Shah Alam II, de Allahabad a Delhi para coroá-lo como rei novamente. E então, ele conseguiu títulos reais no tribunal e governou o estado, em nome do imperador.

E muitos mais casos. Em 1857, sipaios do motim invadiram Délhi, e o imperador quase foi forçado a aceitar ser o líder do motim e, a partir daí, sipaios novamente o proclamaram imperador da Índia. A pergunta que tenho é: por que o trono de Mughal foi usado como um símbolo para governar na Índia. Por que não foi simplesmente abolido e acabou. Por que os poderes não governam em seu próprio nome? Por que o trono Mughal não foi simplesmente abolido há muito tempo e caiu no esquecimento?


Encontrei algo interessante. Este é Benoît de Boigne. Em 1783 ele teve uma audiência com o imperador em Delhi propondo a descoberta de novas rotas comerciais. Mas o imperador adiou qualquer decisão. No dia seguinte à audiência, um édito imperial deu a Mahadji Sindhia o governo das províncias de Delhi e Agra. Em outras palavras, Sindhia tornou-se o regente imperial e o verdadeiro poder, enquanto o Imperador Shah Alam, sem ser deposto, era agora apenas uma figura de proa. Em 1790, de Boigne resumiu a política indiana da época:

"O respeito pela casa de Timur [a dinastia Moghul] é tão forte que, embora todo o subcontinente tenha sido retirado de sua autoridade, nenhum príncipe da Índia assumiu o título de soberano. Sindhia compartilhava esse respeito, e Shah Alam [Shah Alam II] ainda estava sentado no trono Moghul, e tudo feito em seu nome. "

Estou mantendo o post aberto


Em uma palavra - prestígio; e, portanto, legitimidade.

É um sentimento semelhante que reviveu o Império Romano após sua dissolução, primeiro por Carlos Magno em 800 DC e depois uma tentativa abortada por Hitler (O terceiro Reich) no início do século XX.

Na política contemporânea, pode-se ver as tentativas de estabelecer o califado islâmico sob uma luz semelhante.


Atualmente, estou lendo a história da Índia de 800AD a 1500AD. O que descobri é que sempre que alguém se declara governante, outro se unirá para atacá-lo e derrubar a família do governante. É mais fácil governar em nome de algum governante fantoche distante e coletar receitas e não se preocupar com as atrocidades cometidas em nome do imperador.

São meus próprios pensamentos e não tenho nenhum artigo para apoiar isso.


Declínio do Império Mughal na Índia

A história da Índia, assim como do mundo, foi dividida em três períodos: antigo, medieval e moderno.

Acredita-se que a morte de Aurangzeb tenha marcado o início do período moderno. Essa história é vista como concluída com a conquista da independência em 1947.

É & # 8216moderno & # 8217 um termo adequado e aceitável para descrever este período da história?

Mesmo que possamos nos referir a diferentes períodos históricos, nos quais ocorreram mudanças e surgiram características distintivas, não podemos fixar datas precisas para qualquer período específico. Cada período nasceu do anterior. Mas, gradualmente, cada um desenvolveu suas próprias características distintas.

Fonte da imagem: c14608526.r26.cf2.rackcdn.com/A91D9F3E-BDD2-44A7-A1F1-6614AF4C11FD.jpg

A ideia do & # 8216moderno & # 8217 veio do Ocidente. Está associada ao desenvolvimento da ciência, razão, liberdade, igualdade e democracia. Se usarmos o termo & # 8216moderno & # 8217 para o período de domínio britânico na Índia, aceitamos que esses princípios foram introduzidos na Índia pelos britânicos.

Uma maneira alternativa, então, é caracterizar este período como o & # 8216colonial & # 8217. O estabelecimento e a disseminação do domínio britânico e a transformação que o acompanhou nos mundos político, econômico, social e cultural fazem parte desse domínio colonial.

Declínio dos Mughals:

O período dos Grandes Mogóis, que começou em 1526 com a ascensão de Babur ao trono, terminou com a morte de Aurangzeb em 1707. A morte de Aurangzeb aos anos 8217 marcou o fim de uma era na história indiana. Quando Aurangzeb morreu, o império dos Mughals era o maior da Índia. No entanto, cerca de cinquenta anos após sua morte, o Império Mughal se desintegrou.

A morte de Aurangzeb foi seguida por uma guerra de sucessão entre seus três filhos. Terminou com a vitória do irmão mais velho, o Príncipe Muazzam. O príncipe de 65 anos subiu ao trono com o nome de Bahadur Shah.

Bahadur Shah (1707 DC-1712 DC):

Bahadur Shah seguiu uma política de compromisso e conciliação e tentou conciliar os Rajputs, os Marathas, os Bundelas, os Jats e os Sikhs. Durante seu reinado, os Marathas e os Sikhs tornaram-se mais poderosos. Ele também teve que enfrentar a revolta dos Sikhs. Bahadur Shah morreu em 1712.

As guerras de sucessão, que eram uma característica regular entre os mogóis, tornaram-se mais agudas após a morte de Bahadur Shah. Isso era especialmente verdade porque os nobres haviam se tornado muito poderosos. Diferentes facções de nobres apoiavam pretendentes rivais ao trono para ocupar postos elevados.

Jahandar Shah (1712 DC-1713 DC):

Jahandar Shah, que sucedeu Bahadur Shah, era fraco e incompetente. Ele era controlado por nobres e só conseguiu governar por um ano.

Farrukhsiyar (1713 d.C.-1719 d.C.):

Farrukhsiyar subiu ao trono com a ajuda dos irmãos Sayyid, popularmente chamados de & # 8216king makers & # 8217. Ele era controlado pelos irmãos Sayyid, que eram a verdadeira autoridade por trás do poder Mughal. Quando ele tentou se libertar de seu controle, ele foi morto por eles.

Mohammad Shah (1719 d.C.-1748 d.C.):

Os Sayyids ajudaram Mohammad Shah, a ascender o neto de 18 anos de Bahadur Shah, ao trono. Aproveitando o fraco governo de Mohammad Shah e a rivalidade constante entre as várias facções da nobreza, alguns nobres poderosos e ambiciosos estabeleceram estados virtualmente independentes. Hyderabad, Bengal, Awadh e Rohilkhand ofereceram apenas lealdade nominal ao imperador mogol. O Império Mughal praticamente se desfez.

O longo reinado de Mohammad Shah de quase 30 anos (1719-1748 d.C.) foi a última chance de salvar o império. Quando seu reinado começou, o prestígio de Mughal entre o povo ainda era uma força política importante. Um governante forte poderia ter salvado a dinastia. Mas Mohammad Shah não estava à altura da tarefa. Ele negligenciou os assuntos do estado e nunca deu total apoio a wazirs capazes.

Nadir Shah e invasão # 8217s:

A condição da Índia com seus governantes incompetentes, administração fraca e fraco poderio militar atraiu invasores estrangeiros. Nadir Shah, o governante da Pérsia, atacou Punjab em 1739. Mohammad Shah foi facilmente derrotado e preso. Nadir Shah marchou em direção a Delhi. Nadir Shah foi um invasor feroz.

Ele massacrou milhares de pessoas em Delhi. Delhi pareceu deserta por dias. Mohammad Shah, no entanto, foi reintegrado ao trono. Nadir Shah carregou consigo o diamante Kohinoor e o trono do pavão de Shah Jahan. Ao saquear uma grande cidade como Delhi, ele obteve uma riqueza enorme.

A invasão do Nadir Shah & # 8217s deu um golpe esmagador no já vacilante Império Mughal e acelerou o processo de sua desintegração. O reino de Mohammad Shah & # 8217 estava praticamente confinado a Delhi e seus arredores. Ele morreu em 1748.

Mohammad Shah foi sucedido por vários governantes ineficientes Ahmad Shah (1748-1754), Alamgir II (1754-1759), Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Akbar II (1806-1837) e Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857 ) Durante o governo de Alamgir II, a Companhia das Índias Orientais lutou na Batalha de Plassey em 1757 e derrotou Siraj-ud-Daulah, o Nawab de Bengala. Assim, eles conseguiram um ponto de apoio em Bengala.

Em 1761, durante o reinado de Shah Alam II, Ahmad Shah Abdali, o governante independente do Afeganistão, invadiu a Índia. Ele conquistou Punjab e marchou em direção a Delhi. Nessa época, os Marathas haviam estendido sua influência até Delhi. Portanto, uma guerra entre os Marathas e Ahmad Shah Abdali era inevitável.

