George Sutherland

George Sutherland

George Sutherland nasceu em Stony Stratford, Inglaterra, em 25 de março de 1862. Quando ele era criança, a família emigrou para os Estados Unidos. Eles se estabeleceram em Utah e mais tarde foram educados na Brigham Young Academy e na Universidade de Michigan.

Sutherland foi admitido na ordem em 1883 e praticou em Provo, Utah. Membro do Partido Republicano, Sutherland serviu na Câmara dos Representantes (1901-03) e no Senado dos Estados Unidos (1905-17).

Depois de ser derrotado em 1916, Sutherland tornou-se consultor jurídico de Warren Harding. Logo depois que Harding se tornou presidente, ele nomeou Sutherland para a Suprema Corte. Sutherland era um juiz conservador e em 1923 proibiu o salário mínimo.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, o candidato do Partido Democrata, foi eleito presidente em 1932. Nos anos seguintes, Sutherland e os outros juízes que apoiavam o Partido Republicano, decidiram contra a Administração de Recuperação Nacional (NRA), a Lei de Ajuste Agrícola ( AAA) e dez outras leis do New Deal.

Em 2 de fevereiro de 1937, Franklin D. Roosevelt fez um discurso atacando a Suprema Corte por suas ações sobre a legislação do New Deal. Ele apontou que sete dos nove juízes (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, Benjamin Cardozo e Pierce Butler) foram nomeados por presidentes republicanos. Roosevelt acabara de ganhar a reeleição por 10.000.000 de votos e se ressentia do fato de os juízes poderem vetar uma legislação que claramente tinha o apoio da vasta maioria do público.

Roosevelt sugeriu que a idade era um grande problema, pois seis dos juízes tinham mais de 70 anos (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, Louis Brandeis e Pierce Butler). Roosevelt anunciou que iria pedir ao Congresso a aprovação de um projeto de lei permitindo ao presidente expandir a Suprema Corte adicionando um novo juiz, até um máximo de seis, para cada juiz atual com mais de 70 anos.

Charles Hughes percebeu que o Projeto de Reorganização da Corte de Roosevelt resultaria na Suprema Corte ficando sob o controle do Partido Democrata. Seu primeiro movimento foi providenciar para que uma carta escrita por ele fosse publicada por Burton Wheeler, presidente do Comitê Judiciário. Na carta, Hughes refutou convincentemente todas as afirmações feitas por Franklin D. Roosevelt.

No entanto, nos bastidores, Charles Hughes estava ocupado fazendo acordos para garantir que o projeto de lei de Roosevelt fosse derrotado no Congresso. Em 29 de março, Owen Roberts anunciou que havia mudado de ideia sobre votar contra a legislação do salário mínimo. Hughes também reverteu sua opinião sobre a Lei da Previdência Social e a Lei Nacional de Relações Trabalhistas (NLRA) e por uma votação de 5-4 eles foram agora declarados constitucionais.

Então Willis Van Devanter, provavelmente o mais conservador dos juízes, anunciou sua intenção de renunciar. Ele foi substituído por Hugo Black, um membro do Partido Democrata e um forte defensor do New Deal. Em julho de 1937, o Congresso derrotou o Projeto de Lei de Reorganização do Tribunal por 70-20. No entanto, Roosevelt teve a satisfação de saber que tinha uma Suprema Corte que agora tinha menos probabilidade de bloquear sua legislação.

George Sutherland renunciou à Suprema Corte em 1938 aos 76 anos. Ele morreu em Stockbridge, Massachusetts, em 18 de julho de 1942.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

George Sutherland serviu como juiz associado da Suprema Corte dos EUA de 1922 a 1938. Jurista conservador, Sutherland se opôs aos esforços do Congresso e das legislaturas estaduais para regulamentar os negócios e as condições de trabalho. Durante a década de 1930, ele fez parte de um bloco conservador que governou partes importantes do presidente Franklin d como inconstitucionais. programa de novos negócios de roosevelt.

Sutherland nasceu em 25 de março de 1862, em Buckinghamshire, Inglaterra. Quando Sutherland era criança, seus pais emigraram para os Estados Unidos, estabelecendo-se em Provo, Utah. Sutherland formou-se na Brigham Young University em 1881 e frequentou a Escola de Direito da Universidade de Michigan em 1882 e 1883. Ele foi admitido na Ordem dos Advogados de Michigan em 1883, mas voltou no mesmo ano para Utah, onde estabeleceu um escritório de advocacia em Salt Lake City.

Sutherland interessou-se por política e serviu na legislatura territorial. Em 1896, depois que Utah se tornou um estado, Sutherland foi eleito para o primeiro Senado de Utah como membro do partido republicano. Em 1901 foi eleito para a Câmara dos Representantes dos Estados Unidos e, em 1905, tornou-se senador dos Estados Unidos por Utah.

"[O] epitáfio mais triste que pode ser gravado na memória [para] uma liberdade desaparecida é que ela foi perdida porque seus possuidores falharam em estender a mão salvadora enquanto ainda havia tempo."
—George Sutherland

Apesar da reputação de Sutherland como um conservador político no Congresso, ele apoiou os programas de reforma do presidente Theodore Roosevelt. Ele também apoiou a legislação de compensação de trabalhadores para trabalhadores ferroviários e a décima nona emenda à Constituição dos EUA, que

previsto para o sufrágio feminino. No entanto, ele acreditava que os direitos individuais eram fundamentais e que o governo não deveria interferir na maioria das atividades econômicas.

Depois de ser derrotado na eleição para o Senado de 1916, Sutherland envolveu-se na política nacional republicana e serviu como conselheiro do presidente warren g. Harding, que foi eleito em 1920. O nome de Sutherland foi mencionado por vários anos como um possível nomeado para a Suprema Corte e, em setembro de 1922, Harding indicou Sutherland para a Corte.

Sutherland ingressou em uma Suprema Corte dominada por conservadores. Como a maioria conservadora, Sutherland acreditava na doutrina do devido processo substantivo, que sustentava que as cláusulas do devido processo da Quinta e Décima Quarta Emendas à Constituição dos Estados Unidos poderiam ser invocadas para impor limites à substância das regulamentações governamentais e outras atividades pelas quais o governo afeta "vida, liberdade e propriedade." Desde a década de 1880, a Suprema Corte invocou o devido processo legal substantivo para derrubar uma variedade de leis estaduais e federais que regulamentavam as condições de trabalho, salários e atividades comerciais.

Sutherland também aderiu ao conceito de liberdade contratual, segundo o qual o governo não deveria interferir no direito dos indivíduos de firmar contratos com seus empregadores em relação a salários, horas e condições de trabalho. Sutherland escreveu a opinião da maioria em Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. 785 (1923), no qual o Tribunal derrubou uma lei federal de salário mínimo para mulheres trabalhadoras no Distrito de Columbia. Sutherland concluiu que o empregador e o empregado tinham o direito constitucional de negociar quaisquer termos que quisessem em relação aos salários. Sutherland rejeitou a ideia de que o Congresso tinha autoridade para corrigir as disparidades sociais e econômicas que afetam a sociedade em geral.

Com a quebra do mercado de ações em 1929 e a Grande Depressão da década de 1930, a maioria conservadora na Corte foi submetida a intenso escrutínio público e político. A eleição de Franklin D. Roosevelt em 1932 sinalizou uma mudança na filosofia em relação ao papel do governo federal. O New Deal de Roosevelt teve como premissa o planejamento econômico nacional e a criação de agências administrativas para regular os negócios e o trabalho. Isso foi um anátema para Sutherland e seus irmãos conservadores.

De 1933 a 1937, o Tribunal anulou várias medidas do New Deal. Sutherland, junto com os juízes james c. mcreynolds, willis van devanter e pierce butler formaram o núcleo da oposição aos esforços federais para revitalizar a economia e criar uma rede de segurança social. Os chamados Quatro Cavaleiros ajudaram a declarar inconstitucional a lei de recuperação industrial nacional de 1933 em Schechter Poultry Corporation v. Estados Unidos, 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570 (1935), e a Lei de Ajuste Agrícola de 1933 em Estados Unidos x Butler, 297 U.S. 1, 56 S. Ct. 312, 80 L. Ed. 477 (1936).

