Por que foram criadas as primeiras Universidades?

Por que foram criadas as primeiras Universidades?

Li meu livro de história mundial e fiz algumas pesquisas online, mas não consegui descobrir por que as primeiras universidades foram criadas.


Universidade: do latim universitas magistrorum et scholarium ("comunidade de professores e acadêmicos)"

A universidade (como a conhecemos hoje) não foi criada ex nihilo ao contrário, surgiu de outra coisa, que era a busca pela aprendizagem nos centros urbanos entre aqueles que podiam pagar.

O ensino superior europeu já no século 6 era frequentemente encontrado em escolas catedrais cristãs ou escolas monásticas. Monges ou freiras eram os instrutores habituais. Um exemplo de uma dessas escolas que mais tarde se transformou em uma universidade é a Universidade de Paris. Mas a Igreja não foi a única fonte de educação superior. Durante séculos, houve uma tradição de professores particulares para os filhos daqueles com meios para pagá-los e, é claro, oportunidades para alguns poucos selecionados estudarem com estudiosos famosos, dos quais "o método socrático" foi transmitido a nós.

A Universidade de Bolonha foi fundada em 1088 e é indiscutivelmente a universidade mais antiga da Europa. Foi estabelecido como uma guilda / grupo de estudantes que estavam aprendendo direito civil e canônico, e considerou seu interesse formar uma sociedade / guilda por outras razões.

A Universidade surgiu em torno de sociedades de ajuda mútua de estudantes estrangeiros chamadas "nações" (já que eram agrupadas por nacionalidade) para proteção contra as leis municipais que impunham punições coletivas aos estrangeiros pelos crimes e dívidas de seus conterrâneos. Esses alunos então contrataram acadêmicos da cidade para ensiná-los. Com o tempo, as várias "nações" decidiram formar uma associação maior, ou universitas - portanto, a universidade.

O "porquê", neste caso, era tanto a proteção contra o bullying político quanto o avanço da educação.

Em contraste, podemos olhar para a Universidade de Nápoles, fundada em 1232. É a mais antiga apoiado pelo estado instituição de ensino superior e pesquisa do mundo.

Uma universidade fundada por um chefe de Estado era ligeiramente diferente do modelo de guilda / corporação com o mesmo propósito geral. O imperador Frederico II criou esta universidade com a esperança de restringir ou opor as universidades do norte da Itália (como Bolonha e Pádua), que ele considerava independentes demais ou sob a forte influência do Papa.

O "porquê", neste caso, foi tanto a política quanto o avanço da educação.

A independência foi concedida pela Carta, que deu ao imperador a autoridade máxima. Ele contratou professores, que se tornariam funcionários reais pagos com fundos reais. Além disso, o próprio imperador examinava candidatos e conferia diplomas.

(É um tanto irônico que Tomás de Aquino tenha sido um dos primeiros distintos graduados da Universidade de Nápoles, dada a tensão ideológica entre o clero e aquele imperador.)


Na época medieval, a única coisa próxima ao que chamaríamos de educação era realizada pela igreja. Normalmente por monges e freiras, estudando textos religiosos e itens semelhantes. Algumas dessas escolas tendiam a ser muito melhores nisso do que outras, e essencialmente isso deu a oportunidade aos mais talentosos na academia de estudar mais e tornou-se mais do que apenas aprender a ler e escrever, tornou-se mais sobre o estudo dos textos e o que eles poderiam significar. As escolas excepcionais foram lentamente se transformando no que era conhecido como universidades.

Tudo isso cresceu na Europa e, por fim, começaram a sair das mãos da igreja. Eles começaram a ser criados pela realeza. Com coisas como A redescoberta da obra de Aristóteles, havia muitos jovens que ansiavam por aprender sobre coisas como matemática, astronomia e literatura. Esses alunos nem sempre estudavam textos religiosos ou semelhantes (embora isso possa ter desempenhado um papel), era mais sobre o estudo de coisas novas e interessantes como ciência e engenharia. Este é, sem dúvida, onde a cultura universitária moderna começou.

se você quiser mais informações, a página da wikipedia sobre universidades tem alguns bons exemplos de universidades criadas nessa época, mas obviamente lembre-se que é a wikipedia, e é apenas para se ter uma ideia do mundo naquela época: https: //en.wikipedia .org / wiki / University # Medieval_universities


Os EUA modelaram seu sistema educacional no alemão (começou com o jardim de infância, é claro) e depois terminou com seu "ginásio" ou doutorado.

As primeiras universidades ficavam no norte do estado de Nova York (Cornell, Colgate) e eram "universidades com concessão de terras", dedicadas ao estudo da agricultura.

Isso eles fizeram muito bem ...


História da Educação da América, Parte 3: Universidades, livros didáticos e nossos fundadores

Bill Maher, do Politically Incorrect, disse: & quotAmérica nunca foi uma nação cristã & quot. No entanto, ao lermos sobre a fundação de nossas universidades e os primeiros livros didáticos usados ​​neste país, não podemos contestar nossa fundação cristã.

106 das primeiras 108 faculdades foram iniciadas na fé cristã. No final de 1860, havia 246 faculdades na América. Dezessete delas eram instituições estatais, quase todas as outras foram fundadas por denominações cristãs ou por indivíduos que declararam um propósito religioso.

Harvard College, 1636 - Uma Regra Original do Harvard College: & quotQue cada aluno seja claramente instruído e seriamente pressionado a considerar bem, o objetivo principal de sua vida e estudos é conhecer a Deus e Jesus Cristo, que é a vida eterna, (João 17: 3), e, portanto, colocar Cristo no fundo, como o único fundamento de todo conhecimento e aprendizagem sólidos. & Quot

William and Mary, 1691 - O College of William and Mary foi iniciado principalmente devido aos esforços do Rev. James Blair para que, de acordo com seu estatuto de 1691, a Igreja da Virgínia pudesse ser equipada com um seminário de ministros do evangelho , e que os jovens sejam educados piedosamente nas boas letras e maneiras, e que a religião cristã seja propagada entre os índios ocidentais para a glória do Deus Todo-Poderoso. & quot

Universidade de Yale, 1701 - A Universidade de Yale foi fundada por ministros Congregacionais em 1701, & quotpara a educação liberal e religiosa de jovens adequados & # 133para propagar neste deserto, a abençoada religião protestante reformada & # 133 & quot

Princeton, 1746 - Associado ao Grande Despertar, Princeton foi fundado pelos Presbiterianos em 1746. O Rev. Jonathan Dickinson tornou-se seu primeiro presidente, declarando "maldito seja todo aquele aprendizado que seja contrário à cruz de Cristo."

Universidade da Pensilvânia, 1751 - Ben Franklin teve muito a ver com o início da Universidade da Pensilvânia. Não foi iniciado por uma denominação, mas suas leis refletem seu caráter cristão. Considere as duas primeiras Leis, relativas à Conduta Moral (de 1801): & quot1. Nenhum dos alunos ou estudiosos, pertencentes a este seminário, deve fazer uso de qualquer linguagem indecente ou imoral: quer se trate de expressões indecentes em xingamentos e palavrões ou em exclamações que introduzem o nome de Deus, sem reverência, e sem necessidade. & quot2. Nenhum deles deverá, sem uma razão boa e suficiente, ausentar-se da escola ou atrasar-se em sua frequência, mais particularmente na hora das orações e da leitura das Sagradas Escrituras. & Quot

Algumas outras faculdades começaram antes da Independência da América incluem: Columbia fundada em 1754 (chamada King's College até 1784), Dartmouth, 1770 Brown iniciada pelos batistas em 1764 Rutgers, 1766, pela Igreja Reformada Holandesa Washington e Lee, 1749 e Hampton-Sydney , 1776, pelos presbiterianos.