Na Terceira Batalha de Panipat, os Marathas foram completamente derrotados. Eles perderam milhares de soldados junto com seus excelentes generais. Eles foram forçados a recuar para o Deccan. A invasão de Ahmad Shah Abdali e # 8217 enfraqueceu ainda mais o Império Mughal.

O Shah Alam II concedeu o Dewani de Bengala, Bihar e Orissa à Companhia das Índias Orientais em 1765. Isso permitiu à Companhia coletar receitas dessas áreas. Também mostrou que a autoridade mogol foi reconhecida pelos governantes indianos. O domínio mogal chegou ao fim formalmente quando Bahadur Shah foi deposto e deportado para Rangoon pela Companhia das Índias Orientais (1757).

Causas do declínio do Império Mughal:

1. Guerras de sucessão:

Os Mughals não seguiram nenhuma lei de sucessão como a lei da primogenitura. Conseqüentemente, cada vez que um governante morria, uma guerra de sucessão entre os irmãos pelo trono começava. Isso enfraqueceu o Império Mughal, especialmente depois de Aurangzeb. Os nobres, ao se aliarem a um ou outro contendor, aumentaram seu próprio poder.

2. Políticas da Aurangzeb e # 8217s:

Aurangzeb não percebeu que o vasto Império Mughal dependia do apoio voluntário do povo. Ele perdeu o apoio dos Rajputs, que haviam contribuído muito para a força do Império. Eles agiram como pilares de apoio, mas a política de Aurangzeb & # 8217 os transformou em inimigos ferrenhos. As guerras com os Sikhs, os Marathas, os Jats e os Rajputs esgotaram os recursos do Império Mughal.

3. Fracos sucessores de Aurangzeb:

Os sucessores de Aurangzeb eram fracos e se tornaram vítimas das intrigas e conspirações dos nobres dominados pelas facções. Eles eram generais ineficientes e incapazes de reprimir revoltas. A ausência de um governante forte, uma burocracia eficiente e um exército capaz enfraqueceram o Império Mughal.

4. Tesouro vazio:

O zelo de Shah Jahan & # 8217s pela construção havia esgotado o tesouro. As longas guerras de Aurangzeb no sul haviam drenado ainda mais o tesouro.

5. Invasões:

As invasões estrangeiras minaram a força restante dos Mughals e aceleraram o processo de desintegração. As invasões de Nadir Shah e Ahmad Shah Abdali resultaram em maior drenagem de riqueza. Essas invasões abalaram a própria estabilidade do império.

6. Tamanho do Império e Desafio das Potências Regionais:

O Império Mughal havia se tornado grande demais para ser controlado por qualquer governante de um centro, ou seja, Delhi. Os grandes mogóis eram eficientes e exerciam controle sobre os ministros e o exército, mas os últimos mongóis eram administradores fracos. Como resultado, as províncias distantes tornaram-se independentes. O surgimento de estados independentes levou à desintegração do Império Mughal.

Os últimos governantes mogóis (1707 A.D.-1857 A.D.):

Ascensão dos estados independentes no século 18:

Com o declínio do Império Mughal, várias províncias se separaram do império e vários estados independentes passaram a existir.

Hyderabad:

O estado de Hyderabad foi fundado por Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi, que foi nomeado vice-rei do Deccan, com o título de Nizam-ul-Mulk, pelo imperador Farrukhsiyar em 1712. Ele estabeleceu um estado virtualmente independente, mas retornou a Delhi durante o reinado do imperador Mohammad Shah. Em 1724, foi reconduzido vice-rei do Deccan com o título de Asaf Jah. Ele fundou a dinastia Asaf Jah. Seus sucessores eram conhecidos como os Nizams de Hyderabad.

Asaf Jah governou o Deccan com mão firme, esmagou os zamindars rebeldes e poderosos e estabeleceu uma administração forte. Ele colocou seu indicado, Anwar-ud-din, no trono de Arcot. Após sua morte em 1748, Hyderabad se tornou uma presa fácil para vizinhos poderosos. As empresas comerciais europeias começaram a interferir na política doméstica de Hyderabad para seus próprios ganhos egoístas.

O Carnatic:

O Carnatic era uma das províncias dos Mughals no Deccan e estava sob a autoridade do Nizam de Hyderabad. No entanto, na prática, o Carnatic era virtualmente independente sob seu nawab.

Bengala:

Bengala no século 18 era composta por Bengala, Bihar e Orissa. Murshid Quli Khan foi o Diwan de Bengala sob Aurangzeb. Farrukhsiyar nomeou-o Subedar (governador) de Bengala em 1717.

Aproveitando a crescente fraqueza da autoridade central, Murshid Quli Khan tornou-se praticamente independente. Murshid Quli Khan (1717-27) e seus sucessores Shuja-ud-Daula (1727-39) e Alivardi Khan (1739-1756) deram a Bengala um longo período de paz e administração estável.

Todos esses três governantes encorajaram o comércio, mas mantiveram controle estrito sobre as empresas comerciais estrangeiras. Alivardi Khan não permitiu que empresas comerciais inglesas e francesas fortificassem suas posses em Bengala.

No entanto, os nababos de Bengala não conseguiram formar um exército e uma marinha fortes. Eles também não conseguiram evitar a corrupção entre os funcionários. Nem destruíram firmemente a tendência da Companhia das Índias Orientais de usar a força. Sua ignorância da situação na Europa provou ser cara. Bengala foi a primeira província a ser conquistada pela Companhia das Índias Orientais.

Awadh:

O subah de Awadh compreendia Benaras e alguns distritos próximos a Allahabad. Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk foi nomeado governador de Awadh pelo imperador mogol. Mas ele logo se tornou independente. Ele estabeleceu uma administração forte, esmagou o poder dos grandes zamindars e trouxe a lei e a ordem ao país.

Seu sucessor, Safdar Jang, deu a Awadh um longo período de paz e prosperidade. A autoridade dos governantes Awadh estendeu-se até Rohil-khand, um território a leste de Delhi.

Mysore:

No início do século 18, Mysore era governado por um rei hindu. Após a morte do rei, Hyder Ali conquistou o trono. Embora analfabeto, Hyder Ali era um administrador eficiente. Ele se tornou o governante de Mysore quando Hyder Ali era um estado fraco e dividido.

Mas em um curto espaço de tempo ele fez de Mysore uma das principais potências indianas. Ele modernizou o exército e expandiu seu reino por meio de conquistas. Ele era forte o suficiente para emergir como rival dos britânicos.

Os Reinos Rajput:

Aproveitando a crescente fraqueza do poder Mughal, os estados de Rajput tornaram-se virtualmente independentes. Mas os chefes Rajput continuaram divididos como antes. A maioria dos estados de Rajput estava envolvida em disputas mesquinhas e guerras civis.

Raja Sawai Jai Singh de Amber (1681-1743) foi um renomado governante Rajput. Ele fundou a cidade de Jaipur. Ele também ergueu observatórios com instrumentos precisos e avançados em Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi e Mathura. Com a ascensão dos Marathas, a influência Rajput começou a diminuir.

O Punjab:

Foi sob a liderança do Guru Gobind Singh, o décimo e último Guru dos Sikhs, que a comunidade se tornou uma força política e militar. As invasões de Nadir Shah e Ahmad Shah Abdali e o consequente declínio do poder Mughal deram aos sikhs a oportunidade de se erguer. Entre 1765 e 1800, eles colocaram o Punjab e Jammu sob seu controle. No final do século 18, Ranjit Singh, chefe da Sukercharia misl trouxe todos os chefes Sikh a oeste do rio Sutlej sob seu controle e estabeleceu um poderoso império Sikh no Punjab.

Após a morte de Ranjit Singh & # 8217s, houve confusão no estado Sikh. Os ingleses, em busca de uma oportunidade para expandir seus territórios, conquistaram o reino sikh (1839-40).

Os maratas:

Shahuji, o neto de Shivaji, que havia sido preso por Aurangzeb, foi libertado por Bahadur Shah em 1707. O estado Maratha naquela época era governado por Tara Bai, a rainha regente. Uma guerra civil eclodiu entre os dois Shahu foi vitorioso.