Roosevelt respondeu propondo um plano de remessa do tribunal que teria acrescentado um juiz adicional ao Tribunal para cada membro com mais de setenta anos. Este plano tinha como alvo os Quatro Cavaleiros e, se implementado, teria cancelado seus votos. Embora o plano de Roosevelt tenha sido rejeitado pelo Congresso, o debate nacional sobre o papel do governo federal e a recalcitrância da Suprema Corte levou membros mais moderados da Corte a mudar suas posições e votar a favor das propostas do New Deal. Com a mudança da maré, Sutherland se aposentou em 1938.

Apesar de suas opiniões conservadoras sobre o governo e os negócios, Sutherland defendeu os direitos de liberdade, bem como os direitos de propriedade. Em powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45, 53 S. Ct. 55, 77 L. Ed. 158 (1932), Sutherland revogou as condenações dos "meninos de Scottsboro", um grupo de jovens afro-americanos condenados à morte por suposta agressão sexual a duas mulheres brancas. Sutherland decidiu que a sexta emenda garante assessoria jurídica adequada em processos criminais estaduais.

Sutherland morreu em 18 de julho de 1942, em Stock-bridge, Massachusetts.


George Sutherland - História

por DANIEL J. J. SUTHERLAND

Enraizado na tradição e envolto nos véus do tempo, a história do Clã Sutherland é cheia de enigmas. Acredita-se que a árvore genealógica do Clã pode ter sua origem na Flandres e também na Escócia, com sua sociedade tribal de pictos e celtas. Muito da história, especialmente do período inicial se perdeu, mas a partir de fontes escritas que sobreviveram, a genealogia do Clã é traçada de Moray no século 12 a um novo padrão de colonização e expansão, primeiro em Sutherland e Caithness, mais tarde na Escócia e em outro lugar.

Na árvore do Clã, os Condes de Sutherland, os Lairds de Forse e os Lairds de Duffus e Skelbo juntos representam o tronco e os ramos principais. Este ensaio pretende dar a descendência dessas três famílias: indicar alguns dos ramos mais jovens e situar a história do Clã em sua configuração geográfica para o período anterior às grandes mudanças do século XIX. Chefes, chefes e clãs, os 'clãs' ou filhos de um ancestral comum, sobrevivem nos registros desse período, um período de sete séculos com mais de vinte gerações. Na história das Terras Altas, eles participaram dos assuntos de seu Clã e terras, muito antes das grandes mudanças que se seguiram aos conflitos de Culloden, da Bastilha e de Waterloo e que extinguiram o antigo modo de vida nas Terras Altas. Muitos do Clã estiveram envolvidos em eventos históricos em toda a extensão, como Bannockburn e Halidon Hill, o serviço de armas aos Países Baixos e a Rússia e a implantação de novas colônias da Nova Escócia às Índias Ocidentais. Não se pretende entrar nesses aspectos da história. Eles fazem parte do pano de fundo da genealogia do Clã. As informações para este ensaio foram retiradas de fontes impressas, numeradas entre () e listadas abaixo. Muito citado nessas fontes é uma obra especialmente interessante do século XVII. É 'A história genealógica do Conde de Sutherland desde sua origem até o ano de 1630. com uma continuação até o ano de 1651 ', escrito por Sir Robert Gordon de Gordonstoun, filho de Alexander, décimo primeiro conde de Sutherland, e por Gilbert Gordon de Sailagh, impresso em 1813. Essas fontes têm muito interesse para os estudantes da história do Clã Sutherland .

1. A FAMÍLIA DE SUTHERLAND, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND

A genealogia do Clã e da dinastia do Conde começou com Freskin. Sua origem é incerta. Seus descendentes são descritos como 'de Sutherland', mais tarde 'Sutherland'. O filho mais velho sucedeu como chefe da família e, eventualmente, como chefe do clã e conde (velho nórdico: chefe do conde, nobre). Já no século 15, provavelmente muito antes, a família vivia no Castelo de Dunrobin, que se acredita ser uma das casas mais antigas da Grã-Bretanha continuamente habitada por uma família. O nome vem do gaélico Dun Robin, colina ou forte de Robin.

1. Freskin, primeiro ancestral registrado dos condes de Sutherland, que pode ser de origem flamenga, teve do rei David I (1124-1153) Strabrock em West Lothian e Duffus em Moray. Freskin é nomeado em uma carta a seu filho William pelo Rei William, o Leão (1165-1214) entre 1166 e 1171.

2. William, filho de Freskin ,. testemunhou um foral em 1160 teve um foral das terras de seu pai entre 1166 e 1171 e pode ter sido William Fresekyn, & quotSheriff of Invernaryn & quot nomeado em 1204. William tinha três filhos:

b. William, filho de William filho de Freskin, nomeado com seu irmão Hugh como testemunha depois de 1195, era Senhor de Petty, Bracholy, Boharm e Arteldol, e acredita-se que seja o ancestral dos Moreias de Bothwell.

c. André, nomeado antes de 1203 como filho de William, filho de Freskin, e como Parsons de Duffus, mais tarde como irmão de Hugh Freskin e William, pode ter vivido em 1221.

3. Hugh, filho de William filho de Freskin, também denominado Hugh Freskin e Hugh de Moravia em cartas de 1195 em diante, era herdeiro de Duffus e Strabrock. O Bispo de Moray deu a ele, Senhor de Duffus, uma capela gratuita no Castelo de Duffus entre 1203 e 1214. Em 1211 ele também tinha Skelbo e outras terras em Sutherland. Ele deu Skelbo, Invershin e Fernebucklyn a Gilbert de Moravia, arquidiácono de Moray. Skelbo foi entregue pelo serviço de um arqueiro e pelo serviço ao rei. Hugh Freskin morreu antes de 1222 e foi enterrado na igreja de Duffus, deixando três filhos:

b. Walter, filho de Hugh Freskin casou-se com Euphemia, filha de Ferquhard, conde de Ross. Ele morreu c. 1263 e foi enterrado em Duffus.

c. André, filho de Hugh de Moravia, nomeado entre 1203 e 1214 como Pároco de Duffus e em 1222 como Bispo de Moray, pode ter começado a construção da Catedral de Elgin. Ele morreu em 1242.

4. William, filho e herdeiro de Hugh Freskin e Senhor de Sutherland, confirmou o foral de seu pai de Skelbo e outras terras dadas ao arquidiácono Gilbert, entre 1211 e 1222. Ele é nomeado em 1232 como William de Sutherland e talvez em 1235 ou mais tarde foi feito conde de Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que ajudou Gilbert, Bispo de Caithness, na construção da Catedral de Dornoch. Diz-se que o conde morreu em 1248 e foi sepultado na catedral. Ele teve um filho William.

5. William, filho de William e segundo conde de Sutherland. nomeado em contas de pagamento ao rei (Alexander m, 1249-1286) em 1263 e 1266, testemunhou em 1269 uma carta pelo Conde de Ross de terras para a Igreja de Moray. Em Scone, em Perthshire, ele compareceu em 1283-84 ao Parlamento que aceitou a Infante Margarida da Noruega como Rainha da Escócia. Como neta do rei Alexandre III, a Donzela da Noruega sucedeu ao Reino da Escócia em 1286, mas morreu a caminho da Escócia c. 1290. O conde William apoiou a reivindicação ao trono do Rei Robert I ('The Bruce' 1306-1329) e em Berwick em 1296 assinou o rol de homenagem, mas mais tarde aderiu ao rei inglês (Edward I, 'Longshanks,' 1272- 1307) e morreu c. 1306-7. Ele tinha dois filhos:

uma. William, filho de William e terceiro conde de Sutherland. um menor quando seu pai morreu, sucedeu em 1306-7. Sua proteção foi dada a John, filho mais novo do conde de Ross. Em 1308-9, o jovem conde compareceu ao Parlamento em St Andrews. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que o conde lutou em Bannockburn (Stirling), a batalha de 1314 que deu a Bruce o governo da Escócia. O conde assinou em 1320 a carta dos nobres ao Papa João XXII, conhecida como Declaração de Arbroath, afirmando a total independência da Escócia da Coroa Inglesa. Ele morreu antes de 1331.