Muitos podem se surpreender em saber que a Bíblia foi realmente o primeiro livro didático. O Código de New Haven de 1655 exigia que as crianças fossem "devidamente citadas para ler as Escrituras" # 133 e, em alguma medida competente, para compreender os principais fundamentos e princípios da Religião Cristã necessários para a salvação. "

uma. A Bíblia era o texto central - John Adams refletiu a visão dos fundadores em relação ao lugar da Bíblia na sociedade quando escreveu: & quotSuponha que uma nação em alguma região distante deveria tomar a Bíblia como seu único livro de leis, e todo membro deve regular sua conduta pelos preceitos ali exibidos! & # 133 Que utopia, que paraíso seria esta região! & quot John Adams, 22 de fevereiro de 1756

b. Hornbooks - Hornbooks foram trazidos para a América, da Europa, pelos colonos e eram comuns entre os anos 1500 e 1700. Uma cartilha era uma peça plana de madeira com uma alça, sobre a qual uma folha de papel impresso era presa e coberta com chifre de animal transparente para protegê-la. Uma cartilha típica tinha o alfabeto, as vogais, uma lista de sílabas, a invocação da Trindade e o Pai Nosso.

c. Catecismos - Havia mais de 500 catecismos diferentes usados ​​na educação infantil. Mais tarde, o Catecismo do Ministro do Oeste tornou-se o mais proeminente.

d. The New England Primer - Foi o livro escolar mais proeminente por cerca de 100 anos e foi usado até o século XIX. Vendeu mais de 3 milhões de cópias em 150 anos.

e. Webster's Blue-Backed Speller - publicado pela primeira vez em 1783, vendeu mais de 100 milhões de cópias. Foi um dos livros didáticos mais influentes e foi baseado na & quot Palavra de Deus. & Quot.

f. The McGuffey Readers - Escrito pelo ministro e professor universitário William Holmes McGuffey, os McGuffey Readers & quotrepresentam a força mais significativa no enquadramento de nossa moral e gostos nacionais & quot além da Bíblia.

Embora houvesse muitos outros livros didáticos (especialmente nos anos 1800), os que acabamos de mencionar foram alguns dos mais importantes.

A educação em religião foi fundamental para nossos fundadores: Benjamin Rush, signatário da Declaração da Independência, escreveu: & quot & # 133o único fundamento para uma educação útil em uma república é ser estabelecido na religião. Sem isso, não pode haver virtude, e sem virtude não pode haver liberdade, e a liberdade é o objetivo e a vida de todos os governos republicanos. ”O tipo de educação que moldou o caráter e as ideias de nossos Fundadores foi totalmente cristão. Transmitiu caráter cristão e produziu homens honestos, industriosos, compassivos, respeitosos e cumpridores da lei. Transmitiu uma visão de mundo bíblica e produziu pessoas que eram pensadores de princípios.

Depois de servir como contato de imprensa de Los Angeles para a campanha presidencial de Pat Robertson - April passou mais de dez anos pesquisando e reunindo material pertinente ao mundo em "mudança" em que vivemos.

Os fóruns do Freedom Tea Party do Shenandoah educam aqueles que não estão cientes da privação das liberdades da América. Ela faz parte do conselho do Conselho Nacional de Currículo Bíblico nas Escolas Públicas, com sede em Greensboro, Carolina do Norte e ABC-Learn, Inc., em San Fernando, Califórnia. Shenandoah usa o título não oficial de Embaixador da Oração.


Linha do tempo histórica da educação pública nos EUA

1647
O Tribunal Geral da Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts decreta que cada cidade com cinquenta famílias deve ter uma escola primária e que cada cidade com 100 famílias deve ter uma escola de latim. O objetivo é garantir que as crianças puritanas aprendam a ler a Bíblia e recebam informações básicas sobre sua religião calvinista.

1779
Thomas Jefferson propõe um sistema educacional de duas vias, com trilhas diferentes em suas palavras para "o trabalhador e o instruído". A bolsa de estudos permitiria que muito poucos da classe trabalhadora avançassem, diz Jefferson, "tirando alguns gênios do lixo".

1785
O Congresso Continental (antes que a Constituição dos Estados Unidos fosse ratificada) aprovou uma lei solicitando uma pesquisa do "Território do Noroeste", que incluía o que viria a ser o estado de Ohio. A lei criou "municípios", reservando uma parte de cada município para uma escola local. Dessas "concessões de terras" eventualmente surgiu o sistema norte-americano de "universidades com concessões de terras", as universidades públicas estaduais que existem hoje. É claro que, para criar esses municípios, o Congresso Continental assume o direito de doar ou vender terras que já estejam ocupadas por indígenas.

1790
A constituição do estado da Pensilvânia exige educação pública gratuita, mas apenas para crianças pobres. Espera-se que pessoas ricas paguem pela educação de seus filhos.

1805
Sociedade de Escolas Públicas de Nova York formada por ricos empresários para fornecer educação para crianças pobres. As escolas funcionam no modelo "Lancasteriano", no qual um "mestre" pode ensinar centenas de alunos em uma única sala. O mestre dá uma lição mecânica para os alunos mais velhos, que então a passam para os alunos mais novos. Essas escolas enfatizam as qualidades de disciplina e obediência que os proprietários de fábricas desejam em seus trabalhadores.

1817
Uma petição apresentada na Reunião Municipal de Boston pede o estabelecimento de um sistema de escolas primárias públicas gratuitas. O principal apoio vem de comerciantes locais, empresários e artesãos mais ricos. Muitos assalariados se opõem, porque não querem pagar os impostos.

1820
É inaugurada a primeira escola secundária pública dos EUA, Boston English.

1827
Massachusetts aprova uma lei que torna todas as séries da escola pública abertas a todos os alunos gratuitamente.

Década de 1830
A essa altura, a maioria dos estados do sul tem leis que proíbem o ensino de leitura a pessoas escravizadas. Mesmo assim, cerca de 5% se alfabetizam correndo grande risco pessoal.

1820-1860
A porcentagem de pessoas que trabalham na agricultura despenca à medida que as fazendas familiares são engolidas por grandes empresas agrícolas e as pessoas são forçadas a procurar trabalho nas cidades. Ao mesmo tempo, as cidades crescem tremendamente, impulsionadas por novas indústrias manufatureiras, o influxo de pessoas de áreas rurais e muitos imigrantes da Europa. Durante os 10 anos de 1846 a 1856, chegam 3,1 milhões de imigrantes, um número igual a um oitavo de toda a população dos EUA. Os proprietários da indústria precisavam de uma força de trabalho dócil e obediente e buscavam as escolas públicas para fornecê-la.

1836
O proprietário de escravos James Bowie e o assassino de índios Davy Crockett estão entre os mortos na Batalha do Álamo, no Texas, em sua tentativa de tomar o Texas à força do México.

1837
Horace Mann torna-se chefe do recém-formado Conselho Estadual de Educação de Massachusetts. Edmund Dwight, um grande industrial, acha que um conselho estadual de educação era tão importante para os proprietários de fábricas que ele se ofereceu para complementar o salário do estado com dinheiro extra próprio.

Década de 1840
Mais de um milhão de imigrantes irlandeses chegam aos Estados Unidos, expulsos de suas casas na Irlanda pela fome da batata. Católicos irlandeses na cidade de Nova York lutam pelo controle local das escolas pelos bairros como forma de evitar que seus filhos sejam alimentados à força com um currículo protestante.

1845
Os Estados Unidos anexam o Texas.

1846
O presidente James Polk ordena a invasão do México.

É inaugurada a Escola de Reforma de Massachusetts em Westboro, para onde as crianças que se recusaram a frequentar escolas públicas são enviadas. Isso dá início a uma longa tradição de "escolas de reforma", que combinam os sistemas de educação e justiça juvenil.

1848
A guerra contra o México termina com a assinatura do Tratado de Guadalupe-Hidalgo, que dá aos Estados Unidos quase a metade do que era então o México. Isso inclui tudo o que agora é o sudoeste dos EUA, além de partes de Utah, Nevada e Wyoming e a maior parte da Califórnia. O tratado garante direitos de cidadania a todos que vivem nessas áreas, principalmente mexicanos e nativos. Também garante a continuidade do uso da língua espanhola, inclusive na educação. Cento e cinquenta anos depois, em 1998, a Califórnia quebra esse tratado, ao aprovar a Proposição 227, que tornaria ilegal que professores falassem espanhol em escolas públicas.