Shahuji nomeou Balaji Vishwanath como seu Peshwa ou Primeiro Ministro em 1713. Balaji Vishwanath concentrou todo o poder em suas próprias mãos e se tornou o verdadeiro governante dos Marathas. O rei foi relegado para segundo plano. Balaji Vishwanath atribuiu áreas separadas aos sardares (chefes) Maratha para a coleta de tributos de chauth e sardeshmukhi.

Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) estendeu ainda mais o império em diferentes direções. O poder de Maratha atingiu seu auge sob ele. Os Marathas logo chegaram a Delhi e ofereceram seu apoio ao imperador Mughal. A expulsão do agente de Ahmad Shah Abdali & # 8217s de Punjab colocou os Marathas em um conflito aberto com Ahmad Shah Abdali.

A batalha entre as duas forças foi travada em Panipat em janeiro de 1761. Os Marathas foram completamente derrotados. Quase 28.000 soldados foram mortos. Os Peshwa morreram em junho de 1761. A Batalha de Panipat destruiu a possibilidade dos Marathas emergirem como a potência mais forte da Índia. Para os britânicos, essa batalha teve um significado imenso. A derrota Maratha abriu caminho para a ascensão do poder britânico na Índia.

Deve-se notar que as potências indianas eram fortes o suficiente para destruí-lo ou ao Império Mughal, mas não fortes o suficiente para uni-lo ou para criar algo novo em seu lugar. Possivelmente, os maratas sozinhos possuíam a força para preencher o vácuo político criado pela desintegração do Império Mughal. Mas eles não tinham visão política e sucumbiram ao poder britânico.


HISTÓRIA

O Império Mogol foi fundado por Babur, um governante da Ásia Central descendente do conquistador turco-mongol Timur (o fundador do Império Timúrida) do lado de seu pai & # 8217 e de Chagatai, o segundo filho do governante mongol Genghis Khan, do lado de sua mãe. [33] Expulso de seus domínios ancestrais na Ásia Central, Babur voltou-se para a Índia para satisfazer suas ambições. Ele se estabeleceu em Cabul e então avançou continuamente para o sul, para a Índia, do Afeganistão através do Passo Khyber. [33] As forças de Babur & # 8217 ocuparam grande parte do norte da Índia após sua vitória em Panipat em 1526. [33] A preocupação com guerras e campanhas militares, no entanto, não permitiu que o novo imperador consolidasse os ganhos que havia feito na Índia. [33] A instabilidade do império tornou-se evidente com seu filho, Humayun, que foi expulso da Índia para a Pérsia pelos rebeldes. [33] O exílio de Humayun & # 8217 na Pérsia estabeleceu laços diplomáticos entre as Cortes Safavid e Mughal, e levou ao aumento da influência cultural persa no Império Mughal. A restauração do domínio mogol começou após o retorno triunfante de Humayun da Pérsia em 1555, mas ele morreu em um acidente fatal pouco depois. [33] O filho de Humayun & # 8217, Akbar, subiu ao trono sob um regente, Bairam Khan, que ajudou a consolidar o Império Mughal na Índia. [33]

Por meio da guerra e da diplomacia, Akbar foi capaz de estender o império em todas as direções e controlar quase todo o subcontinente indiano ao norte do rio Godavari. Ele criou uma nova classe de nobreza leal a ele proveniente da aristocracia militar dos grupos sociais da Índia & # 8217, implementou um governo moderno e apoiou o desenvolvimento cultural. [33] Ao mesmo tempo, Akbar intensificou o comércio com empresas comerciais europeias. A Índia desenvolveu uma economia forte e estável, levando à expansão comercial e ao desenvolvimento econômico. Akbar permitiu a livre expressão da religião e tentou resolver diferenças sócio-políticas e culturais em seu império estabelecendo uma nova religião, Din-i-Ilahi, com fortes características de um culto governante. [33] Ele deixou seus sucessores um estado internamente estável, que estava no meio de sua idade de ouro, mas em pouco tempo surgiram sinais de fraqueza política. [33] O filho de Akbar, Jahangir, governou o império em seu auge, mas ele era viciado em ópio, negligenciou os assuntos do estado e ficou sob a influência de camarilhas rivais da corte. [33] Durante o reinado do filho de Jahangir & # 8217s, Shah Jahan, a cultura e o esplendor da luxuosa corte Mughal alcançaram seu apogeu, exemplificado pelo Taj Mahal. [33] A manutenção do tribunal, nesta época, começou a custar mais do que a receita. [33]

O filho mais velho de Shah Jahan, o liberal Dara Shikoh, tornou-se regente em 1658, como resultado da doença de seu pai. No entanto, um filho mais novo, Aurangzeb, aliou-se à ortodoxia islâmica contra seu irmão, que defendia uma cultura hindu-muçulmana sincretista, e ascendeu ao trono. Aurangzeb derrotou Dara em 1659 e executou-o. [33] Embora Shah Jahan tenha se recuperado totalmente de sua doença, Aurangzeb o declarou incompetente para governar e o prendeu. Durante o reinado de Aurangzeb & # 8217, o império ganhou força política mais uma vez, mas seu conservadorismo religioso e intolerância minaram a estabilidade da sociedade Mughal. [33] Aurangzeb expandiu o império para incluir quase todo o sul da Ásia, mas com sua morte em 1707, muitas partes do império estavam em revolta aberta. [33] O filho de Aurangzeb, Shah Alam, revogou as políticas religiosas de seu pai e tentou reformar a administração. No entanto, após sua morte em 1712, a dinastia Mughal afundou no caos e em rixas violentas. Só em 1719, quatro imperadores ascenderam sucessivamente ao trono. [33]

Durante o reinado de Muhammad Shah, o império começou a se desintegrar e vastas áreas da Índia central passaram de Mughal a Maratha. A longínqua campanha indiana de Nadir Shah, que havia restabelecido anteriormente a suserania iraniana sobre a maior parte da Ásia Ocidental, o Cáucaso e a Ásia Central, culminou com o Saque de Delhi e destruiu os restos do poder e prestígio mogol. [33] Muitas das elites do império agora procuravam controlar seus próprios assuntos e se separaram para formar reinos independentes. [33] Mas, de acordo com Sugata Bose e Ayesha Jalal, o imperador mogol, no entanto, continuou a ser a mais alta manifestação de soberania. Não apenas a pequena nobreza muçulmana, mas também os líderes maratas, hindus e sikhs participaram dos reconhecimentos cerimoniais do imperador como soberano da Índia. [34] O domínio da companhia britânica efetivamente começou em 1757 após a Batalha de Plassey e durou até 1858, iniciando a efetiva era colonial britânica sobre o subcontinente indiano. O imperador mogol Shah Alam II fez tentativas inúteis para reverter o declínio mogol e, finalmente, teve que buscar a proteção de potências externas, ou seja, do emir do Afeganistão, Ahmed Shah Abdali, o que levou à Terceira Batalha de Panipat entre o Império Maratha e o Afegãos liderados por Abdali em 1761. Em 1771, os Marathas recapturaram Delhi do controle afegão e em 1784 eles se tornaram oficialmente os protetores do imperador em Delhi, [35] um estado de coisas que continuou até depois da Terceira Guerra Anglo-Marata. Posteriormente, a British East India Company tornou-se a protetora da dinastia Mughal em Delhi. [34] Depois de uma derrota esmagadora na guerra de 1857-1858 que ele nominalmente liderou, o último mogol, Bahadur Shah Zafar, foi deposto pela Companhia Britânica das Índias Orientais e exilado em 1858. Através da Lei do Governo da Índia de 1858, a Coroa Britânica assumiu o controle direto da Índia na forma do novo Raj britânico. Em 1876, a Rainha Victoria britânica assumiu o título de Imperatriz da Índia.