6. Kenneth, filho de William e quarto conde de Sutherland. sucedeu seu irmão William antes de 1331. Os escoceses, tentando levantar o cerco de Berwick, foram com grandes perdas derrotados pelos ingleses, e o conde foi morto, na batalha de Halidon Hill em 1333. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que Earl Kenneth se casou Mary, filha de Donald, Conde de Mar. Ele tinha dois filhos e uma filha.

b. Nicholas, ANCESTOR DAS LAIRDS OF DUFFUS

c. Eastachia casado c. 1330 Gilbert Moray de Culbin

7. William, filho de Kenneth e quinto conde de Sutherland, sucedeu seu pai em 1333. Acredita-se que o conde tenha lutado em Kilblene e participado do cerco ao castelo de Cupar, em Fife. Com o conde de March, ele participou de uma incursão na Inglaterra. O conde William casou-se com Margaret, irmã do rei Davi II (1329-71). Os cônjuges possuíam em 1345 terras em Angus, Kincardine e Aberdeen & quotSutherland tornou-se uma realeza. & Quot Eles também tinham em 1346 o penhasco de Dunnottar em Angus, com licença para construir uma fortaleza. Em 1346-47, após a morte da princesa Margaret, sua condessa, o conde se casou com Joanna Menteith. Aparentemente, o conde com 'muitos homens em armas' acompanhou o rei Davi II à Inglaterra e ambos foram capturados na batalha de Neville's Cross por Durham em 1346, mas em 1351 o conde tinha um salvo-conduto para conferir em Newcastle o resgate do rei. Para o retorno do rei à Escócia, o conde deu seu filho bebê e herdeiro como refém. Em 1357, o conde e seu filho tornaram-se reféns para o pagamento do resgate do rei. Eles permaneceram na Inglaterra por mais de dez anos, ocasionalmente visitando a Escócia. Em 1358-59 receberam do rei o baronato e o castelo de Urquhart de Inverness. O conde William morreu provavelmente em 1370, talvez morto em vingança por sua participação no assassinato em Dingwallof Iye Mackay, chefe do clã, e Donald, seu filho, naquele mesmo ano. O conde William teve três filhos, dos quais o mais velho com sua primeira esposa:

uma. John, um refém na Inglaterra, aparentemente ainda muito jovem morreu lá em Lincoln da peste em 1361.

c. Kenneth, ANCESTOR DAS LAIRDS OF FORSE

8. Robert, filho de William e sexto conde de Sutherland (em ou antes de 1389) é nomeado pelo cronista Froissart como um líder dos escoceses que invadiram o oeste da Inglaterra em 1388. Em 1400-1 ele deu a seu irmão Kenneth um carta de Drummoy e outras terras. A carta dá a referência mais antiga conhecida ao Castelo de Dunrobin. O conde se casou com Margaret Stewart, filha de Alexandre, conde de Buchan e diz-se que morreu em 1442. Ele teve três filhos:

b. Robert, nomeado por Sir Robert Gordon como filho do Conde Robert.

c. Alexander, também nomeado por Sir Robert.

9. John, filho de Robert e sétimo conde de Sutherland, acompanhou seu tio Alexander Stewart, conde de Mar, a Flandres c.1408. O cronista contemporâneo Wyntoun afirma que o conde de Mar fez cavaleiro de alguns de seus escudeiros, dos quais John de Sutherland & quothis tornou-se um senhor apperand de vertew, Heretabil Eri daquele país. Em 1427, o conde John foi provavelmente um dos reféns do rei Jaime I, que foi mantido na Inglaterra de 1406 a 1424. O conde foi confinado no Castelo de Pontefract em Yorkshire e de lá deu em 1444 um foral de Torboll em Sutherland para seu parente Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. Em 1448 ele estava em Dunrobin e em 1451, junto com sua esposa Margaret Baillie, recebeu um terreno na Paróquia de Loth em Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que o conde John morreu em 1460 e foi enterrado na capela de Santo André em Golspie em Sutherland. Ele tinha quatro ou cinco filhos, um filho natural e uma filha:

uma. Alexandre, filho de João e Mestre de Sutherland, nomeado em 1449, morreu provavelmente antes de 1456.

c. Nicholas, nomeado pelo conde John em uma carta de 1448 como seu filho.

d. Thomas Beg (Little Thomas), nomeado por Sir Robert Gordon como ancestral dos Sutherlands em Strathullie, (o strath de Kildonan), um amplo vale atravessado pelo rio Uilligh (rio Helmsdale) com extensões de terra plana e baixa (srath) , delimitada por um terreno elevado na freguesia de Kildonan em Sutherland.

e. Robert pode ser o tio do conde nomeado por Sir Robert Gordon como presente no conflito em Aldycharrish (Strath Oykell) em 1487.

f. Janet casou-se em 1480 com Alexander, filho de Sir Alexander Dunbar de Westfield, irmão de Sir James Dunbar de Cumnock.

g. Thomas Mor (Big Thomas), descrito por Sir Robert Gordon como o filho natural do conde, cujos dois filhos foram mortos pelo tio conde John.

10. John, filho de John e oitavo conde de Sutherland, nomeado em 1455-56, foi em 1494 declarado louco e colocado aos cuidados de Sir James Dunbar de Cumnock, que em 1497-98 acompanhou o conde e seu filho ao rei James IV (1488-1513). Sir Robert Gordon afirma que o conde se casou com uma filha de Alexander MacDonald. Senhor das Ilhas que quase se afogou ao cruzar em Littleferry o rio Unes (o estuário da Frota entre Dornoch e Golspie), ela foi morta por um ladrão. A segunda esposa do conde era aparentemente Fingole, filha de William de Calder, Thane de Cawdor, viúva de John Monro de Fowlis, que morreu em ou antes de 1491; um divórcio entre ela e o conde estava sendo preparado em 1497-98 e ele se casou em terceiro lugar Catarina, nomeada condessa de Sutherland em 1509-12. O conde teria morrido em 1508. Ele tinha dois filhos e uma filha:

b. Elizabeth, filha de John e da condessa de Sutherland, casou-se com Adam Gordon de Aboyne em 1500, ano dado por Sir Robert Gordon. Seu esposo era filho de George, conde de Huntly. Elizabeth sucedeu a seu irmão John por & quotinfeftment & quot de 1515, renunciando o condado a seu filho mais velho, Alexandre. ANCESTOR DA FAMÍLIA DE GORDON, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND. A Condessa Elizabeth morreu no Castelo de Aboyne, Deeside, em Aberdeen, em 1505.

c. Alexandre, descrito por Sir Robert Gordon como o filho natural do conde John com uma filha de Ross de Balnagown, nascido em 1491, se opôs à sucessão de seu irmão, aos dezoito anos em 1509. O direito de sucessão de Alexandre era reservado se o herdeiro de sua meia-irmã Elizabeth falhasse. Ele também foi recompensado com terras no valor de quarenta charcos anuais, mas em 1514, auxiliado por seu meio-irmão Robert Munro como procurador, ele se opôs à irmã como herdeira do irmão dela, o conde John. Em 1515, ele apreendeu e manteve o Castelo Dunrobin, após o que foi encarcerado em Edimburgo. Em 1515, ele novamente tomou posse do castelo, mas foi forçado a se render e em 1519-20 foi morto em Kintradwell por Brora. Ele se casou com uma filha de Iye Roy-Mackay de Strathnaver e teve descendentes.

11. John, filho de John e nono Conde de Sutherland, em tenra idade foi levado com seu pai na presença do Rei Jaime IV em 1493 e sucedeu em 1508 como pupilo da Coroa, o Conde sendo administrado por Andrew Stewart, Bispo de Caithness. Em Perth, em 1514, o conde foi declarado legalmente incapaz. Na questão de seu sucessor, o conde declarou que Elizabeth, sua irmã, e Adam Gordon, seu marido e seus filhos, eram seus herdeiros mais próximos. Sua morte um mês depois, em 1514, marcou o fim da primeira dinastia dos Condes de Sutherland.

4. A FAMÍLIA DE SUTHERLAND, LAIRDS OF DUFFUS E SKELBO (1)

A família descendia de Freskin por meio de Kenneth, quarto conde de Sutherland e Mary, filha do conde de Mar, sua condessa. Eles viviam em Duffus by Elgin em Moray e Skelbo por Dornoch em Sutherland, dois castelos de venerável antiguidade, ambos agora em ruínas.