1851
O estado de Massachusetts passa primeiro sua lei de educação obrigatória. O objetivo é garantir que os filhos de imigrantes pobres se "civilizem" e aprendam a obediência e moderação, para que sejam bons trabalhadores e não contribuam para a convulsão social.

1864
O Congresso torna ilegal que os nativos americanos sejam ensinados em suas línguas nativas. Crianças nativas com apenas quatro anos de idade são tiradas de seus pais e enviadas para internatos fora da reserva do Bureau of Indian Affairs, cujo objetivo, como disse um funcionário do BIA, é "matar o índio para salvar o homem".

1865-1877
Os afro-americanos se mobilizam para levar a educação pública ao Sul pela primeira vez. Após a Guerra Civil, e com o fim legal da escravidão, os afro-americanos do Sul fazem alianças com os republicanos brancos para pressionar por muitas mudanças políticas, incluindo, pela primeira vez, reescrever constituições estaduais para garantir a educação pública gratuita. Na prática, as crianças brancas se beneficiam mais do que as crianças negras.

1877-1900
A reconstrução termina em 1877, quando as tropas federais, que ocupavam o Sul desde o fim da Guerra Civil, são retiradas. Os brancos recuperam o controle político do Sul e lançam as bases da segregação legal.

1893-1913
O tamanho dos conselhos escolares nas 28 maiores cidades do país foi cortado pela metade. A maioria dos cargos baseados no distrito local (ou "distrito") são eliminados, em favor de eleições em toda a cidade. Isso significa que as comunidades locais de imigrantes perdem o controle de suas escolas locais. A composição dos conselhos escolares muda de pequenos empresários locais e alguns assalariados para profissionais (como médicos e advogados), grandes empresários e outros membros das classes mais ricas.

1896
Decisão Plessy v. Ferguson. A Suprema Corte dos EUA determina que o estado da Louisiana tem o direito de exigir vagões "separados, mas iguais" para negros e brancos. Essa decisão significa que o governo federal reconhece oficialmente a segregação como legal. Um resultado é que os estados do sul aprovam leis que exigem a segregação racial nas escolas públicas.

1905
O Supremo Tribunal dos EUA exige que a Califórnia estenda a educação pública aos filhos de imigrantes chineses.

1917
A Lei Smith-Hughes é aprovada, fornecendo financiamento federal para a educação profissional. As grandes corporações manufatureiras promovem isso porque querem remover o treinamento de habilidades para o trabalho dos programas de aprendizagem dos sindicatos e colocá-lo sob seu próprio controle.

1924
Um ato do Congresso torna os nativos americanos cidadãos dos EUA pela primeira vez.

1930-1950
A NAACP traz uma série de processos sobre salários desiguais de professores para negros e brancos nos estados do sul. Ao mesmo tempo, os estados do sul percebem que estão perdendo mão de obra afro-americana para as cidades do norte. Essas duas fontes de pressão resultaram em algum aumento nos gastos com escolas negras no sul.

1932
Uma pesquisa em 150 distritos escolares revela que três quartos deles estão usando os chamados testes de inteligência para colocar os alunos em diferentes trilhas acadêmicas.

1945
No final da 2ª Guerra Mundial, o G.I. A Declaração de Direitos dá bolsas de estudos universitários para homens da classe trabalhadora pela primeira vez na história dos Estados Unidos.

1948
O Educational Testing Service é formado, fundindo o College Entrance Examination Board, o Cooperative Test Service, o Graduate Records Office, o National Committee on Teachers Examinations e outros, com enormes doações das fundações Rockefeller e Carnegie. Esses serviços de teste continuaram o trabalho de eugenistas como Carl Brigham (criador do SAT), que fizeram pesquisas "provando" que os imigrantes eram fracos de espírito.

1954
Brown v. Conselho de Educação de Topeka. A Suprema Corte concorda unanimemente que as escolas segregadas são "inerentemente desiguais" e devem ser abolidas. Quase 45 anos depois, em 1998, as escolas, especialmente no norte, estão mais segregadas do que nunca.

1957
Um tribunal federal ordena a integração das escolas públicas de Little Rock, Arkansas. O governador Orval Faubus envia sua Guarda Nacional para impedir fisicamente nove estudantes afro-americanos de se matricularem na Central High School, totalmente branca. Relutantemente, o presidente Eisenhower envia tropas federais para fazer cumprir a ordem judicial não porque apóia a dessegregação, mas porque não pode permitir que um governador de estado use o poder militar para desafiar o governo federal dos EUA.

1968
Pais afro-americanos e professores brancos entram em confronto na área de Ocean Hill-Brownsville, na cidade de Nova York, sobre a questão do controle comunitário das escolas. Professores entram em greve e a comunidade organiza escolas de liberdade enquanto as escolas públicas fecham.

1974
Milliken v. Bradley. Uma Suprema Corte formada pelos nomeados de Richard Nixon determina que as escolas não podem ser desagregadas nos distritos escolares. Isso efetivamente separa legalmente os estudantes negros de bairros centrais dos estudantes brancos em bairros suburbanos brancos mais ricos.

Final dos anos 1970
A chamada "revolta dos contribuintes" leva à aprovação da Proposição 13 na Califórnia e a medidas copiadoras como a Proposição 2-1 / 2 em Massachusetts. Essas propostas congelam os impostos sobre a propriedade, que são uma importante fonte de financiamento para escolas públicas. Como resultado, em vinte anos, a Califórnia caiu do primeiro país em gastos por aluno em 1978 para o número 43 em 1998.

Década de 1980
O Tribal Colleges Act federal estabelece uma faculdade comunitária em cada reserva indígena, o que permite que os jovens frequentem a faculdade sem deixar suas famílias.

1994
A proposição 187 é aprovada na Califórnia, tornando ilegal que filhos de imigrantes indocumentados frequentem escolas públicas. Os tribunais federais consideram a Proposição 187 inconstitucional, mas o sentimento anti-imigrante se espalha por todo o país.

1996
Recuando novamente, a Califórnia aprova a Proposta 209, que proíbe a ação afirmativa no emprego público, contratação pública e educação pública. Outros estados entram na onda com suas próprias iniciativas e elementos de direita esperam aprovar legislação semelhante em nível federal.

1998
Califórnia de novo! Desta vez, um multimilionário chamado Ron Unz consegue colocar uma medida na cédula de junho de 1998 proibindo a educação bilíngue na Califórnia.


A ascensão das universidades

Como estudante de uma universidade, você faz parte de uma grande tradição. Considere as palavras que você usa: campus, mensalidades, aulas, cursos, palestras, professores, alunos, administração, chanceler, reitor, professor, segundo ano, júnior, sênior, taxas, atribuições, laboratório, dormitório, requisitos, pré-requisitos, exames, textos, notas, convocação, graduação, início, procissão, diploma, associação de ex-alunos, doações, e assim por diante. Esta é a linguagem da universidade, e todas são derivadas de Latina, quase inalterado de suas origens medievais. A organização desta universidade, suas atividades e tradições, são continuações de uma briga de bar que aconteceu em Paris há quase 800 anos.

REFORMAS EDUCACIONAIS CAROLINGIANAS

ESCOLAS DE CATEDRAL E MONASTÉRIO

A aritmética serviu de base para a geometria do raciocínio quantitativo para a arquitetura, levantamento e cálculo de medidas - tudo essencial para administrar a propriedade e a receita de uma igreja. A astronomia era necessária para calcular a data da Páscoa, prever eclipses e marcar a passagem das estações. Por algum tempo, tudo o que as escolas de catedrais e mosteiros conseguiram administrar foi treinar padres em número suficiente para fornecer o essencial para líderes locais educados.