EXPLICAÇÕES PARA A RECUSA

Os historiadores ofereceram inúmeras explicações para o rápido colapso do Império Mughal entre 1707 e 1720, após um século de crescimento e prosperidade. Em termos fiscais, o trono perdeu as receitas necessárias para pagar seus chefes, os emires (nobres) e suas comitivas. O imperador perdeu autoridade, pois os amplamente dispersos oficiais imperiais perderam a confiança nas autoridades centrais e fizeram seus próprios acordos com homens locais de influência. O exército imperial, atolado em longas e fúteis guerras contra os maratas mais agressivos, perdeu o espírito de luta. Finalmente veio uma série de violentas rixas políticas pelo controle do trono. Após a execução do imperador Farrukhsiyar em 1719, os estados sucessores mogóis locais assumiram o poder região após região. [36]

Cronistas contemporâneos lamentaram a decadência que testemunharam, um tema captado pelos primeiros historiadores britânicos que queriam sublinhar a necessidade de um rejuvenescimento liderado pelos britânicos. [37]

Desde a década de 1970, os historiadores adotaram várias abordagens para o declínio, com pouco consenso sobre qual fator era dominante. As interpretações psicológicas enfatizam a depravação em lugares altos, luxo excessivo e visões cada vez mais estreitas que deixaram os governantes despreparados para um desafio externo. Uma escola marxista (liderada por Irfan Habib e baseada na Universidade Aligarh Muslim) enfatiza a exploração excessiva do campesinato pelos ricos, que despojou a vontade e os meios para apoiar o regime. [38] Karen Leonard se concentrou no fracasso do regime em trabalhar com os banqueiros hindus, cujo apoio financeiro era cada vez mais necessário, pois os banqueiros ajudaram a Maratha e os britânicos. [39] Em uma interpretação religiosa, alguns estudiosos argumentam que os Rajputs hindus se revoltaram contra o domínio muçulmano. Finalmente, outros estudiosos argumentam que a própria prosperidade do Império inspirou as províncias a alcançar um alto grau de independência, enfraquecendo assim a corte imperial. [41]


Conteúdo

Aurangzeb nasceu em 3 de novembro de 1618, em Dahod, Gujarat. Ele era o terceiro filho e o sexto filho de Shah Jahan e Mumtaz Mahal. [35] Em junho de 1626, após uma rebelião malsucedida de seu pai, Aurangzeb e seu irmão Dara Shukoh foram mantidos como reféns na corte de Lahore de seus avós (Nur Jahan e Jahangir). Em 26 de fevereiro de 1628, Shah Jahan foi oficialmente declarado Imperador Mughal, e Aurangzeb voltou a morar com seus pais no Forte Agra, onde Aurangzeb recebeu sua educação formal em árabe e persa. Sua mesada diária foi fixada em Rs. 500, que gastou na educação religiosa e no estudo da história.

Em 28 de maio de 1633, Aurangzeb escapou da morte quando um poderoso elefante de guerra invadiu o acampamento Imperial Mughal. Ele cavalgou contra o elefante e atingiu sua tromba com uma lança, [36] e defendeu-se com sucesso de ser esmagado. O valor de Aurangzeb foi apreciado por seu pai, que lhe conferiu o título de Bahadur (Corajoso) e o pesou em ouro e apresentou presentes no valor de Rs. 200.000. Este evento foi celebrado em versos persas e urdu, e Aurangzeb disse: [37] [ esclarecimento necessário ]

Se a luta (do elefante) tivesse terminado fatalmente para mim, não teria sido uma vergonha. A morte abre a cortina até mesmo para os imperadores, não é uma desonra. A vergonha está no que meus irmãos fizeram!

Guerra Bundela

Aurangzeb era nominalmente encarregado da força enviada a Bundelkhand com a intenção de subjugar o governante rebelde de Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, que havia atacado outro território desafiando a política de Shah Jahan e se recusava a expiar suas ações. Por acordo, Aurangzeb ficou na retaguarda, longe da luta, e aceitou o conselho de seus generais enquanto o exército mogol se reunia e iniciava o cerco de Orchha em 1635. A campanha foi bem-sucedida e Singh foi removido do poder. [38]

Vice-rei do Deccan

Aurangzeb foi nomeado vice-rei do Decão em 1636. [40] Depois que os vassalos de Shah Jahan foram devastados pela alarmante expansão de Ahmednagar durante o reinado do príncipe menino Nizamhi Murtaza Shah III, o imperador despachou Aurangzeb, que em 1636 trouxe o Dinastia Nizam Shahi ao fim. [41] Em 1637, Aurangzeb casou-se com a princesa safávida Dilras Banu Begum, postumamente conhecida como Rabia-ud-Daurani. Ela era sua primeira esposa e consorte chefe, além de sua favorita. [42] [43] [44] Ele também tinha uma paixão por uma escrava, Hira Bai, cuja morte em uma idade jovem o afetou muito. Em sua velhice, ele estava sob os encantos de sua concubina, Udaipuri Bai. Este último havia sido companheiro de Dara Shukoh. [45] No mesmo ano, 1637, Aurangzeb foi encarregado de anexar o pequeno reino Rajput de Baglana, o que ele fez com facilidade. [19]

Em 1644, a irmã de Aurangzeb, Jahanara, foi queimada quando os produtos químicos em seu perfume foram acesos por uma lâmpada próxima, enquanto em Agra. Este evento precipitou uma crise familiar com consequências políticas. Aurangzeb sofreu o desagrado de seu pai por não retornar a Agra imediatamente, mas três semanas depois. Shah Jahan estava cuidando de Jahanara para que recuperasse a saúde naquela época e milhares de vassalos chegaram a Agra para prestar suas homenagens. [ citação necessária ] Shah Jahan ficou indignado ao ver Aurangzeb entrar no interior do palácio em traje militar e imediatamente o demitiu de sua posição de vice-rei do Deccan. Aurangzeb também não estava mais autorizado a usar tendas vermelhas ou a se associar ao estandarte militar oficial de Mughal imperador. [ citação necessária ] Outras fontes nos dizem que Aurangzeb foi demitido de seu cargo porque Aurangzeb deixou a vida de luxo e se tornou um Faqir. [46]

Em 1645, ele foi impedido de ir ao tribunal por sete meses e mencionou sua dor a outros comandantes mogóis. Posteriormente, Shah Jahan o nomeou governador de Gujarat, onde serviu bem e foi recompensado por trazer estabilidade. [ citação necessária ]

Em 1647, Shah Jahan transferiu Aurangzeb de Gujarat para governador de Balkh, substituindo um filho mais novo, Murad Baksh, que se provou ineficaz ali. A área estava sob ataque de tribos uzbeques e turcomanas. Embora a artilharia e os mosquetes Mughal fossem uma força formidável, também o eram as habilidades de combate de seus oponentes. Os dois lados estavam em um impasse e Aurangzeb descobriu que seu exército não poderia viver da terra, que foi devastada pela guerra. Com o início do inverno, ele e seu pai tiveram que fazer um acordo amplamente insatisfatório com os uzbeques, dando território em troca do reconhecimento nominal da soberania mogol. A força mogol sofreu ainda mais com os ataques de uzbeques e outras tribos enquanto recuava pela neve para Cabul. Ao final dessa campanha de dois anos, na qual Aurangzeb havia mergulhado em um estágio avançado, uma vasta soma de dinheiro fora gasta com pouco ganho. [47]

Seguiram-se outros envolvimentos militares desfavoráveis, pois Aurangzeb foi nomeado governador de Multan e Sindh. Seus esforços em 1649 e 1652 para desalojar os safávidas em Kandahar, que eles haviam retomado recentemente após uma década de controle mogol, ambos terminaram em fracasso com a aproximação do inverno. The logistical problems of supplying an army at the extremity of the empire, combined with the poor quality of armaments and the intransigence of the opposition have been cited by John Richards as the reasons for failure, and a third attempt in 1653, led by Dara Shikoh, met with the same outcome. [48]

Aurangzeb became viceroy of the Deccan again after he was replaced by Dara Shukoh in the attempt to recapture Kandahar. Aurangzeb regretted this and harboured feelings that Shikoh had manipulated the situation to serve his own ends. Aurangbad's two jagirs (land grants) were moved there as a consequence of his return and, because the Deccan was a relatively impoverished area, this caused him to lose out financially. So poor was the area that grants were required from Malwa and Gujarat in order to maintain the administration and the situation caused ill-feeling between father and son. Shah Jahan insisted that things could be improved if Aurangzeb made efforts to develop cultivation. [49] Aurangzeb appointed Murshid Quli Khan [ citação necessária ] to extend to the Deccan the zabt revenue system used in northern India. Murshid Quli Khan organised a survey of agricultural land and a tax assessment on what it produced. To increase revenue, Murshid Quli Khan granted loans for seed, livestock, and irrigation infrastructure. The Deccan returned to prosperity, [40] [50]