1. Nicholas, filho de Kenneth, quarto conde de Sutherland, tinha em 1360 Torboll em Sutherland de seu irmão William, quinto conde de Sutherland, para o serviço de um cavaleiro. Sua esposa, Mary, filha de Reginald le Cheyne e de Mary, Lady of Duffus, trouxe-lhe parte de Duffus em Moray e terras em Caithness. Em 1370, Nicholas esteve envolvido no assassinato em Dingwall (Ross-shire) de Iye Mackay, Chefe do o Clã e Donald, seu filho. Em 1408 ele é nomeado Senhor do Castelo de Duffus. Ele tinha dois filhos:

uma. João, filho e herdeiro de Nicolau, ratificou a concessão de terras por seu pai a seu irmão Henrique em 1408. De 1424 a 1427 João foi um dos reféns do rei Jaime I (1406-24 cativo na Inglaterra, r. 1424-37 )

b. Henry (como 2). 2. Henry, filho de Nicholas, teve Torboll de Robert, sexto Conde de Sutherland. Ele morreu antes de 1434. Margaret Mureff (Moray) é nomeada como esposa de Henry de Sutherland em 1438. Em sua morte, ela tinha um terreno com casas a leste de Wick em Caithness 'abon the sand' detidas por Deus e 'Haly Kirk' e de St. Patrono Fergus de Wick. Henry teve um filho (como 3).

3. Alexandre sucedeu a seu pai Henrique em Torboll e teve Duffus em ou antes de 1434, quando deu vinte e um bois de terra em West Lothian a Robert Crichton de Sanquhar. Ele vendeu suas terras em Forfar. Em 1444 ele teve a confirmação de suas terras de Torboll de John, sétimo conde de Sutherland e pode ter visitado o conde que era então um refém no Castelo de Pontefract. Em um mandado da Coroa de 1541, ele é chamado de Sir Alexander Sutherland de Duffus. Ele se casou com Muriel, filha de John Chisholm de Chisholm em 1433-34 e tinha Quarrelwood e outras terras perto de Elgin em Moray. Ele parece ter morrido antes de 1484 e teve dois filhos e três filhas:

b. Angus teve Torboll e se casou com Christina. Eles tinham problemas.

c. Isabella, viva em 1502, casou-se com Alexander Dunbar de Westfield.

d. Dorothea, dita ser filha de Alexander Sutherland de Duffus, foi apontada como motivo contribuinte para a morte na batalha de Alli Charrais de Alexander Ross, seu esposo em 1486 (Nota: Sir Robert Gordon menciona a batalha como em Aldycharrish em 1487, DJJS).

e. Muriel disse ser outra filha de Alexandre se casou com Alexandre Seton de Meldrum e Andrew Fraser de Stanywood, com quem ela teve um foral da Coroa de Stanywood em 1501.

4. William é nomeado 'de Berydall' (Berriedale em Caithness) em 1451 e como filho e herdeiro aparente de Alexander Sutherland e de Muriel, sua esposa. Ele morreu logo depois de 1474. Ele tinha dois filhos e uma filha:

uma. Alexander, provavelmente aquele que teve parte de Strabrock em 1475, morreu antes de 1479 como neto de 'Ald Alexander de Sutherland' e deixou uma filha Christina que foi nomeada em 1494 como filha de Alexander Sutherland de Strabrock e sucedeu a Duffus e terras em Caithness. Ela se casou com c. 1489 William Oliphant e mais tarde Sir Thomas Lundin de Pratis. Uma disputa entre Chnstina e seu tio William Sutherland foi resolvida por um apelo ao Papa, c. 1507.

c. Isabel casou-se em 1474 com Hew Rose, mais jovem de Kilravock.

5. Guilherme, assumido em segundo lugar de Guilherme, nomeado em 1484 tinha Quarrelwood e Duffus, e em 1507, uma carta da Coroa de Duffus. Ele contestou a legitimidade de Cristina, sua sobrinha. Ele morreu antes de 1514, talvez na batalha de Flodden (Berwiek), a derrota dos escoceses sob o rei Jaime IV (1488-1513) em 1513. William aparentemente se casou com Lady Greeship de Janet Innes 'e teve um filho (como 6).

6. William, filho de William, teve Duffus. provavelmente também teve Quarrelwood em ou antes de 1513-1514. e por infeftment de 1519-26 teve as terras de seu pai de Birchmond (Brichtmony em Nairn). em 1524 Ring James V (1513-42) deu-lhe Kinsteary (Nairn). Em 1525 ele teve Torboll e Pronsy. As obras de terraplenagem do Castelo Pronsy na freguesia de Dornoch são os restos de uma antiga fortaleza. Essas terras haviam sido anteriormente mantidas por Hugh Sutherland, filho de Angus (como 3b), de Elizabeth, Condessa de Sutherland e Adam Gordon como senhores feudais. Casou-se com Janet, filha de Alexandre Innes de Innes, e morreu em 1529. Teve dois filhos e uma filha:

b. Alexandre foi Reitor de Duffus em 1512, Capelão da capela do Castelo Duffus em 1524 e Dean (chefe do capítulo de uma catedral) de Caithness. (Foi Gilbert de Moray, bispo de Caithness e santo padroeiro de Dornoch quem fundou a catedral de Dornoch na diocese de Caithness, incluindo o condado de Sutherland, DJJS>. Alexandre fundou aniversários (a celebração da missa em memória de alguém no dia de sua morte) para seus pais, seu irmão William e outros. Em 1549 ele foi curador de seu sobrinho-neto Alexander Sutherland de Duffus e ainda estava vivo em 1551.

c. Elizabeth se casou com John, terceiro conde de Caithness.

7. William sucedeu em 1527-29 como filho mais velho seu pai William Sutherland de Duffus e Quarrelwood em Elgin e Nairn nas terras de Brichtmony, Kinstearie e Auldearn. Em 1529, ele comprou de John Kynnard daquele Ilk certas terras, incluindo Skelbo na soberania do Conde de Sutherland, pagando 2.300 merks escoceses e dando um título de manrent (os homens a quem um senhor poderia convocar na guerra) como inquilino e vassalo de o conde. Em 1530, o rei Jaime V deu-lhe certos direitos na Stratnaver anteriormente detidos por Hugh Mackay de Farr. Conforme afirmado por Sir Robert Gordon, William Sutherland de Duffus foi por instigação do Bispo de Caithness morto pelo Clã Gunn em Thurso em 1530. Ele teve um filho (como 8).

8. William, filho de William Sutherland de Duffus, desafiou o bispo a responder pela morte de seu pai. Quando o bispo ignorou seu desafio. o jovem laird Sized os servos do bispo, após o que ele e seu tio, o decano de Caithness, foram encarcerados e pelo Conselho Privado compelidos a fazer as pazes com o bispo. Em 1535, William herdou outras terras de Terboll e, em 1540, deu Kinsteary e Brichtmony a John Campbell de Calder. Em 1542, um júri o declarou herdeiro legítimo do infeftment de seu pai nas terras e aluguéis em Inverness-shire. Também em 1542 ele resolveu uma violenta disputa com Donald Mackay de Farr sobre as terras concedidas a seu pai em 1530, o Conde Moray atuando como árbitro. William morreu em 1543. Sua esposa Elizabeth se casou em segundo lugar com James Murray de Culbardie. Ele tinha quatro filhos:

b. Guilherme de Evelix (freguesia de Dornoch), uma testemunha em 1562, participou na tomada do Castelo de Berriedale (Caithness) em 1566 e no ataque a Dornoch em 1570. onde se diz que espalhou as cinzas do Bispo Gilbert Moray ('Saint Gilbert') e morreu logo depois. (O castelo é agora uma ruína muito reduzida).

c. Nicholas, também testemunha em 1562, citado em cartas de 1562 e 1566, estava em Berriedale em 1566.

d. Walter é (talvez por engano) nomeado irmão de Alexandre em 1562).