Por volta de 1000, isso começou a mudar quando algumas escolas começaram a desenvolver elementos de seu quadrivium além dos requisitos de mero treinamento sacerdotal. Alguns integraram seus currículos adotando um texto padrão, como A Consolação da Filosofia por Boécio, ou algum outro compêndio de conhecimento, sendo os mais famosos aqueles escritos por Cassidorus, Martianus Capella, ou Isidoro de Sevilha. Os mestres em algumas outras escolas desenvolveram uma abordagem mais flexível ao conceito de educação e tentaram estender o conhecimento, bem como transmiti-lo aos seus alunos.

Uma das últimas foi a escola da catedral de Reims, onde os espanhóis treinaram Gerbert de Aurillac desenvolveu os aspectos matemáticos do quadrivium, introduzindo Notação numérica arábica, o uso do ábaco para cálculo numérico, e o astrolábio para observação astronômica. Sob a liderança de um dos alunos de Gerbert, a escola do mosteiro vizinho de Fleury deu continuidade a esse desenvolvimento. Outras escolas desenvolveram-se em direções diferentes, com Orleans se especializando em estudos clássicos e Chartres na teoria matemática da música. Ainda outro centro de aprendizagem especializado foi o pequeno mosteiro normando de Bec, que, sob a liderança de Lanfranc, e Anselm, tornou-se conhecido em todo o norte da Europa pelo ensino do Direito.

GREGORY VII E O GRANDE REVIVAL DA APRENDIZAGEM

PARIS

Na margem esquerda do Sena, havia vários mosteiros, cada um com sua escola: Ste. Genevieve, St. Germain des Pres, e São Victor. Embora cada uma dessas escolas tivesse um mestre, ele não era o único professor ali, como acontecia em muitas das escolas anteriores de catedrais e mosteiros. Professores qualificados podiam solicitar ao chanceler ou a um abade para ser membro de suas instituições e, tendo recebido essa associação, eles faziam parte do Faculdade da escola dessa instituição. Alguns instrutores residiram no próprio mosteiro e alguns fora, servindo de base para uma distinção que persiste no professor e professor adjunto. Os professores contrataram assistentes (professores assistentes), que um dia podem se tornar professores, enquanto alunos especialmente capazes podem ser contratados para ensinar disciplinas básicas na escola secundária como instrutores. Os professores geralmente ofereciam um curso, ou série, de palestras em que eles iriam ler de um texto, um trabalho geralmente aceito como sendo importante saber, para que os alunos pudessem copiar as palavras, e então o professor ofereceria explicações sobre o texto, enquanto os alunos faziam notas nas amplas margens que haviam deixado para esse fim (marginália) À parte, era costume que as notas referentes a outras obras relevantes para o trecho fossem colocadas na parte inferior, do pé, da página, prática que sobreviveu como a moderna nota de rodapé. Ao término do curso de palestras, o aluno teria terminado de copiar o texto e suas anotações dos comentários do docente em seu livro didático. Quando o aluno se sentisse pronto, ele poderia comparecer perante o reitor para ser examinado. Se aprovado, ele recebeu um diploma, um documento oficial que lhe permitiu pregar ou ensinar na diocese de Paris.

Os alunos podiam frequentar os cursos que desejassem de qualquer um dos professores de qualquer uma dessas escolas, já que tudo o que realmente importava era se eles poderiam convencer o reitor de que eram competentes. Assim, eles tendiam a encontrar salas no bairro da cidade entre esses centros e a escolher quais palestras desejavam ouvir e em quais livros. Os instrutores começaram a alugar salões no distrito para dar suas palestras, e esta parte de Paris tornou-se um centro de aprendizagem, sendo conhecida como o Quartier Latin, já que a língua comum para as várias pessoas que viviam e estudavam ali era o latim. A escola da catedral de Notre Dame era a base dos professores mais respeitados e conhecidos e, a princípio, ofuscou as escolas do Quartier Latin, mas isso começou a mudar. O chanceler de Notre Dame considerou o fato de que todos os professores (e todos os alunos também) estavam em "ordens sagradas", ou seja, eram clérigos, embora não fossem padres nem monges. Como representante do bispo, o chanceler sentia que todo o clero em Paris lhe devia obediência e tentava dizer aos instrutores não apenas o que ensinar, mas como deveriam ensinar.

Este confronto entre o chanceler e os mestres foi apenas o início de uma tensão que continua até os dias atuais. Assim como o chanceler de Notre Dame reivindicou o poder de comandar a obediência dos mestres em todas as coisas porque eram membros da Igreja, também em muitas universidades estaduais hoje, os chanceleres ou presidentes tentam estender sua autoridade sobre o corpo docente porque o corpo docente são funcionários públicos. Na Paris medieval, esse conflito fez com que muitos mestres (instrutores) se mudassem para o Quartier Latin e ingressassem nas "faculdades" das escolas do mosteiro ali. O centro intelectual da cidade mudou-se para uma área mais distante do controle direto do chanceler, e os mestres começaram a considerar o chanceler mais um inimigo do que seu chefe administrativo.

NOVOS MOVIMENTOS NO TRIMESTRE LATINO

A maneira de ensinar logo mudou. Em vez de ouvir o mestre ler e interpretar, os alunos queriam ser ensinados a raciocinar. O debate público logo substituiu a palestra para atrair a atenção do aluno. Eles gostam particularmente de ouvir seus mestres debatendo uns com os outros. Ao mesmo tempo que os nobres estavam desenvolvendo os confrontos armados homem-a-homem dos torneio, os estudiosos estavam desenvolvendo o combate lógico do debate público.

Ao mesmo tempo, a demanda da Igreja e dos príncipes por administradores e advogados treinados estava crescendo, e os alunos descobriram que a habilidade na argumentação era a chave mais certa para o sucesso do que ser capaz de determinar a data da Páscoa ou explicar as proporções matemáticas que eram harmônicas e aqueles que não eram. Um ex-aluno com o nome de John of Salisbury, comentou que o estudo do Artes liberais (o trivium e o quadrivium) estavam sendo abandonados em favor da mera formação profissional.

O NASCIMENTO DA UNIVERSIDADE

Em todo caso, o menino se arrastou de volta ao mestre, e o estudante e seus amigos desceram à taverna e espancaram em todos antes de irem para casa com uma grande jarra de vinho decente. O barman pediu ao reitor para punir os alunos, e o reitor reuniu seus homens, junto com vários voluntários, e bloqueou todas as ruas do Quartier Latin. Em seguida, eles foram caçar o estudante alemão, batendo nas pessoas ao longo do caminho. Vários mestres e alunos ficaram irritados com isso, foram às ruas e uma batalha campal se seguiu. O reitor e seus homens finalmente se retiraram, mas não antes de terem matado cinco estudantes, incluindo o estudante alemão que havia começado tudo, e que por acaso era o príncipe-bispo eleito de Liège (onde hoje é a Bélgica).

O chanceler se recusou a ajudar o mestre e os alunos do Quartier Latin, então eles barricaram as ruas que levavam ao Quartier Latin, e os mestres realizaram uma reunião naquela noite. Eles decidiram se organizar em um sindicato, ou, como era chamado no latim da época, um universitas. Como seus alunos estudavam para se tornarem eles próprios mestres, o sindicato incluía os alunos como membros mais ou menos juniores. No dia seguinte, representantes do sindicato foram ao rei da França e se anunciaram como porta-vozes da A Universidade dos Mestres e Estudantes de Paris.

Eles exigiram uma série de direitos corporativos, privilégios e proteção do rei. Quando o rei perguntou o que fariam se ele decidisse dizer não, eles responderam com as famosas palavras: "Então, sacudiremos a poeira das ruas de Paris da bainha de nossos vestidos". Na verdade, eles estavam ameaçando sair e dar aulas em outro lugar. O rei Filipe percebeu que Paris perderia muito de sua atratividade e ele perderia uma quantidade considerável de impostos se os mestres, alunos e todas as pessoas que prestavam serviços ao Quartier Latin partissem, e assim concordou em proteger os membros do Universitas. Muito mais aconteceu nos anos seguintes. Continuaram as lutas com o reitor e o reitor, e até entre os próprios alunos e mestres, mas no final a união de mestres e alunos foi reconhecida por todos. They gained powers -- the right to establish the curriculum, the requirements, and the standards of accomplishment the right to debate any subject and uphold in debate any subject the right to choose their own members protection from local police the right of each member to keep his license to teach as soon as he had been admitted to full membership and others. These rights were often won in open battles in which people -- masters and students -- died, but they were rights that faculty still guard jealously today.