Aurangzeb proposed to resolve the situation by attacking the dynastic occupants of Golconda (the Qutb Shahis) and Bijapur (the Adil Shahis). As an adjunct to resolving the financial difficulties, the proposal would also extend Mughal influence by accruing more lands. [49] Aurangzeb advanced against the Sultan of Bijapur and besieged Bidar. o Kiladar (governor or captain) of the fortified city, Sidi Marjan, was mortally wounded when a gunpowder magazine exploded. After twenty-seven days of hard fighting, Bidar was captured by the Mughals and Aurangzeb continued his advance. [51] Again, he was to feel that Dara had exerted influence on his father: believing that he was on the verge of victory in both instances, Aurangzeb was frustrated that Shah Jahan chose then to settle for negotiations with the opposing forces rather than pushing for complete victory. [49]

War of Succession

The four sons of Shah Jahan all held governorships during their father's reign. The emperor favoured the eldest, Dara Shukoh. [52] This had caused resentment among the younger three, who sought at various times to strengthen alliances between themselves and against Dara. There was no Mughal tradition of primogeniture, the systematic passing of rule, upon an emperor's death, to his eldest son. [49] Instead it was customary for sons to overthrow their father and for brothers to war to the death among themselves. [53] Historian Satish Chandra says that "In the ultimate resort, connections among the powerful military leaders, and military strength and capacity [were] the real arbiters". [49] The contest for power was primarily between Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb because, although all four sons had demonstrated competence in their official roles, it was around these two that the supporting cast of officials and other influential people mostly circulated. [54] There were ideological differences — Dara was an intellectual and a religious liberal in the mould of Akbar, while Aurangzeb was much more conservative — but, as historians Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. It also ignores the fact that factional lines in the succession dispute were not, by and large, shaped by ideology." [55] Marc Gaborieau, professor of Indian studies at l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, [56] explains that "The loyalties of [officials and their armed contingents] seem to have been motivated more by their own interests, the closeness of the family relation and above all the charisma of the pretenders than by ideological divides." [53] Muslims and Hindus did not divide along religious lines in their support for one pretender or the other nor, according to Chandra, is there much evidence to support the belief that Jahanara and other members of the royal family were split in their support. Jahanara, certainly, interceded at various times on behalf of all of the princes and was well-regarded by Aurangzeb even though she shared the religious outlook of Dara. [57]

In 1656, a general under Qutb Shahi dynasty named Musa Khan led an army of 12,000 musketeers to attack Aurangzeb, [ where? ] and later on the same campaign Aurangzeb, in turn, rode against an army consisting 8,000 horsemen and 20,000 Karnataka musketeers. [58]

Having made clear that he wanted Dara to succeed him, Shah Jahan became ill with stranguary in 1657 and was closeted under the care of his favourite son in the newly built city of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi). Rumours of the death of Shah Jahan abounded and the younger sons were concerned that Dara might be hiding it for Machiavellian reasons. Thus, they took action: Shah Shuja In Bengal, where he had been governor since 1637, Prince Muhammad Shuja crowned himself King at RajMahal, and brought his cavalry, artillery and river flotilla upriver towards Agra. Near Varanasi his forces confronted a defending army sent from Delhi under the command of Prince Sulaiman Shukoh, son of Dara Shukoh, and Raja Jai Singh [59] while Murad did the same in his governorship of Gujarat and Aurangzeb did so in the Deccan. It is not known whether these preparations were made in the mistaken belief that the rumours of death were true or whether the challengers were just taking advantage of the situation. [49]

After regaining some of his health, Shah Jahan moved to Agra and Dara urged him to send forces to challenge Shah Shuja and Murad, who had declared themselves rulers in their respective territories. While Shah Shuja was defeated at Banares in February 1658, the army sent to deal with Murad discovered to their surprise that he and Aurangzeb had combined their forces, [57] the two brothers having agreed to partition the empire once they had gained control of it. [60] The two armies clashed at Dharmat in April 1658, with Aurangzeb being the victor. Shuja was being chased through Bihar and the victory of Aurangzeb proved this to be a poor decision by Dara Shikoh, who now had a defeated force on one front and a successful force unnecessarily pre-occupied on another. Realising that his recalled Bihar forces would not arrive at Agra in time to resist the emboldened Aurangzeb's advance, Dara scrambled to form alliances in order but found that Aurangzeb had already courted key potential candidates. When Dara's disparate, hastily concocted army clashed with Aurangzeb's well-disciplined, battle-hardened force at the Battle of Samugarh in late May, neither Dara's men nor his generalship were any match for Aurangzeb. Dara had also become over-confident in his own abilities and, by ignoring advice not to lead in battle while his father was alive, he cemented the idea that he had usurped the throne. [57] "After the defeat of Dara, Shah Jahan was imprisoned in the fort of Agra where he spent eight long years under the care of his favourite daughter Jahanara." [61]

Aurangzeb then broke his arrangement with Murad Baksh, which probably had been his intention all along. [60] Instead of looking to partition the empire between himself and Murad, he had his brother arrested and imprisoned at Gwalior Fort. Murad was executed on 4 December 1661, ostensibly for the murder of the Diwan of Gujarat sometime earlier. The allegation was encouraged by Aurangzeb, who caused the diwan's son to seek retribution for the death under the principles of Sharia law. [62] Meanwhile, Dara gathered his forces, and moved to the Punjab. The army sent against Shuja was trapped in the east, its generals Jai Singh and Dilir Khan submitted to Aurangzeb, but Dara's son, Suleiman Shikoh, escaped. Aurangzeb offered Shah Shuja the governorship of Bengal. This move had the effect of isolating Dara Shikoh and causing more troops to defect to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja, who had declared himself emperor in Bengal began to annex more territory and this prompted Aurangzeb to march from Punjab with a new and large army that fought during the Battle of Khajwa, where Shah Shuja and his chain-mail armoured war elephants were routed by the forces loyal to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja then fled to Arakan (in present-day Burma), where he was executed by the local rulers. [63]

With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father immured in Agra, Aurangzeb pursued Dara Shikoh, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. Aurangzeb claimed that Dara was no longer a Muslim [ citação necessária ] and accused him of poisoning the Mughal Grand Vizier Saadullah Khan. After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him. In 1658, Aurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi.

On 10 August 1659, Dara was executed on grounds of apostasy and his head was sent to Shahjahan. [61] Having secured his position, Aurangzeb confined his frail father at the Agra Fort but did not mistreat him. Shah Jahan was cared for by Jahanara and died in 1666. [60]


In India, the Mughal Empire was one of the greatest empires ever. The Mughal Empire ruled hundreds of millions of people. India became united under one rule, and had very prosperous cultural and political years during the Mughal rule. There were many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms split all throughout India until the founders of the Mughal Empire came. There were some men such as Babar, grandson to the Great Asian conqueror Tamerlane and the conqueror Genghis Khan from the northern region of Ganges, river valley, who decided to take over Khyber, and eventually, all of India.

Babar (1526-1530):
the great grandson of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan, was the first Mughal emperor in India. He confronted and defeated Lodhi in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat, and so came to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Babar ruled until 1530, and was succeeded by his son Humayun.

Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556):
the eldest son of Babar, succeeded his father and became the second emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled India for nearly a decade but was ousted by Sher Shah Suri, the Afghan ruler. Humayun wandered for about 15 years after his defeat. Meanwhile, Sher Shah Suri died and Humayun was able to defeat his successor, Sikandar Suri and regain his crown of the Hindustan. However, soon after, he died in 1556 at a young age of 48 years.

Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545):
was an Afghan leader who took over the Mughal Empire after defeating Humayun in 1540. Sher Shah occupied the throne of Delhi for not more than five years, but his reign proved to be a landmark in the Sub-continent. As a king, he has several achievements in his credit. He established an efficient public administration. He set up a revenue collection system based on the measurement of land. Justice was provided to the common man. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign planting of trees, wells and building of Sarai (inns) for travellers was done. Roads were laid it was under his rule that the Grand Trunk road from Delhi to Kabul was built. The currency was also changed to finely minted silver coins called Dam. However, Sher Shah did not survive long after his accession on the throne and died in 1545 after a short reign of five years.