9. Alexandre sucedeu a seu pai William Sutherland de Duffus antes de 1544. Ainda menor de idade em 1554, foi deixado com a dispensa do conde de Sutherland como suserano nas terras e no castelo de Skelbo, também em Invershin e em outras terras. Ele tinha sasine de Duffus em 1555. Em 1562, o conde de Sutherland fez Skelbo. Invershin, Pronsy, Torboll e todas as outras terras em Sutherland a serem mantidas por Alexander Sutherland de Duffus para 'proteção e alívio' e outros serviços no Baronato de Skelbo. Em 1560 ele compareceu ao Parlamento que ratificou a primeira confissão de fé. Em 1563, o conde havia confiscado o condado e Alexandre impediu Skelbo da coroa. Em 1559, o laird de Duffus e o conde de Caithness entraram em um acordo para o casamento de seus respectivos filhos mais velhos. Ele se envolveu nas disputas do conde e provavelmente consentiu na apreensão de Lorde Oliphant por seus irmãos do castelo Berriedale. Alexandre também participou com os homens do conde na invasão de Dornoch em 1567 e 1570. Ele se casou (contrato datado de 1552-53) com Janet, filha de James Grant de Freuchie. Ela se casou em segundo lugar com James Dempster de Auchterless (contrato de 1577). Alexandre teve três filhos e uma filha:

uma. Alexandre, nascido em c. 1554 é mencionado no contrato de seu futuro casamento com Elizabeth Sinclair.

c. James, nascido em 1561. foi colocado 'em adoção com Angus Hectorsone' a quem Alexandre, o pai de James, deu 'cinco meris (éguas) com ane stallione' e pelos quais foram adicionados 'quatro meris' para o benefício da criança. Em 1590, James foi advertido por sua mãe, Janet Grant. Em seu casamento com Violet, filha de Thomas Fraser de Strichen, ele teve Kinsteary em Moray de seu irmão William Sutherland. James foi o ancestral dos Sutherlands de Kinstearie.

d. Elizabeth casou-se (contrato de 1590) com Archibald Douglas de Pittendreich.

10. William, son and heir to Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, was infeft in Duffus and Greschip in 1579. He also had Quarrelwood and other lands. Although he had been appointed to keep order in the North, he is said to have reset (harbour) 'broken men' (outlaws) on his lands in 1587. In 1588 Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip and other lands were made into the barony of Duffus. In 1606 the laird of Duffus and the burgh of Dornoch agreed the boundaries between the lands of Skelbo and Pronsy and the burgh, a subject of prolonged disputers He married first in 1579. Margaret, daughter of George Sinclair, Earl of Caithness and secondly, before 1604, Margaret. daughter of William Macintosh of Dunachton. He died in 1616 and had three sons and two daughters:

b. James bought Kinminitie in Banff from James Grant of Freuehie and Blanch in the parish of Rogart in Sutherland together with other lands from John Murray of Aberscors in 1624. He was tutor to his nephew Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of Mionylangain, Longford. He died in 1679-80 and was ancestor to the Sutherlands of Kinminitie

c. John, ancestor to the Sutherlands of Clyne. (parish of Clyne, Sutherland).

d. Margaret married (contract of 1610) Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. Ela morreu jovem.

e. Janet married George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff.

11. William, son and heir to his father William Sutherland of Duffus inherited the barony of Skelbo in 1616. He was involved in several disputes with Sir Robert Gordon, with the Earl of Sutherland in or before 1617 over tithes and with John Gordon of Embo, a feud breaking out in 1625. In 1612 he married Jean or Janet, daughter of John Grant of Freuchie. He died in 1626 and had three sons and one daughter:

b. William, heir to his brother John in the lands of Kinminitie and other lands in Banff, infeft in 1662: named in the testament of his brother Lord Duffus in 1674 had Inverhassie in 1694.

c. John, named in 1649 as brother to the laird of Duffus and Commissioner of Supply for Elgin. He married (contract of 1656) Isabella, daughter of David Ross of Bainagown who married secondly (contract of 1659) James Innes Lichnet. John died in or before 1658.

d. Anne married Patrick Grant. As lieutenant-colonel took part in the battle of Worcester in England in 1651. She was still alive in 1663.

12. Alexander succeeded his father William when five years old In 1627 she was named heir to Duffus. His uncle, James Sutherland of Kinminitie, became his tutor. In 1641 Alexandar accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on his visit to England attending that same year the Parliament at Edinburgh and the arrival of King Charles I (1625-49). He was knighted before 1643 and served as a Commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. In 1647 he petitioned and received from Parliament, for loss in adhering to the Covenant, 3000 merks Scots of which one third for his uncle James Sutherland. He travelled in France and Holland returning from the continent with King Charles II (1649-85) to Scotland in 1650. He was fined for his opposition to Cromwell and the taking of Perth with 600 men. Alexander married first Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth secondly Jean, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Innes thirdly Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Ear] of Moray and fourthly Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Forbes. Lord Duffus died in 1674. He had three sons and three daughters:

c. Robin, named in his father's letter of 1666.

d. Marie, (named as Robin her brother).

e. Margaret, named in her father's will.

f. Henrietta, named in her father's will, married George, Earl of Linlithgow.

13. James, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father Alexander in 1674. He attended the Scots Parliament in 1678, 1681 and 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. Much indebted he sold or mortgaged his estate to his son James. In 1688, apparently in exasperation, Duffus drew his sword and killed William Ross of Kindeace, who had been pressing him for payment. Duffus fled to England but later appears to have been pardoned. In 1639 he supported the Prince of Orange and in 1690 took oath of allegiance to him as King William III (1689-1702). In 1695 his privilege of fairs and markets at Duffus was enacted in the Scots Parliament and in 1701 he supported the Darien Company, the dream of a Scots merchant colony in Central America (1698-1700), perhaps the worst economic disaster in Scottish history. He married (contract of 1674) Margaret daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth. He died in 1705 and had five sons and seven daughters:

b. James, advocate, in 1704 acquired his father's estate with a loan from Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton. Unable to pay, he parted with the estate to his creditor. After he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs. Assuming the surname Dunbar, he was made a baronet. He died before 1739 and had issue.

c. William of Roscommon married (contract of 1702) Helen, daughter of William Duff of Dipple. As a Jacobite he left Scotland after the rebellion of 1716.

f. Elizabeth had dancing lessons in Edinburgh in 1704 and married (contract of 1709) Sir John Gordon of Embo.

eu. Mary married James Sinclair of Mey.

j. Katharine married John Cuthbert, town clerk of Inverness.

k. Isabel was buried at Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1694.

1. Esther married John Ross. They were infeft in Easter Balvraid, parish of Dornoch, Sutherland, in 1711.

14. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, succeeded his father James in 1705. As a captain in the Queen's Navy (Queen Anne.1702-14), he, in 1711 with his frigate of forty-six guns, engaged eight French privateers, and wounded by five bullets was captured. Although he voted for the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1707), he joined the Jacobites in 1715, leading that year more than four hundred of the rebels into Tain and there proclaimed the Chevalier St. George, 'The Old Pretender' as King James VIII. The Lairds of Culloden and Kilravock refusing to surrender, the rebels marched South to join the Earl of Mar at Perth. After the Jacobite defeat of 171S the estate of Duffus was forfeited and Lord Duffus, by way of Caithness, escaped to Sweden. Preparing to return to Britain he was seized in Hamburg and imprisoned in the Tower of London but freed without trial in 1717. Later he entered the Russian Navy. He married (contract dated 1708) Charlotta Chnstina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, Governor of Gottenberg in Sweden. He died in or before 1734 and had one son and two daughters:

b. Charlotta named in 1778 as one ef her mother's executors.

c. Anna married Baron and Count Marshall Gustaff Adolf Palbitzki of Sweden. She also was named in 1778 as one of her mother's executors.

15. Eric, baptized in 1710, succeeded his father Kenneth as titular Lord Duffus. In 1734 he petitioned King George II (1727-60) but his claim to the Lordship of Duffus was reflected by the House of Lords. It is said that Eric was an ensign in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. Residing at Ackergill Castle by Wick in Caithness and on a friendly footing with the Earl of Sutherland, he supported King George in the Jacobite rising of 1745-46. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Dunbar of Hempriggs. He died probably at Skelbo, perhaps at Skibo, in 1763 and had two sons and three daughters:

uma. James born in 1747, named as heir to his father in 1770 was captain in the 26th Regiment when he eloped with Mary, daughter of James Hayt Earl of Erroll, wife of General John Scott of Balcomie, who divorced her in 1771. The title of Lord Duffus was restored to James by Act of Parliament in 1826. He died unmarried at Marylebone in 1827. His death marked the end of the Sutherlands of Duffus.

c. Elizabeth married first Captain Alexander Sinclair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss secondly Charies Sinclair of Olrig and thirdly, in 1772, the Reverend James Rudd, rector in Yorkshire.

e. Anne, third daughter born 1750, married at Embo in 1766 George Mackay of Skibo, advocate in 1737, 'captain in one of London's independent companies' in 1745. (1)

(Words marked- may require explanation)

Archdeacon: chief of the attendants upon a bishop.