As an aside to help you to become more knowledgeable than your fellows who don't study medieval history, I'll tell you why graduation is called Commencement (and no, it's not because it's the beginning of your "real life"). In the large halls where students and faculty ate, the faculty used to eat at table on a raised platform at one end of the long line of tables at which the students sat. When the students finished their course of study and graduated, they became fully-fledged members of the University and equals of the faculty. Consequently, at the grand banquet with which they celebrated their graduation, faculty and former students (both the newly-graduated and alumni) ate together as equals. They shared tables, or, in the Latin of the time, they ate at a commensa, a common table for all. This is why, not so long ago, Commencement and Reunion took place at the same time and why the University Dinner was the high point of the graduation events.

Lynn Harry Nelson
Emeritus Professor of
Medieval History
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas


Top 10 Oldest Universities in the World: Ancient Colleges

Unfortunately, the U.S. will never boast a medieval university, as this country’s origins, established in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence, were formed when the oldest university in the world already was about nine centuries old. If you’re interested, we do have a list of the oldest universities in the U.S., by accreditation year.

The following list of ten oldest universities in the world shows, through their brief histories, a trend: The university as an autonomous self-governing institution first was developed as religious institutions (madrasahs) that originated in the medieval Islamic world. But, Europe did not fall far behind these Islamic developments, as Italy founded its first university approximately two centuries after the first university developed in Morocco. The last university on this list, the University of Padua in Italy, was founded in 1222 — 270 years before Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue in 1492.

This list is compiled of extant universities, although a few of them closed for brief periods from the effects of war or local disputes. On the whole, the European universities on this list have expanded their campuses and enjoy high rankings in the world today. The list below is compiled in order of the university’s founding.


The invention of spectacles

Several names and places are associated with the supposed 'invention' of spectacles though the truth is they were probably invented anonymously and developed over a period of time. In the Viking Age 'lenses' were ground out of rock crystal in Sweden. These were investigated by Otto Ahlström as part of his studies of Viking jewellery but could be thought of as purely decorative.

It is now generally accepted that spectacles were 'invented' (more likely improvised) no later than the last quarter of the thirteenth century by the Italians (rather than the Dutch or even the Chinese) and that their specific area of origin centred possibly on the Veneto region, rather than Pisa or Florence, though each of those cities still has its historians, amateur and professional, who will argue its case. In recent decades the debate has sometimes been driven more by Italian civic pride than by hard evidence although this has been partly permissible since the corpus of reliable documentary evidence is actually quite small.

If the archaeological evidence were given priority our attention would switch away from Italy altogether, towards the Germanic countries, since only one pair of the earliest rivet-type of spectacles has ever been found in Italy. A fair and non-committal summary has recently been written concluding that &lsquothe most likely scenario is of an evolving technology with many people working&rsquo.

Roger Bacon

One of the first figures to be associated with the invention of spectacles was the thirteenth century English friar Roger Bacon, who was based in Paris and outlined the scientific principles behind the use of corrective lenses in his Opus Majus (c.1266), of which the College possesses an early printed edition prepared from Bacon's manuscripts in 1733.

The idea that monks or friars possessed a secret knowledge of spectacles that they later unleashed on the world found currency with several writers, notably William Molyneux in his Dioptrica Nova (1692). Unfortunately no evidence survives to suggest that Bacon ever applied his theoretical knowledge of 'perspectiva' (optics) despite the fact that, as a Franciscan, he was part of a practically-minded religious order. A recent biographer of Bacon, Brian Clegg, insists that for Bacon the fledgling notion of &lsquoscience&rsquo was entirely concerned with the accumulation of practical knowledge with a specific end in mind. This is evident in his less well-known work of the 1260s or 1270s on burning glasses, De speculis comburentibus. o Opus Majus is, of course, only a summary proposal addressed to Pope Clement IV for a still larger work that Bacon was fated never to complete. Had the main work ever materialised the corpus of original practical experimentation that scholars now agree underpinned the summary might well have resulted in some form of binocular mounted lens. Perhaps the man himself had produced one already, or it may have been amongst the thousands of pounds worth of equipment that Bacon was in the privileged position to purchase in furtherance of his studies? It is dangerous to assume, however, that the 'inventor' of spectacles had any theoretical knowledge of physical optics at all.

Early references to spectacles are notoriously suspect. Sometimes they have only been recorded years after the events described. Other references have been interpreted as meaning what we understand as spectacles, but those interpretations could be mistaken.

In 1282 a priest named Nicholas Bullet is alleged to have used spectacles whilst signing an agreement.

By 1284 De Cristalleris, a chapter of the by-laws of the Venetian guilds prohibits the use of ordinary white glass instead of crystal, in order to keep standards high. Further Venetian State decrees of 1300 and 1301 refer to roidi da ogli as well as reading lenses (Latin: vitreos ab oculis ad legendum) Whilst this may not mean spectacles as we would understand them, the improvements in lens-making technology in the area of Venice was certainly crucial to their development.

Fra Giordano's Sermon

The pictures show the front of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence and the present pulpit. In this church Giordano da Rivalto, a Dominican friar from Pisa, renowned for his popular preaching, delivered a Lent sermon on 23 February 1305, the wording of which deserves close scrutiny. Celebrating the ingenuity of mankind, he stated (in translation): 'It is not yet twenty years since there was found the art of making spectacles' (Italian: occhiali) This could mean that spectacles were known to him to have been around since 1285 (or maybe 1286, or indeed an even later date, if the twenty-year mark had not yet been reached). He referred to a 'new art' and it is now generally accepted that the Friar's next words can be translated 'I have seen the man who first invented and created it and I have talked to him'. It seems unlikely, however, that there was ever one Damascus moment when the art of making spectacles was suddenly 'found' the remark could refer to the development of one particularly successful method of manufacturing a device that was still in its infancy and may have been calculated to flatter a patron. It is also unclear to what extent Giordano would have been aware of developments outside of the Florentine sphere of influence.

The manuscript sermons of Friar Giordano remain the property of the sisters of St Catherine at San Gaggio and are preserved at the Mediceo-Laurenziana library where, no doubt, they will continue to be the source of controversy.

In 1305 Bernard de Gordon's Lilium medicinae written in Montpellier reported that an eye lotion (collyrium) was so effective that it allowed the elderly to read small letters 'without spectacles' (sine ocularibus), however these words come from the printed version first issued in the late fifteenth century (the College possesses a slightly later edition of 1574) and the original manuscript's oculus berillinus (ou sine oculo berillion) may just refer to a single lens or a magnifying glass. Bernard was a French physician, possibly of Scottish descent, who had studied medicine at Salerno, Italy but was now teaching in France. His career is proof that academics could travel widely and potentially encounter new technologies in various lands.

In 1310 Arnold of Villanova's On Preserving Youth and Retarding Old Age echoed Aristotle by saying an old man would see as well as a young man if he had a youthful eye. Some unreliable sixteenth century printed editions included an additional line to the effect that a polished object can concentrate scattered rays of light. From this some historians have concluded that Arnold 'adduced' the invention of spectacles.

Around the turn of the 13th and14th centuries convex 'lenses' of a form which could have been of benefit to presbyopic patients were being produced on the glass-manufacturing island of Murano in the Venetian lagoon. Whether this was, in fact, their purpose is another matter.