Akbar (1556-1605):
Humayun's heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died. Akbar's reign holds a certain prominence in history he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests, he managed to subdue most of India. Areas not under the empire were designated as tributaries. He also adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Rajputs, hence reducing any threat from them. Akbar was not only a great conqueror, but a capable organizer and a great administrator as well. He set up a host of institutions that proved to be the foundation of an administrative system that operated even in British India. Akbar's rule also stands out due to his liberal policies towards the non-Muslims, his religious innovations, the land revenue system and his famous Mansabdari system. Akbar's Mansabdari system became the basis of Mughal military organization and civil administration.

Akbar died in 1605, nearly 50 years after his ascension to the throne, and was buried outside of Agra at Sikandra. His son Jehangir then assumed the throne.

Jehangir:
Akbar was succeeded by his son, Salim, who took the title of Jehangir, meaning "Conqueror of the World". He married Mehr-un-Nisa whom he gave the title of Nur Jahan (light of the world). He loved her with blind passion and handed over the complete reins of administration to her. He expanded the empire through the addition of Kangra and Kistwar and consolidated the Mughal rule in Bengal. Jehangir lacked the political enterprise of his father Akbar. But he was an honest man and a tolerant ruler. He strived to reform society and was tolerant towards Hindus, Christians and Jews. However, relations with Sikhs were strained, and the fifth of the ten Sikh gurus, Arjun Dev, was executed at Jehangir's orders for giving aid and comfort to Khusrau, Jehangir's rebellious son. Art, literature, and architecture prospered under Jehangir's rule, and the Mughal gardens in Srinagar remain an enduring testimony to his artistic taste. He died in 1627.

Shah Jahan:
Jehangir was succeeded by his second son Khurram in 1628. Khurram took the name of Shah Jahan, i.e. the Emperor of the World. He further expanded his Empire to Kandhar in the north and conquered most of Southern India. The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during Shah Jahan's rule. This was due to almost 100 years of unparalleled prosperity and peace. As a result, during this reign, the world witnessed the unique development of arts and culture of the Mughal Empire. Shah Jahan has been called the "architect king". The Red Fort and the Jama Masjid, both in Delhi, stand out as towering achievements of both civil engineering and art. Yet above all else, Shah Jahan is remembered today for the Taj Mahal, the massive white marble mausoleum constructed for his wife Mumtaz Mahal along the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra.

Aurangzeb:
Aurangzeb ascended the throne in 1658 and ruled supreme till 1707. Thus Aurangzeb ruled for 50 years, matching Akbar's reign in longevity. But unfortunately he kept his five sons away from the royal court with the result that none of them was trained in the art of government. This proved to be very damaging for the Mughals later on. During his 50 years of rule, Aurangzeb tried to fulfill his ambition of bringing the entire Sub-continent under one rule. It was under him that the Mughal Empire reached its peak in matter of area. He worked hard for years but his health broke down in the end. He left behind no personal wealth when he died in 1707, at the age of 90 years. With his death, the forces of disintegration set in and the mighty Mughal empire started collapsing.


A history of Mughal-Rajput relations between the 16th and early 17th centuries

To understand the history of Mughal-Rajput relations we must understand the history of three dynasties who would come to dominate the Northern part of the Indian subcontinent between the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. To begin with we must take a look at the Mughals.

At the time when Babur first contemplated the idea of invading India he had already conquered Kabul. Zahir-ud-din Mohammed Babur, was the eldest of Umar Sheikh Mirza, who was governor of Ferghana, which is a region in eastern Uzbekistan. Babur was by lineage the great-great grandson of Timur. Babur's early military career was full of frustrations. Born in 1483, he had assumed the Throne of his father at age 12, in the year 1494. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his attempts to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both the regions failed when Muhammad Shaybani Khan the founder of the Shaybanid dynasty, defeated him. He conquered Kabul, in 1504, after having being driven away from his patrimony and homeland. He formed an alliance with the Safavid Shah Ismail I, to take parts of Turkestan as well as Samarkand itself only to lose them again to the Shaybanids.

Hence, he had decided to give up on the dreams of taking back Ferghana and Samarkand and set his eyes on North India. At the time he had only thought of conquering the Punjab region. A task he accomplished in his second campaign in 1525, after a short campaign in 1519. Thus, at this juncture, we the political situation in North India was ripe for conflict and power changes. In Punjab, Babur prepared for a march towards Delhi to take it and all the realms under the rule of the Lodi Dynasty from Ibrahim Lodi who was currently the sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, whose own relatives, Daulat Khan Lodi and Alauddin had invited Babur to invade the Delhi Sultanate. Under the Lodi Dynasty the Sultanate had lost most of its eastern and southern as well as western territories and Ibrahim ruled over merely the Upper Gangetic plains. Meanwhile, a third contender for power and perhaps bigger threat to Babur's rise was looming in the Rajputana, in the form of the Rajput Confederacy, which was the first of its kind since the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan. This Confederacy was formed under the auspicious leadership of Rana Sangram Singh, of House Sisodiya of Mewar which had risen in prestige and power at the cost of neighbouring Malwa and Gujurati Sultanates during the reign of Rana Sangram other wise known as Rana Sanga.

The following events are well known, Babur defeated the Lodis at Panipat and then faced the Rajputs at Khanwa in 1527. However after his victories at Chanderi and at Ghaghra, he soon died leaving the Empire to his son Humayun whose reign was turbulent and prospects uncertain until his son Akbar assumed the Throne.

Now let us look at the Sisodias of Mewar. This house of Rajputs traces it's origins from the legendary Suryavnshi lineage. But while records to back up such claims are obviously questionable, the historical foundation of this dynasty lies in the rise of Rana Hammir Singh, the founder of the Sisodiya Cadet Branch of the Guhila dynasty. The Guhila dynasty was extinguished by Alauddin Khalji after he besieged and conquered Chittor in 1303, their capital. But Rana Hammir Singh had taken back Chittor and since then reclaimed control of the region and re-established the dynasty under its cadet branch of the Sisodias by 1326. Owing to the legendary exploits of their kings and being one of the few Hindu noble houses that had remained independent during the successive reigns of various dynasties at the helm of the Delhi Sultanate, the House of Mewar carried weight amongst Rajput nobility.

Apart from Rana Hammir Singh, two rulers in particular, Rana Kumbharna Singh (1433-1468) and his great grandson Rana Sangram Singh (1508-1528), had raised the prestige of the House of Mewar to astronomical heights by not only defeating neighbouring Sultanates in Gujurat, Nagaur, Delhi and Malwa, but infact under the reign of Rana Sangram, actually conquering Gujurat and Malwa. Therefore, by 1526, most Rajput states had formed a Confederacy under the leadership of Rana Sanga. Ofcourse, following his defeat the Confederacy fell apart and while the house of Mewar still held a high place on the Rajput and indeed the Indian sociopolitical stage, there would never again be such a untied political front offered by the Rajputs.

In terms of the motivations and objectives of the Confederacy, it could be said that the Confederacy was buoyed together towards the political wills of the Rana of Mewar. Rana Sanga had made a policy to attack and acquire the territories of his kingdom's old enemies such as the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujurat, Nagaur and Malwa, and at the same time remove any traces of Turkic or Afghan dominion in North India. Therefore, it would be safe to say that had Babur not invaded Delhi and taken the Upper Ganga Valley, the Rana would have quite soon. Among the many noble houses that had joined the Rajput Confederacy was the next dynasty which will complete the puzzle to understanding the key players in North India and Mughal-Rajput history.

This was the Kachwahas of Amber. This dynasty claimed it's descent from the son Kush of the legendary King Rama of Ayodhya. Their ancestors allegedly migrated from Rama's kingdom of Kosala and established a new dynasty at Gwalior. After 31 generations, they moved to Rajputana and created a kingdom at Dhundhar. Dullah Rai, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers, defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and later completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti. However, in the early 16th century, they were conquered and vassalised by the Rathore ruler Maldeo of the kingdom of Marwar.

In 1527, the ruler of Amber who had joined the Rajput Confederacy was Prithviraj Singh I. Prithviraj had fought at Khanwa and like Rana Sanga, died soon afterwards, being succeeded by his son Puranmal. After Puranmal's succession, which was quite controversial, the Kachwaha domain became unstable over disputes regarding the succession of Puranmal to the Throne. This problem was only further exacerbated by neighbouring Rajput kingdoms that sought to capitalise on the situation. While accounts about Puranmal seeking the aid of Humayun are varying and quite contradictory we know for sure that after Puranmal, his brother Bhim Singh assumed the Throne. Bhim only reigned three and a half years before dying on 22 July 1537. He was succeeded in quick succession by two sons, Ratan Singh and Askaran, before the throne eventually passed to his younger brother Bharmal in 1548.