Chalder: 16 bolls or 64 firlots of corn (1 boll: 6 imperial bushels 1 bushel: 2218.19 cubic inches). Charter: document or evidence for certain privileges or rights granted, originally by the sovereign to a subject.

Crag of Dunnottar: Gaelic, creag, rock (of difficult access): locality with ruins of ancient stronghold on the coast of Angus.

Esquire: old French, esquier, shield bearer in chivalry, a young man of gentle birth.

Fier: the owner of the fee-simple of a property (as opposed to a life-renter). Fee-simple: an estate in land belonging to the owner and his heirs for ever in absolute possession.

Forfeited: from forfeit, to lose in consequence of a breach of law.

Homage roll: (in feudal law) record or list of acknowledgement of allegiance by tenants or vassals declaring themselves men of the king or the lord of whom they hold and bind themselves in service.

Ilk: same, identical of that ilk, of the same place, territorial designation or name.

Infeftment: from enfeoffment, the action of putting a tenant legally in possession of a holding, or to surrender a holding.

Lord apperand: lord from old English hlaford, (hlaf, loaf and weard, ward or keepers master, ruler. Apperand: heir apparent, manifest heir, successor.

Master: heir apparent to a Scottish peerage (noble title).

Moravia: Latin for Moray or Morayshlre.

Merk: money of the value of a mark weight of pure silver or, in history, 2/3 of the L Sterling. In Scotland, a coin worth 13 shillings and four pence Snots: 13 l/2 pence English (1480) .

Oxgang: the eighth part of the ploughland, 10 to 18 or more acres. Ploughland: the unit of assessment of land after the Norman Conquest (1066) based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough team of eight oxen in the year.

Parson: holder of a parochial benefice in full possession of its rights and dues, (clergyman).

Petty, Bracholy, Boharm and Arkldol:

Privy Council: the counsellors of the sovereign.

Regality: sovereign rule, territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature granted by the king area subject to a lord of regality.

Sasine: the act of giving possession of feudal property.

Sheriff: the representative of the sovereign, responsible for certain administrative functions and the execution of the law in a shire.

Teinds: from teind. tenth part or tithe of yearly produce from land, payable for the support of the clergy by the laity.

Thane: person ranking with the son of an earl, holding lands of the king.

Toune: from Gaelic, dun, fortified place, hence enclosed ground. 'In Scotland a single house may be called a town' (Sir Walter Scott in 'Waverley').

Vassal: In the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance. (See homage).

Ward and Relief: Ward, the control and use of the lands of a deceased tenant by knight service and the guardianship of the infant heir which belonged to the superior until the heir attained majority. Relief: a payment made by the heir of a feudal tenant on taking up possession of the vacant estate.

Writer to the Signet: a clerk in the Secretary of State's office who prepared writs to pass the royal signet later a law- agent practicing before the Court of Session and preparing Crown writs, charters, etc. Signet: a Small seal.

1. Paul, Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon King of Arms, 'The Scots Peerage founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that Kingdom', Vol. VIII, Edinburgh, 1904-14.

2. Fraser, Sir William, 'The Sutherland Book', 3 Vols., Edinburgh, 1894.

3. Henderson, John, 'Caithness Family History', Edinburgh, 1884.

4. Grant, F. J. 'Register of Marriage, Edinburgh 1751-1800'. Edinburgh, 1922.

5. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and other sources.


George Sutherland, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Senator and Congressman, and Women’s Rights Advocate

George Sutherland, the only Supreme Court Justice to come from Utah, supported women’s rights, particularly the right of women to vote and to engage as full members in American society. Sutherland was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, March 25, 1862, to Frances Slater and Alexander George Sutherland. The extended Sutherland family joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and George and his parents traveled to Utah by ship, train, and wagon when he was only eighteen months old. Once in Utah, they settled in Springville, where George described his childhood as very simple and very hard. Because of his father’s problems with alcoholism, his parents left the church, and George was never baptized as a church member.

George quit school at age 12 and worked full-time to save money to attend Brigham Young Academy (BYA), a precursor to Brigham Young University. At age 16 he started at BYA, attended for two years, and then attended University of Michigan Law School for one year.

George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

Returning to Utah, George married Rosamond Lee in 1883. They eventually became parents to three children. He practiced law with his father in Provo for three years, and then formed his own firm with Samuel Thurman in Salt Lake City. He entered politics, and in 1895 served on a commission drafting the Utah Constitution that provided for women’s suffrage, a cause which George would champion throughout his career.

In 1896, when Utah was admitted as a state to the Union, George, a Republican, was elected to the Senate in the first state legislature. In 1900, he was elected to Utah’s only U.S. Congressional seat, and in 1905, the Utah State Legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, the method at the time for selecting U.S. senators.

Over the next decade, George became a leading figure in the national suffrage movement. Both he and his wife gave speeches and held meetings supporting the right to vote. The Sutherlands became friends with Alice Paul, the leader of the more radical Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later the National Women’s Party, and helped her with events staged to garner support for the movement. In August 1915, women held a meeting in Salt Lake City to welcome Paul and her automobile train traveling from the Women’s Voter Convention in San Francisco to Washington, D.C. that gathered more than 500,00 signatures in support of a women’s suffrage amendment. At the meeting, Annie Wells Cannon, daughter of leading Utah suffragist Emmeline B. Wells, thanked George for his support, and he gave a few supporting remarks. When the train arrived in Washington, D.C. several months later, George and Wyoming Congressman Franklin Wheeler Mendell greeted it. On December 6, Representative Mendell introduced the Susan B. Anthony Amendment into the U.S. House, and the next day George introduced it into the U.S. Senate.

Senator George Sutherland, Winifred Mallon, Reverend Olympia Brown, Alva Belmont at the Utah State Capitol welcoming the suffrage envoys from the San Francisco Exposition that were carrying petitions to Washington D.C. in October 1915. Courtesy of the National Women’s Party.

On December 13, Paul sponsored a mass meeting that took place at the Belasco Theatre in Washington D.C. with George as a main speaker. He based his arguments on the practical experience of the twelve states, including Utah, that had already granted the vote to women:

To my mind the right of women to vote is as obvious as my own right. . . When we have proven the case for universal manhood suffrage we have made clear the case for womanhood suffrage as well. Women on average are as intelligent as men, as patriotic as men, as anxious for good government as men, and to deprive them of the right to participate in the government is to make an arbitrary division . . . .

Flyer advertising Senator George Sutherland of Utah as a speaker for a mass meeting of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in Belasco, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

He closed by affirming that “women’s fundamental nature” would not change once they were given the right to vote indeed, “it [voting] will deepen her sense of responsibility, give her a more intelligent appreciation of her country’s needs and broaden her opportunity to ‘do her bit’ for the common good.”

The amendment failed in 1916. George, too, suffered defeat after two terms in Congress, a defeat he felt came about because of his support for the amendment. He returned to legal practice and became President of the American Bar Association in 1918. He served as a campaign and later presidential advisor to Warren G. Harding. After the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, Alice Paul moved on to crafting the Equal Rights Amendment and consulted with George. Both agreed that the law should treat women and men equally no matter their alleged differences.

Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

President Harding appointed George an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1922, and he served until 1938. An opponent of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, the conservative George became known as one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. His most important opinion was the majority opinion rendered in the case of Powell v Alabama, which helped lead to the constitutional right to counsel in all criminal cases and a recognition of the illegality of systematically excluding African Americans from juries.

George died July 18, 1942, while on vacation in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Ann Engar is a professor/lecturer in the Honors College and LEAP Program at the University of Utah, specializing in intellectual history, pedagogy, and law. She has authored numerous short biographies, including for the online NASW project, and serves on the Holladay Historical Commission.


HistoryLink.org

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s and in 1989 prepared this account for The Pacific Northwesterner. It describes Sutherland’s trip West, his years as a cowboy, and his service as a volunteer in the Nez Perce War. This essay was originally published in the Spring 1989 issue of The Pacific Northwesterner (Vol. 33, No. 1), pp. 8-14, and is here reprinted with permission.