Alessandro Della Spina

Over three centuries ago, probably in 1673, it was first reported by the Florentine scholar Carlo Roberto Dati in an essay on The Invention of Eyeglasses that a document existed in the Dominican convent of St Catherine in Pisa. Esse Crônica told how a friar who had died in 1313 had learned how spectacles (Latin: ocularia) were made from somebody else who was 'the first to invent them' and subsequently been able to make them himself, though only it seems for his personal use, and consequently he had shared the invention with the wider world out of a sense of charity lacking in the original craftsman whose handiwork he had witnessed. This document has now been rediscovered by modern historians. It is important because it implies that della Spina was a conduit by whom the method was spread but that the original 'inventor' had endeavoured to keep the process a secret.

It is impossible to know if Friar Giordano and Friar Allessandro either met or were talking about the same man and whether they did so in Pisa or Florence. It would be wrong for us, unquestioningly, to follow Dati's seeming assumption that the 'inventor' was 'probably' a Pisan. This evidence supports the idea of a late 13th century North Italian development but the native origin of the 'inventor' and his basis for claiming the title are lost to history.

Salvino D'Armati's Fraudulent Epitaph

Since 1684 historians have known of the following epitaph to be found in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Florence: Here lies / Salvino d'Armato of the Armati / of Florence / Inventor of Spectacles / May God forgive him his sins / AD 1317. Philologists have since worked out that the use of the word 'inventor' is anachronistic in Italy at this date whilst genealogists have failed to trace this particular member of the family. The epitaph is now considered to have been a deliberate family fraud of unknown date. The actual plaque in existence today dates only from 1841 and was removed in the 1890s from the outside wall and hidden away low down in a corner of one of the side chapels.

To the right is a photograph of an ancient Greco-Roman bust which was artificially coupled with the epitaph in 1841 and a pencil sketch of the Armati memorial drawn before 1950 and now in the BOA Museum but formerly part of the Hamblin Collection.

The graphic to the left reveals where to spot the Armati memorial plaque (photo dating from September 2017).

From 1316 an Italian manuscript survives in which the price of a pair of spectacles in a case is given as six Bolognese solidi.

In 1329 a Tuscan merchant filed a complaint that spectacles he had bought in Florence had been stolen from him.

Circa 1330, the Lueneburg Casket in Wienhausen was constructed with four decorative convex glass disks, now bearing painted evangelist symbols but which appear to have originated as ground spectacle lenses with a refractive power of 3.5 dioptres. If so, these would be the earliest surviving glass spectacle lenses.

The Treviso Frescoes

The earliest depiction of spectacles in a painted work of art occurs in series of frescoes dated 1352 by Tommaso da Modena in the Chapter House of the Seminario attached to the Basilica San Nicolo in Treviso, north of Venice.

Cardinal Hugo of Provence

Cardinal Hugo of Provence is shown at his writing desk wearing a pair of rivet spectacles that appear to stay in place on the nose without additional support. The Cardinal actually died in the 1260s and could never have worn spectacles!

Cardinal Nicholas of Rouen

Across the room Cardinal Nicholas of Rouen is depicted using a monocular lens in the style of later quizzing glasses. The artist has even tried to represent the physical effort of straining to see the book through the lens.

The men depicted in this series of paintings are Dominicans (like Fra Rivalto), members of a dynamic monastic order founded in 1217 and regarded as 'the carrier of the sciences'.

It is notable that visual aids are portrayed as devices for the use of literate men as well as aesthetes - they had, after all, commissioned this important work of early Renaissance art.

A work of fiction from 1358, by Franco Saccheti (1330-1400), has a Florentine prior saying 'I don't see well without my spectacles' (Italian: occhiali).

Guy de Chauliac

In 1363 the sexagenarian French priest and surgeon, Guy de Chauliac, noted in his Grande Chirurgie that if a certain eye lotion such as fennel is insufficient, 'we must resort to spectacles of glass or beryl'. The Latin text commonly quoted for this is: ocularios vitri aut berillorum but it exists in various versions. The College's early printed copy of this work, produced some time after 1500, reads: [et] si ista non valet ad ocularios vitri aut berillon est recurrendum. This is a more convincing reference to early spectacles than the similar remark by Bernard de Gordon in 1305, but it also implies that, nearly a century after their invention, spectacles were still considered an unsatisfactory solution, at least by the conservative medical profession.

St Paul wearing spectacles

Circa.1375-80 Saint Paul is depicted wearing spectacles, apparently with tinted lenses, in an illuminated manuscript version of the popular French Bible Historiale (at the start of Romans 1). The suggestion is that he needs darkened glasses to cope with the blinding light of revelation. Our illustration (left) is taken from an early twentieth century tourist souvenir, presumably from the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris and inaccurately claims it to be the 'first known representation of eye-glasses', revealing how recently much of our knowledge on this subject has been acquired. It does, however, reinforce the association of spectacles with religious communities in 14th century France.

In summary the invention of spectacles is shrouded in mystery. The intellectual understanding of optics necessary to inform their invention was certainly in place by the later 1260s but we know, in any case, that they were not the first type of visual aid to be used and they are only a refinement of the single lens device. They were certainly being made and written about in Venice by 1300 at the latest and were being spoken of in Pisa (apparently retrospectively) in 1305. There are various possible conclusions that can be drawn from the available evidence but arguments as to the probable origin of spectacles are largely supposition, instinct or biased opinion.


Timbuktu

Oh wow… I always knew Timbuktu (Tombouctou in Mali) because of the story of the great emperor of the kingdom of Mali , Mansa Kankan Musa . I knew it was the center of his empire, but it is only lately that I realized that it was one of the world’s first and oldest thriving university! Students came from all over the world to study at Timbuktu. Imagine that, students from the middle east, and Europe coming to Africa to study! oooohhhh … Goodness Gracious, that sight only would make me proud! Well, to those who say Africa only has an oral tradition, go and check out the 700,000 manuscripts at the great Sankore University in Timbuktu, and tell me what you think! Oh la la…

In one documentary, the speaker mentions that they translated one of the manuscript on Algebra from Arabic to

Sankore University in Timbuktu

French, and sent it to France to be evaluated educationally well, that manuscript revealed that the mathematics it contained was currently studied in 2nd year of university in France, and the speaker then says “ and that was taught at universities in Timbuktu before the 16th century “! Wow… my Goodness!


Fatima al-Fihri: Founder of World’s Very First University

The name Fatima Al-Fihri crowns the annals of history with the distinction of having established the world’s very first university. Yes, it was a Muslim woman who pioneered a model of higher learning coupled with the issuance of degrees of various levels.

Fatima Al-Fihri migrated with her family in the early ninth century from Qayrawan in present-day Tunisia to the city of Fez in Morocco. This was during the rule of Idrees II, an extraordinary ruler and devout Muslim. Fez at that time was a bustling metropolis of the “Muslim West” (known as al-Maghrib), and held the promise in the people’s imaginations of fortune and felicity. Having become one of the most influential Muslim cities, Fez boasted a rich combination of religion and culture, both traditional and cosmopolitan. This was the city, on the left bank of the River Fez, where Fatima’s family settled and she eventually married.

After much toil and struggle in humble beginnings, the family of Fatima was eventually blessed with prosperity. Her father, Mohammad bin Abdullah Al-Fihri, had become a hugely successful businessman. After the deaths of Fatima’s husband, father, and brother in short succession, Fatima and her only other sibling, Mariam, received a sizable inheritance which assured their financial independence. It was in this latter period of their lives that they distinguished themselves. Having received a good education, the sisters in turn hastened to dedicate all of their wealth to benefiting their community. Observing that the local mosques in Fez could not accommodate the growing population of worshipers, many of whom were refugees from Islamic Spain, Mariam built the breathtaking and grand Andalusian Mosque in 245AH/859CE.

And Fatima founded Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University, considered by many historians as the oldest, continually operating, degree-granting university in the world. Historical references note that she directly oversaw and guided the construction process in great detail, certainly a testament to her great dedication as she had no expertise in the field!

Fatima had grand aspirations, and early on began buying property adjacent to the initial land, thereby significantly increasing the size of the mosque. She diligently spent all that was required of time and money to see the project to completion. She was also extremely pious and devout in worship and made a religious vow to fast daily from the first day of construction in Ramadan 245 AH/859 CE until the project was completed some two years later, whereupon she offered prayers of gratitude in the very mosque she had so tirelessly worked to build.