It is here that we arrive at a crucial juncture in Mughal-Rajput relations. In Mewar, the reigns were assumed by the 4th son of Rana Sanga, Maharana Udai Singh II, under whose reign the capital of Chittor was lost to Akbar in 1568 and the capital was shifted to Udaipur. Here his son, Maharana Pratap assumed the Throne after Udai died in 1572. Meanwhile, Akbar had overthrown his guardian Bairam Khan who had grown too ambitious and controlling and at the age of 18, the young Baadshaah of the Mughal Empire removed Bairam from service and continued his expeditions by directly controlling all affairs from 1560 onwards. Meanwhile, in 1562, the situation became critical for the Kachwahas of Amber when Mirza Muhammad Sharaf-ud-din Hussain was appointed Mughal governor of Mewat. Mirza led a large army to Amber which Bharmal could not resist. Mirza forced the Kachwahas to leave Amber and live in forests and hills. Bharmal promised a fixed tribute to Mirza and handed over his own son, Jagannath, and his nephews, Raj Singh and Khangar Singh, as hostages for its due payment. When Sharaf-ud-din was preparing to invade Amber again, Bharmal met Akbar's courtier, Chaghtai Khan. Fortunately, for Bharmal, Akbar was at Karavali (a village near Agra) on his way from Agra to Ajmer (on a pilgrimage to the dargah of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti). Bharmal himself met Akbar at his camp at Sanganer on 20 January 1562. Here, Bharmal proposed a marriage between Akbar and his eldest daughter Hira Kunwari. Therefore, when Akbar agreed, the Kachwahas were now relatives of Akbar, Bharmal was his father-in-law and was on par with the highest Muslim nobles of the Empire. Hence, Sharaf-ud-din Mirza, returned to Bharmal his lands and relatives and in the following years, the Kachwahas rendered unwavering service to the Mughals while they themselves enjoyed the highest salaries, status and prestige the Empire had to offer.

Hence, The House of Mewar, still held in the highest esteem by all Rajput nobility was in a period of decline and The House of Amber had united with the Mughals. Raja Bharmal was succeeded by his son Raja Bhagwant Das in 1574. He served as Akbar's General and was awarded a rank or mansab of 5000 along with the title of Amir-ul-Umra. He fought battles in Punjab, Kashmir where he decisively defeated the Kashmiri King Yousuf Shah Chak and Afghanistan as well and he held the governorship of Kabul. His daughter Manbhawati Bai was married off to the Mughal Prince and future Emperor Jehangir. He died in 1589 being succeeded by his son Raja Man Singh.

Raja Man Singh, assumed the Throne of Amber in 1589, but he had served with distinction at the Battle of Haldighati 1576 against the Maharana of Mewar, Maharana Pratap in a legendary battle, and in other campaigns as well. The reason why Akbar wanted to conquer Rajputana and especially Mewar was because with Mewar and the Rajputs at his flanks, his empire would never be secure, a fact he had learned by learning about the experiences of the Delhi Sultanate and their fruitless tussle with the Sisodiya dynasty. Yet, in his lifetime, Akbar could not conquer Mewar. Even after being defeated at Haldighati, where his army of 3000-4000 Rajputs and allied Bhils (400 men approx.), was defeated by Man Singh who commanded the Imperial Mughal Army roughly 8000-10,000 in numbers, Pratap Singh endured and by the end of his reign, he scored a decisive victory against the Mughals at Dewair in 1582 and took back Western Mewar including Kumbhalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda through guerilla warfare and even destroyed newly built mosques in these regions in retaliation. He died in 1597.

After his death, his son Maharana Amar Singh I (r. 1597-1620) assumed the Throne and followed his father's policy of resisting Mughal overlordship. Amar Singh continued to resist the Mughals and it was clear that he could not be taken in a battle, so Mewar was devastated financially and in manpower due to the policy of Shah Jahan (son of Jahangir, Jahangir had become Emperor in 1605 after Akbar's death) , to scorch the lands of Mewar and make it incapable of supporting the efforts of Amar Singh. Finally, in 1615, Amar Singh submitted to the Mughals. Mewar including Chittor was assigned to him as Watan Jagir or hereditary patrimony. He secured a favourable peace treaty and it was ensured that Mewar would never bend his knee to the Mughal Emperors or serve at his court personally nor would the House of Mewar enter into matrimonial relations with the Mughals.

Hence, we see a clear policy emerging from the Mughals towards the Rajputs since the reign of Akbar. The first, religious tolerance and engagement at a political level, treating them as warriors and nobles on par with the Iranis or Turks in the Imperial service. The second, realising that the prestige of Mewar and the potential of the Rajputs uniting once again was an ever present threat and therefore it was better to assuage them. Third, following a policy of providing high posts and port folios to Rajput nobles who allied or accepted Mughal suzerainty. Fourth, matrimonial relations were never the prerequisite for such alliances as many Rajputs had previously simply accepted Mughal suzerainty and had acquired high posts for themselves.

Now in terms of contemporary social perceptions of such events,the attitudes in Rajputana and in general accross North India were shaped by the actions and decisions of the Rajput houses of Mewar and Amber. While Mewar only grew in prestige as the last stronghold and symbol of strength and resistance for the more conservative elements in Hindu society, the House of Amber was universally recognised as a house which produced some of the finest administrators and generals the Empire would ever know. And yet, the more conservative elements in Hindu society saw the House of Amber as traitors, ofcourse such opinions were never discussed in front of the Amber Rajas.

Until the reign of Aurangzeb, the Rajputs were more or less, united under the Mughal cause. The Kings Of Amber, fought and led expeditions as far west and Afghanistan and Qandahar and as east as Bengal and Odissa. Here are a few examples of their exploits :

In 1585, Man Singh I was sent to conquer Afghanistan and silence the rebels there. Man Singh decisively defeated five major tribes of the Afghans including Yusufzai and "Mandar" tribes. The flag of Amber was changed from "Katchanar" (green climber in white base) to "Pachranga" (five colored) to commemorate this victory. This flag continued in use until accession of Jaipur state in India. This permanently crushed the revolt and the area remained peaceful thereafter.

In 1586 CE, Akbar sent another army under Raja Bhagwant Das, father of Prince Man Singh I to win Kashmir. Kashmir was included in the Mughal Empire and made a Sarkar (district) of Kabul province.

Man Singh I also conquered Bihar in similar fashion. Abul Fazl has described Man Singhs campaign in Bihar in the following words. "The Raja united ability with courage and genius with strenuous action".

Man Singh after conquering Bihar was ordered to defeat the Afghan Sultan Qatlu Khan Lohani of Orissa, Man Singh set out for Orissa on April 1590. By 1592, Odissa was also conquered by him.

His grandson Jai Singh I (r. 1621 - 1667), was another great General of the Mughal Empire. He was the second Raja to receive the title Mirza Raja, the first being his grandfather Man Singh I who received it from Akbar. During his career he served first in the Deccan, subduing the Gonds and then in Central Asia, fighting at Kandahar in the Mughal-Safavid wars and at Balkh.

Jai Singh, who had begun his own military career in the Deccan, was then appointed to lead a 14,000 strong army against Shivaji. And in 1665, he forced Shivaji to sign the Treaty of Purandar being the only noble in the Empire to subdue the Maratha King. Although the opportunity his victories provided were made meaningless thanks to Aurangzeb's inability to compromise on his orthodox beliefs and accept Shivaji into his court with proper honours.

In conclusion, until the reign of Aurangzeb, whose interference into the succession matters of Rajput states, a matter which was left to the Rajputs by Akbar himself, the Rajputs, especially the house of Amber, continued to serve the Empire with loyalty and distinction. Both to serve the interests of the Empire and the interests of their own houses and kingdoms as well.

"A History of Jaipur" by Sir Jadunath Sarkar

"Shivaji and His Times" By Jadunath Sarkar

" Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206–1526) Part 2" by Satish Chandra

"Akbarnama" by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Henry Beveridge (Trans.)