A Young Man Goes West

George Washington Sutherland's grand adventure began in 1872 when, as an 18-year-old, he felt the urge to see the wide-open spaces of the American West. He had read letters from William Purington to his father, Captain George Purington, of Bowdoinham, Maine, that described in glowing terms the fertile grasslands of Washington Territory and the opportunities available to anyone daring to leave home and start again in a new land. At the time, George had been working as a farmhand for Purington, who had been a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War. When the captain mentioned that he and his family would soon be leaving to join William at his cattle ranch, George asked if he could go with them.

Unfortunately, George had a serious problem. He had only $15 to his name. Somehow, George convinced the captain to lend him $140, and his father chipped in $25 making a total of $180. The Puringtons were leaving on Friday, so three days before that, George asked his mother for permission to go. After much hesitation, she reluctantly agreed. In the meantime, Captain Purington had gone to Boston and purchased George's train ticket to San Francisco for $122. George was on his way on August 20, 1872, with $58 that had to last him until he reached the Purington ranch somewhere in the southeast part of Washington Territory.

This is the story that George Sutherland related to me as he sat on his bed at Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane in 1941, when he was 87 years old. He later told me of many other events that happened to him during his long and active life, but exciting as they were, all were but an anticlimax to his trip west.

West by Rail

The Puringtons had first-class tickets and George was traveling second class, so George didn't see them again during the entire trip. For the first time in his life, he was alone without friends or family. The train did not have a diner, so for the entire nine-day trip, George ate from a large basket of food his mother had packed for him. At night, he slept on his stiff uncomfortable seat in the unheated car, covered by a pair of blankets that his mother had insisted he take with him.

He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis over the Eads steel bridge, an engineering marvel for its time. At Council Bluffs, Iowa, he walked across the bridge over the Missouri River to Omaha, where he boarded a Union Pacific train. He stopped over in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for a day and a half. Wyoming was the first state in the nation to grant women the right to vote and he noted that many women in the town were voting. He continued his trip through Rawlins, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, passing bands of antelope as the train chugged along the plains. Once a herd of buffalo thundered down the tracks, almost destroying them. Finally the train crossed the deserts of northern Nevada and reached Sacramento. He arrived in San Francisco on August 29 to be met at the station by a confidence man who tried to swindle him out of his meager funds. George ignored him and hurried to the steamboat office where he bought a third-class passage to Portland, Oregon, for $20.

About 4 p.m. the next day, he left on what he called "the old tub, the Oroflame, a sidewheeler." He continued, "No one would travel on such a boat today. When we got outside the Golden Gate, the boat began to pitch and wallow for four days until we got to Astoria."

At that time, Astoria consisted of a cluster of huts on pilings. The boat tied up there for half-a-day while cargo and mail from the East were unloaded. He finally reached Portland by evening and learned that another boat would be leaving for Wallula the next morning. He hurriedly spent $12 of his rapidly depleting money for a ticket. He couldn't afford to buy meals or a berth, as they cost extra.

His boat left early the next morning and by 10 a.m. had reached the cascades of the Columbia River, where cargo had to be unloaded and carried by cars on a narrow gauge railroad six miles upriver to another steamer, which continued the trip to The Dalles. Following an overnight stay, freight and passengers were again transported by narrow-gauge railroad to another steamer eight miles upriver, which went as far as Umatilla, where it stopped for the night. At that time, Umatilla was a lively town of about 3,000 people. All supplies for eastern Oregon and southern Idaho came through there until the Oregon Steam Navigation Company constructed a rail line to its docks on the Columbia at Wallula. Supplies then went from there to Walla Walla, which became the main distribution point.

The Real West

The day he arrived at Umatilla was windy, and sand was piling up in the streets in drifts three or four-feet deep, according to George. After a night in town, he boarded another steamer, which took him to Wallula where he arrived penniless and hungry. He had spent the last of his money for a berth. He made a deal with a teamster to haul his rifle and baggage to Walla Walla while he walked, arriving there about 6 p.m. after a hot, dusty hike. He went to the St. Louis Hotel and told the proprietor that he wanted a meal and a place to sleep, but had no money. The proprietor said, "Young man, the world is yours. Help yourself." George took him at his word, had a good meal and a good night's sleep.

George recalled, "Every other door was a saloon. There were many teamsters. I watched some of them packing mules, as many as 75 to a train (for the trip to the mines), and the mule trains were strung out for miles. There were many large corrals mainly for the mules."

Walla walla was the supply center for the region. "The mules were hitched in teams of six, eight or 10 to large freight wagons. Horsedrawn stage coaches were coming and going through town. Men worked hard and played hard, and saloons had plenty of patrons. Card games were going on all of the time."

In his wanderings around town, George located a teamster who had heard about the Purington ranch and was passing by it. He agreed to transport George's belongings and guide George there if George was willing to walk all of the way. George borrowed $2.50 from his new-found friend, paid his hotel and food bill with it, and left that afternoon on the last leg of his journey. This would be a jaunt of 80 miles to the area around Penewawa on the north side of the Snake River approximately 25 miles due west of present-day Pullman, Washington.

The man's team consisted of a small mule hitched to an unkempt, scrawny cayuse pony, barely able to pull an unloaded wagon let alone a loaded one. George felt so sorry for the animals that he left his trunk behind, taking only his blankets, his rifle, a pistol, and a saddle bag. He had brought the guns as protection from the "Indians and badmen" that he understood "infested" the West at that time.

The first day's travel brought them to what George called Whetstone Hollow, which offered good grazing for the team. The road was merely an Indian trail showing traces of heavy use. In places, the ruts were two-feet deep, while in other places, the trail could barely be discerned. Drivers often deviated from the track, going where they felt they could make the best time.

The second day, George observed that the hills were dry and parched, although they were covered with nutritious bunch grass. By noon, they reached the Tucannon River where a man named Platter ran a crude rest station. After climbing out of the Tucannon Valley, they started down toward the Snake River on a narrow hilly road, the wagon nearly tipping over several times. Finally the river came into view, glistening in the distance, and Brown's Ferry became visible. While they were hastening down the Snake River breaks, a post rider charged past them, carrying the mail from Kelton, Utah, to points north via Walla Walla, Colfax, Spokan Bridge, Rathdrum, Idaho, and by boat across Lake Pend Oreille to Missoula, Montana.

Two other Snake River crossings existed at that time: Lyon's Ferry near the mouth of the Palouse River and the ferry at Lewiston where the Snake joins the Clearwater River. Dusty sign-boards advertised these ferries declaring that plenty of wood, water, and grass was present along the road.

George described Brown's rest stop as a square box shanty and a shed in which a man could rest himself and his horse. This was the first habitation George encountered since leaving the Tucannon River. After crossing the river, George helped pull the wagon up the hill where the team found good grass and water, as the signs had promised.

By noon of September 17, George arrived at Gooseberry Springs in Whitman County and his teamster friend told him that after they reached Alki Flat, he could easily find the Purington ranch by heading south toward the Snake River. George thanked him, gave him his pistol as a pawn for his $2. 50 debt, and they parted.

Riding the Range

With a feeling of loneliness, the youth started across the rolling hills. No other human being was in sight. It seemed as if there was always a hill ahead of him, but finally, he came to a ravine that led down to the Snake River, where he quenched his thirst. He realized that he had turned south too soon and was lost, but after walking several more miles, he saw a small shack ahead of him. The sun was setting and his pack was heavy, so the hut was a welcome sight. He knocked on the door and a surprised William Purington answered with a warm welcome for the weary traveler.

A man named Holbrook was staying with Purington at the time, and these two men were George's first acquaintances in Whitman County. He rested a few days and after getting a horse, went out with the other hired hands to learn how to be a cowpuncher. The next phase of his life had begun.

"My wages were $25 a month and board, and I wasn't worth that much as I was a green Easterner. I did become quite a cowboy eventually," George said. It was not long before George became fully trained in riding and rounding up cattle. Soon he was able to go on long trips in search of strays.

"There were thousands of cattle down there, and we had a huge range to cover. My employer ran a herd of from 500 to 1,000 head. Our range extended from Lewiston to the Palouse, 90 miles east and west, and from the Snake River to Spokane Falls." There were no fences. Cattle from various ranches mingled freely as they grazed, and were separated by brand at roundup time.