Masjid Al-Qarawiyyin, one of the largest mosques in North Africa, housed the university which was to become a major center of advanced learning in medieval times in the Mediterranean. Al-Qarawiyyin University is credited with producing many distinguished Muslim thinkers including Abul-Abbas, the jurist Muhammad al-Fasi, and Leo Africanus, the famous author and traveler. Other prominent names associated with the institution include the Maliki jurist Ibn al-Arabi (d. 543AH/1148CE), the historian Ibn Khaldun (d. 808AH/1406CE), and the astronomer al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) (d. 1204CE).

Non-Muslims were welcome to matriculate. In fact, the University’s outstanding caliber attracted Gerber of Auvergne who later became Pope Sylvester II and went on to introduce Arabic numerals and the concept of zero to medieval Europe. One of the university’s most famous students was a Jewish physician and philosopher, Maimonides.

He was born in Andalusia in 1138 while it was flourishing as an intellectual and cultural hub under Muslim rule. His family moved to Fez, Morocco in 1160 where he was heavily influenced by Islamic thought. A distinguished theologian, he was the first to introduce articles of faith to Judaism he considered it mandatory for every Jew to believe in the absolute unity of God, in His exclusive right to be worshipped, in revelation through prophets, resurrection, and Divine punishment and reward.

By the 14th century, the university housed the Al-Qarawiyyin Library which remains one of the oldest in the world, preserving some of Islam’s most valuable manuscripts. These include volumes from the Muwatta of Imam Malik inscribed on gazelle parchment, the Seerah of Ibn Ishaq, the premier transcript of Ibn Khaldun’s Al-‘Ibar, and a copy of the Qur’an gifted to the institution in 1602 by Sultan Ahmed al-Mansur.

Fatima Al-Fihri’s Legacy

Almost 1200 years have passed since the founding of the University of Al-Qarawiyin in 859, and it continues to this day to graduate students in the various religious and physical sciences. This esteemed institution, which already had 8,000 students by the 14th century, is central to the legacy of Fatima Al-Fihri. Her story is one of timeless dedication to the Islamic tradition of learning and academic study, as well as personal devotion to pleasing Allah SWT by serving as a genuine benefactor to humanity. The world is richer as a result.


History of the University

Texas A&M is the state's first public institution of higher education. With a student body of more than 59,000 and more than 5,200 acres on the College Station campus, Texas A&M is also among the nation's largest universities. Our origins, however, are much humbler: we owe our existence to the Morrill Act, approved by the United States Congress on July 2, 1862. This act provided for donation of public land to the states for the purpose of funding higher education whose "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanic arts."

The State of Texas agreed to create a college under the terms of the Morrill Act in November 1866, but actual formation didn't come until the establishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas by the Texas state legislature on April 17, 1871. A commission created to locate the institution accepted the offer of 2,416 acres of land from the citizens of Brazos County in 1871, and instruction began in 1876. Admission was limited to white males, and, as required by the Morrill Act, all students were required to participate in military training.

Texas A&M underwent many changes in the 1960s under the presidency of Gen. James Earl Rudder. Under his tenure the college diversified, opening its doors to African-Americans and formally admitting women. Participation in the Corps of Cadets was also made voluntary. In 1963, the Texas state legislature officially renamed the school to Texas A&M University, with the "A" and "M" being a symbolic link to the school's past but no longer officially standing for "Agricultural and Mechanical."

Since that time, Texas A&M has flourished to become one of the nation's premier research universities. Along with the University of Texas and Rice, Texas A&M is one of only three Tier 1 universities in the state. In 1971 and 1989, respectively, Texas A&M was designated as a sea-grant and a space-grant institution, making it among the first four universities to hold the triple distinction of land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant designations.

While membership in the Corps of Cadets became voluntary in 1965, the Corps has nonetheless continued to play a key role in the university. The Corps is often referred to as the "Keepers of the Spirit" and "Guardians of Tradition." Texas A&M remains one of only six senior military colleges, and the Corps of Cadets is the largest uniformed body outside the national service academies. As such, it has historically produced more officers than any other institution in the nation other than the academies.

The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum opened in 1997 on west campus, making Texas A&M one of only a few universities to host a presidential library on their campus. President Bush maintained an active role in the university, hosting and participating in special events organized through the library.


Why were the first Universities created? - História

U.S. Department of Education
Office for Civil Rights
Washington, D.C. 20202-1100

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) were established to serve the educational needs of black Americans. Prior to the time of their establishment, and for many years afterwards, blacks were generally denied admission to traditionally white institutions. As a result, HBCUs became the principle means for providing postsecondary education to black Americans.

Today, HBCUs must fulfill educational goals far beyond those initially set. President George Bush described the unique mission of black colleges as follows:

"At a time when many schools barred their doors to black Americans, these colleges offered the best, and often the only, opportunity for a higher education."

Today, thank heavens, most of those barriers have been brought down by the law, and yet historically black colleges and universities still represent a vital component of American higher education.

This pamphlet provides an overview of the historic role, accomplishments, and challenges which face HBCUs as they carry out their unique mission. The information will allow the reader to consider HBCUs as a valid choice in meeting the educational needs of minority and nonminority students. Further, the pamphlet summarizes the efforts of the Department of Education aimed at strengthening HBCUs, while assuring that higher education programs do not discriminate on the basis of race.

BACKGROUND OF HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Prior to the Civil War, there was no structured higher education system for black students. Public policy and certain statutory provisions prohibited the education of blacks in various parts of the nation. The Institute for Colored Youth, the first higher education institution for blacks, was founded in Cheyney, Pennsylvania, in 1837. It was followed by two other black institutions--Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania (1854), and Wilberforce University, in Ohio (1856).

Although these institutions were called universities" or "institutes" fromtheir founding, a major part of their mission in the early years was to provide elementary and secondary schooling for students who had no previous education. It was not until the early 1900s that HBCUs began to offer courses and programs at the postsecondary level.

Following the Civil War, public support for higher education for black students was reflected in the enactment of the Second Morrill Act in 1890. The Act required states with racially segregated public higher education systems to provide a land-grant institution for black students whenever a land-grant institution was established and restricted for white students. After the passage of the Act, public land-grant institutions specifically for blacks were established in each of the southern and border states. As a result, some new public black institutions were founded, and a number of formerly private black schools came under public control eventually 16 black institutions were designated as land-grant colleges. These institutions offered courses in agricultural, mechanical, and industrial subjects, but few offered college-level courses and degrees.

The U.S. Supreme Court's 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson established a "separate but equal" doctrine in public education. In validating racially dual public elementary and secondary school systems, Plessy also encouraged black colleges to focus on teacher training to provide a pool of instructors for segregated schools. At the same time, the expansion of black secondary schools reduced the need for black colleges to provide college preparatory instruction.

By 1953, more-than 32,000 students were enrolled in such well known private black institutions as Fisk University, Hampton Institute, Howard University, Meharry Medical College, Morehouse College, Spelman College, and Tuskegee Institute, as well as a host of smaller black colleges located in southern and border states. In the same year, over 43,000 students were enrolled in public black colleges. HBCUs enrolled 3,200 students in graduate programs. These private and public institutions mutually served the important mission of providing education for teachers, ministers, lawyers, and doctors for the black population in a racially segregated society.

The addition of graduate programs, mostly at public HBCUs, reflected three Supreme Court decisions in which the "separate but equal" principle of Plessy was applied to graduate and professional education. The decisions stipulated: (1) a state must offer schooling for blacks as soon as it provided it for whites (Sinuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma, 1948) (2) black students must receive the same treatment as white students (MacLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 1950) and (3) a state must provide facilities of comparable quality for black and white students (Sweatt v. Painter, 1950). Black students increasingly were admitted to traditionally white graduate and professional schools if their program of study was unavailable at HBCUs. In effect, desegregation in higher education began at the post-baccalaureate level.