"A Military History of India" by Sir Jadunath Sarkar

"History and Culture of the Indian People Volume VII : The Mughal Empire" by R.C Majumdar


Islamic Calligraphy & Textiles

The textile industry thrived during Aurangzeb’s reign. It employed hundreds of artisans across South Asia, who created intricate works of silk and brocade. Turbans, carpets, shawls, and other finely embroidered textiles were highly valued. Some were even exported to Europe through trading channels. Aurangzeb also patronized Islamic calligraphy and was himself an accomplished calligraphist.

The Decline of Mughal Arts under Aurangzeb: Floor spread, ca. 18th century, Mughal Empire (India) © LACMA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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Token status of the Mughal throne - History

In South Asia today, we see Muslim and Hindu cultures as worlds apart, but this was not always the case in the history of the Subcontinent.

Recently, I read a section of the Akbarnama (Tale of Akbar) where both Hindu and Muslim astrologers were asked to cast the Emperor Akbar’s horoscope. Though I did not bat an eyelid at such an occurrence, I was reminded of a comment made by a student in Pakistan five years ago that has stayed with me ever since: “Mughal badshah asal mein mussalmaan nahin thhe, is liay unko Hinduon say koi masla nahin tha.” [The Mughals had no problem with Hindus since they were not really Muslims.]

Neither at the time nor now do I fault my student for this comment. My student was merely echoing a pervasive viewpoint from his social context far removed from my own intellectual world.

Collaboration and intimacy between Hindus and Muslims is a settled issue amongst Mughal historians, even as communalist politics continues to unsettle South Asia today. However, research findings by Mughal historians are often inaccessible to the public, especially in Pakistan, due to limited resources and avenues for history, education and public discourse. To bridge this gap, here is a viewpoint based on evidence and conclusions from decades of research by Mughal historians in North America, Europe and India.

The Mughals were Muslim rulers who saw no contradiction but sought peace and prosperity in collaboration and intimacy with Hindus and other faith communities. The Mughal state was neither secular nor was Islam its sole state religion. The temptation of imposing the categories of modern South Asian states on the pre-modern past should be avoided.

Decades of research by Mughal historians have established collaboration and intimacy between Hindus and Muslims, even as communalist politics unsettles South Asia today

The Mughals identified as Muslims alongside employing, marrying, and engaging those from other faith communities. They sponsored and participated in rituals and festivals we today associate with Hindus, Zoroastrians and other faiths. This political philosophy was called sulh-i kull (peace with all).

As Muslim rulers, why did the Mughals have no problem with Hindus? There are at least three explanations offered across research in Mughal history:

1) The Mughals became Indian. The first Mughal, Babur, was curious about India’s society and environment, yet nostalgic for his home in Central Asia. Babur particularly longed for Ferghana Valley’s famous peaches, as illustrated by Stephen F. Dale in The Garden of the Eight Paradises. Two generations later, his grandson Akbar was at home in India. He married Hindu Rajput women and made India his emotional world. Akbar requested his court poet Faizi specifically for a story about love in India, leading to the first Persian translation of the Nal Daman, according to historian Muzaffar Alam.

Akbar’s grandson Shah Jahan was three-quarter Rajput by blood. Less than two hundred years later, the last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, lamented the loss of his homeland, India, while in exile in Burma in his famous verse: lagta nahin hai dil mera ujrray dayaar mein/Kis ki bani hai ‘aalam-i-na-payedaar mein (My heart has no repose in this isolated valley/ Who has gotten by in a futile world).

Alongside becoming Indian, the Mughals saw no conflict in being of Central Asian origin and also located themselves within broader Persianate and Islamic realms. Azfar Moin has shown in his 2012 work, The Millennial Sovereign, that Mongol descent was key for Mughal claims to divine kingship at the turn of the Islamic millenium. In a recent book, Persianate Selves, Mana Kia illustrates that scholars at the Mughal court saw themselves as part of a shared Persianate geography, transcending the modern national constructions of Iran, India, Afghanistan and Central Asia. Trade, pilgrimage and knowledge provided continued links between the Mughals, their successor states and the larger Islamic world, as several works by Nile Green attest and the forthcoming works of Rishad Choudhury and Usman Hamid will demonstrate. All four identities — Indian, Central Asian, Persianate and Islamic — were hence claimed by the Mughals, without the contestations we would encounter today.

2) Religious difference with Hindus was not a political faultline for the Mughals or preceding Muslim rulers. The Mughals did not view Hindus as their political rivals by virtue of their religion. Mughal rule was characterised by long-lasting curiosity and respect for Indian knowledge systems, alongside collaborative governance with Hindus and other faith communities. On many occasions, the lines of difference were even blurred, as we shall see below. Books in recent years by Audrey Truschke and Rajeev Kinra convincingly show that both Sanskrit knowledge and Brahmin bureaucrats had a high status at the Mughal court. Akbar’s finance minister, Raja Todar Mal, was valued for bringing the best practices of the Rajputs to shape Mughal economic policies.

Aurangzeb’s conflict with Rajput nobles was not religiously motivated, as M. Athar Ali successfully demonstrates in his 1966 book The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb. Rather, Aurangzeb redistributed administrative assignments from the Rajputs to a rising local nobility in the Deccan in order to consolidate his political power. Munis D. Faruqui shows in his 2012 book The Princes of the Mughal Empire 1504–1719 that, for Mughal princes, strengthening local alliances through collaboration and marriage proved to be a make-or-break factor as they contended for the Mughal throne.

Historians have also successfully challenged the notion that mediaeval Muslim conquests of India occurred to wipe out infidels. In A Book of Conquest, Mannan Ahmed Asif argues that the arrival of Muhammad bin Qasim did not obliterate local practices but rather Islamic and Indic political ethics converged in mediaeval Sindh. Earlier, Romila Thapar demonstrates that the looting of Hindu temples was a financially-motivated practice of mediaeval warfare amongst Hindus and Muslims, often to pay mercenary soldiers from temple treasuries. The looting of the Somnath temple by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 was, by no means, an exceptional act of violence by a Muslim invader.

3) Islam in Mughal and mediaeval India took many shapes in conversation and contact with a range of local beliefs and practices. Several historians have written about inter-religious and inter-sectarian exchange under the Mughals and in earlier periods. Historian Supriya Gandhi has shown in The Emperor Who Never Was that Dara Shikoh’s political philosophy and personal spirituality were constituted by both Sufi and Vedantic ideas. This was part of a longer tradition of dialogue on philosophical and ethical concerns, between different faith communities at the Mughal court as the work of Corinne Lefevre on the Majalis-i Jahangiri illustrates.

Similarly, there is emerging evidence of Shia and Sunni intellectual collaboration alongside theological debate in Mughal India, as well as interconnections between Sufism and Islamic law. In An Indian Economic & Social History Review, Ali Anooshahr has recently shown that a steady stream of Shia and Sunni scholars from Iran and Central Asia arrived at Mughal and regional courts. A notable example is Mir Fathullah Shirazi, who developed military cannons and contributed to astronomy, law and financial administration. In his forthcoming work, Daniel Jacobius Morgan shows the interconnection between Shariah-minded legalism and Sufi mysticism, through the works of Shah Waliullah’s family.

Moving beyond the Mughal context, in Monsoon Islam, Sebastian Prange illuminates how mediaeval Muslim communities on the Malabar Coast forged varying traditions from other regions in South Asia, based on trade and the environment. In a study from an even earlier period, Finbarr B. Flood illustrates, through changes in architecture, objects and coins, that mediaeval Muslim cultures in South Asia assumed distinct forms based on encounters with regional Hindu and Buddhist practices.

Decades of research on Mughal and mediaeval history disprove an increasingly pervasive viewpoint of cultural incompatibility and religious difference amongst Muslims and Hindus. This misperception was initially perpetuated by colonial policies and solidified by South Asia’s many partitions.

Unfortunately, this misperception has been further strengthened by anti-Muslim sentiments and policies across the border in Modi’s India. Perhaps, the next time nationalists attempt to halt the construction of a Hindu temple in Pakistan or Muslims are maligned and killed for beef consumption and temples are constructed on razed mosque sites in India, we can turn to our shared Mughal past as an alternative model for Muslim-Hindu relations.

Mariam Sabri is a PhD Candidate at the University of California Berkeley, specialising in Mughal history and the history of science


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