"Spokane Falls was a poor feeding ground, so we did not give it much attention. I think that the first time I was there, there were only two houses in the place. Colfax was the same."

In a conversation several years later, George described the rangeland in the Snake River country:

"Along the banks of the river, large portions of the hills at the north had slid down the canyons (in the past) due to cloudbursts and the continuous flow of small streams, and had formed bars . which were very fertile. A number of Indians had claimed this land, but then the settlers started coming in, some of whom took squatter's rights on it. This, of course, caused trouble right away. The first place to become involved was four miles above the place that I was working -- Penewawa.

"There were two brothers named Smith who were cattlemen, who were the first to settle on this land and they thought that the Indians were not entitled to such good land and should be back on a reservation, so they took it for themselves. This land is in cultivation today [1945] with fine orchards of peaches, pears and cherries, and is worth many thousands of dollars.

"There were two other bars on the river that received freight from Portland from a steamer that called once a week. One was at Almota, where Henry Spalding, son of the missionary, ran a store and a hotel. The other was at Wawawai. Senator La Follette of Wisconsin and the Holt brothers had a large orchard there and shipped quantities of fruit all over the country. There was trouble here between the Indians and settlers and one Indian was killed by the man I was working for. The trouble was finally settled by Chief [Spokane] Garry, who was a noted Indian at that time.

"During those days, the Indians became rather insulting and would come into cabins if there was no man around and (ask the womenfolk) for something to eat, tobacco, or matches. Of course, the settlers were frightened by them at first, but later became somewhat used to them. The women would stand no nonsense and always kept a rifle or pistol handy. I was afraid of them at first, (but) after awhile picked up enough of their jargon to talk with them and was able to understand [them].

"At the Purington ranch, we planted peach, pear and apple trees. In the Spring of 1873 we planted all kinds of seeds and also sweet potatoes, tobacco, peanuts and cotton. They all grew well. The wind blew a gale at times so we set out a wind break of locust trees.

"The winter of 1874-5 was the worst I ever spent. Cattle died by the thousands, for the snow was deep and the springs were frozen so badly that it was impossible for the cattle to drink. It was frightfully cold. When Winter broke, dead cattle were everywhere. Great pieces of ice came down the Snake River. Some of the flows were 40 feet high."

George tired of the monotony of ranch life and left for the big city in 1875. He went to Portland where he started on a succession of jobs that took him from Walla Walla to Moscow, Idaho, and Newport, Washington. Employment was readily available for anyone willing to work and George tried everything from being a waiter, a barber, a sewing machine salesman, and a druggist. He even took a turn at practicing medicine.

Nez Perce War

In 1877, he was in Colfax when word arrived of the Nez Perce uprising. George provided me with a written account of his experience:

"On June 15, word came that a group of the Nez Perce Indians under the leadership of Chief Joseph had begun hostilities against the white settlers in western Idaho Territory by killing in cold blood several of the settlers. On Sunday, the 17th day of June, I, as well as many others, were at a camp meeting at what was known as Chase's Mill, about 18 miles east of Colfax, when a man by the name of Joe Evans came into camp about 11 o'clock with his horse covered with sweat, and said: 'The Indians are coming down Union Flat, killing and burning everything in sight.' (Actually, no fighting occurred in Union Flat.)

"The meeting broke up without waiting for the benediction, and everyone started for home or for Colfax. When I arrived back in Colfax, I found the streets barricaded and great excitement. An old man by the name of D. S. Bowman was upon the stoop of the only store in town, and he was saying, 'Gentlemen, I have lived in Indian country all of my life, and I can say to all of you people that we should organize a company of volunteers. Then you will be recognized by the government.' We organized a company on the spot. We appointed officers (and) all signed the roster and were sworn in. Then we were all told to go out and get all the firearms we had or could borrow. When we returned, all we could muster was 22 rifles, shotguns, and pistols. My duty, with two others, was to stand guard at the south end of town on the hills where it was supposed that the Indians would come through.

"The next morning, I was ordered to reconnoiter and report. I went first to Three Forks, where Pullman is now situated, but there was no one within five miles. From there I went to Palouse City. There were very few families there, but the men from town and country were building a stockade. I stopped over there to help where I could. The next day, I went on to Moscow. Only a few people were there, but they were building a stockade with a big cellar inside for the women and children. It was built on a sloping side hill, and we could see the Indians passing along the foothills [on] the trail between Spokane and Lewiston. I stayed there for two days and had a chance to send a report to Colfax. Then I went to Lewiston, arriving there the same evening that General Howard arrived by boat from Portland with company of Georgia troops. They had no experience in fighting Indians, but a company was ordered out to go up Craig's Mountain to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and White Bird Canyon. They were sent down in regular formation and the Indians were up on the sides of the canyon, and as I was told by one of the company, they had no chance at all .

"After Joseph and his band eluded General Howard and fled over the Lolo Pass into Montana with the intention of reaching sanctuary in Canada, Sutherland and the members of his company of volunteers were ordered to watch for any stragglers who might circle back. We went to Mount Idaho, Grangeville, White Bird and many other places where we thought we might run into Indians, but we did not see any from that time on. The company was mustered out in August or September of the same year, 1877."

George's account concludes, "All the records [of the company's activities] . were destroyed in the big fire, so we have no record of our company's doings. After our enlistment, we had to furnish all of our equipment, horse, saddle, blankets and eat where we could. After 60 years, I think I am entitled to a badge of some kind as five of my company were receiving pensions (and I was not). I have saved Uncle Sam quite a sum of money by not applying for one. I did not need the money and I did not think that I was doing anything but my duty. We had to protect our homes under any circumstances."

George continued traveling over the Northwest investing in various business enterprises including mining, all with mediocre success. He eventually settled in Newport, Washington. There, he was a member of the City Council, served several terms as Mayor, was County Commissioner of Stevens and Pend Oreille Counties and president of a bank. He died in 1949 after a long and active life in which he realized his ambition of being a pioneer in the American West.

This essay is part of HistoryLink's People's History collection. People's Histories include personal memoirs and reminiscences, letters and other historical documents, interviews and oral histories, reprints from historical and current publications, original essays, commentary and interpretation, and expressions of personal opinion, many of which have been submitted by our visitors. They have not been verified by HistoryLink.org and do not necessarily represent its views.

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Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s.


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Arkes, Hadley. The Return of George Sutherland: Restoring a Jurisprudence of Natural Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. "The Conservative World of Mr. Justice Sutherland, 1883-1910." American Political Science Review 32 (June 1938): 443-77.

Paschal, Joel Francis. Mr. Justice Sutherland, a Man Against the State. 1951. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Sutherland, George. Constitutional Power and World Affairs. 1919. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.


SUTHERLAND Genealogy

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SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

In 1883 Sutherland had completed one term at the University of Michigan Law School and qualified for the Michigan bar. That summer he returned to Utah and married Rosamund Lee. They had three children--Emma (born 1884), Philip (born 1886), and Edith (born 1888)--whom he supported by practicing law in Utah. In 1894 he helped to organize the Utah State Bar Association.

In 1896 Sutherland, a Republican, joined the first Utah House of Representatives. In 1899 he was admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court, and from 1900 to 1903 he served as Utah's only Representative in the U.S. House. He then served in the U.S. Senate from 1905 to 1916. During this period, he supported much progressive legislation, including a Utah law for an eight-hour day in the mining and smelting industries, as well as national statues such as the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Defeated for the Senate nomination in 1916, Sutherland went into private law practice, served as president of the American Bar Association, and became an advisor to Republican presidential hopeful Warren G. Harding in the campaign of 1920. Harding's election and the sudden resignation of a Supreme Court justice in 1922 paved the way for Sutherland's appointment to the bench.

Sutherland's Supreme Court record belied his earlier progressive stance. He penned such majority opinions as the landmark Adkins v. Children's Hospital, which outlawed a minimum wage for women. In the thirties, he opposed most of the New Deal legislation, and became the intellectual leader of the "Four Horsemen"--the four conservative justices consistently voting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs. He retired from the Court in January 1938 and died on 18 July 1942. He retained the respect of his peers throughout his career and is rated by many historians as "near great" for his Supreme Court performance.

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