In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Conselho de Educação rejected the "separate but equal" doctrine and held that racially segregated public schools deprive black children of equal protection guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. o Plessy decision, which had governed public education policy for more than a half-century, was overturned. Despite the landmark Supreme Court decision in marrom, most HBCUs remained segregated with poorer facilities and budgets compared with traditionally white institutions. Lack of adequate libraries and scientific and research equipment and capabilities placed a serious handicap on many. Many of the public HBCUs closed or merged with traditionally white institutions. However, most black college students continued to attend HBCUs years after the decision was rendered.

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964

Soon after the Brown decision, Congress passed Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to provide a mechanism for ensuring equal opportunity in federally assisted programs and activities. In enacting Title VI, Congress also reflected its concern with the slow progress in desegregating educational institutions following the Supreme Court's marrom decisão. Title VI protects individuals from discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Passage of the law led to the establishment of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the former Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). OCR placed its primary compliance emphasis in the 1960s and early 1970s on eliminating unconstitutional elementary and secondary school segregation in the southern and border states.

EARLY COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY IN POSTSECONDARY

Nineteen states were operating racially segregated higher education systems at the time Title VI was enacted. In 1969-70, after intensive investigative work, OCR notified a number of the states that they were in violation of Title VI for having failed to dismantle their previously operated racial systems of higher education. OCR sought, without success, statewide higher education desegregation plans. In 1970, private plaintiffs filed suit against HEW for failing to initiate enforcement action against the systems under investigation by OCR. Their suit is known as the Adams caso.

In 1977, as part of the Adams case, a court ordered the federal government to establish new, uniform criteria for statewide desegregation. In response, OCR published criteria specifying the ingredients of acceptable plans to desegregate State systems of public higher education (Criteria). o Criteria recognized the unique role of HBCUs in meeting the educational needs of black students. Accordingly, the Criteria called for the enhancement of HBCUs through improvements in physical plants and equipment, number and quality of faculties, and libraries and other financial support. o Criteria also called for expanding nonminority enrollment at HBCUs by offering on their campuses academic programs that are in high demand or unavailable at the state systems' other campuses. Efforts also were to be made to provide HBCUs with resources that would ultimately ensure they were at least comparable to those at traditionally white institutions having similar missions.

Under the plans accepted by OCR, HBCUs have aimed for desegregated student enrollments and better programs and facilities while retaining or enhancing their historic stature. OCR has monitored the plans to make sure they have been implemented.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF HBCUs

Under the plans, substantial progress has been made by many states in desegregation of their state systems of higher education. At the same time, HBCUs continue to be a vital resource in the nation's educational system. Among their accomplishments are the following:

HBCUs have played an historical role in enhancing equal educational opportunity for all students.

  • More than 80 percent of all black Americans who received degrees in medicine and dentistry were trained at the two traditionally black institutions of medicine and dentistry--Howard University and Meharry Medical College. (Today, these institutions still account for 19.7 percent of degrees awarded in medicine and dentistry to black students.)
  • HBCUs have provided undergraduate training for three fourths of all black persons holding a doctorate degree three fourths of all black officers in the armed forces and four fifths of all black federal judges.
  • HBCUs are leading institutions in awarding baccalaureate degrees to black students in the life sciences, physical sciences mathematics, and engineering.
  • HBCUs continue to rank high in terms of the proportion of graduates who pursue and complete graduate and professional training.

Fifty percent of black faculty in traditionally white research universities received their bachelor's degrees at an HBCU.

HBCU graduates include: Mary McLeod Bethune, educator and founder of Bethune Cookman College Charles Drew, physician and medical researcher W.E.B. DuBois, sociologist, educator, and co-founder of the NMCP Patricia Harris, former Secretary, U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare and Housing and Urban Development Martin Luther King, Jr., recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize Christa McAuliffe, first educator in space Kenneth B. Clark, psychologist Thurgood Marshall, Supreme Court Justice Leontyne Price, world renowned opera soprano Louis Sullivan, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and many black political leaders.

Today, there are 107 HBCUs with more than 228,000 students enrolled. Fifty-six institutions are under private control, and 51 are public colleges and universities. The public institutions account for more than two-thirds of the students in historically black institutions. Most (87) of the institutions are four-year colleges or universities, and 20 are two-year institutions. In the past, more than 80 percent of all black college graduates have been trained at these HBCUs. Today, HBCUs enroll 20 percent of black undergraduates. However, HBCUs award 40 percent of baccalaureate degrees earned by black college students.

WHITE HOUSE INITIATIVE ON HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

On April 28, 1989, President George Bush issued Executive Order 12677 to strengthen the capacity of HBCUs to provide quality education and to increase their participation in federally sponsored programs. It mandates the taking of positive measures, by federal agencies, to increase the participation of HBCUs, their faculty and students, in federally sponsored programs. It also encourages the private sector to assist HBCUs. The Executive Order is administered by the Department's Office of Postsecondary Education - White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This office also coordinates the activities of 27 federal departments and agencies in implementing Executive Order 12677. These agencies were selected for participation in the program because they account for 98 percent of federal funds directed to our colleges and universities.

Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, authorizes funds for enhancing HBCUs. The statute authorizes the "Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program" and the "Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program." Title III is administered by the Department's Office of Postsecondary Education - Division of Institutional Development.

Selecting a college in which to enroll is a very personal choice. However, HBCUs offer a valuable option for minority and nonminority students alike. Some of the factors that make HBCUs attractive include:

Many HBCUs have lower tuition and fees compared to traditionally white institutions. A number also offer a broad spectrum of financial assistance to qualified students and have extensive experience in identifying sources of financial support for deserving students. Financial assistance may come in the form of scholarships, loans, and grants to cover the cost of tuition, fees, room and board, books, supplies, personal expenses, and transportation.

Cultural and Racial Diversity

HBCUs often serve students from a wide range of cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Students interested in the humanities, or in such areas as sociology, psychology, economics, government, urban planning, etc., may find their exposure to a broader range of individuals and their cultures particularly valuable.

Nonresident aliens constitute a large portion of the student enrollment at many HBCUs. A number of foreign students and professors at HBCUs participate in student or faculty exchange programs. In general, HBCUs aim to be sensitive to the needs of foreign students and provide students an opportunity to associate with different nationalities and to learn about cultural diversities. Multicultural exposures are expected to become increasingly valuable as the demographics of the American work force change and America competes more aggressively in the world economy.

Today many HBCUs have a racially diverse students enrollment at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Also, the majority of HBCUs continue to have a racially diverse faculty and administration. HBCUs are presently more racially desegregated, with respect to their enrollment and staff, than traditionally white institutions.

Remediation and Retention

HBCUs may offer a more supportive educational setting for students encountering some difficulty in realizing their full academic potential. HBCUs generally offer a broad range of effective remedial programs for students. Many HBCUs have established developmental centers, reading laboratories, and expanded tutorial and counseling services to accommodate the special needs of educationally disadvantaged students. In addition, a strong commitment by many HBCUs to serve all students has resulted in high rates of graduation.

Traditionally, the faculties at many HBCUs place as much, or more, emphasis on teaching and student service oriented activities as on research. This permits more time for personal and high quality student-teacher interactions. In addition, many teachers at HBCUs have experience in working with minority students and students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Research findings indicate that these factors are important for the academic success of many minority students.

As a result of the desegregation plans approved by OCR under Title VI, many state systems of higher education have placed new high demand programs and curricula-such as engineering, pharmacy, and computer science-at HBCUs.

Students considering options in postsecondary education are faced with one of the most difficult and important choices of their lives. Their decisions should lead to informed selections reflecting the broadest possible range of educational opportunities.

The Office for Civil Rights is committed to equality of opportunity in education. OCR conducts complaint investigations and compliance reviews to ensure Title VI requirements are being followed. Also, OCR supports the efforts to comply with Title VI by offering a program of technical assistance to institutions receiving federal funds as well as to beneficiaries of those funds. If you wish additional information about the OCR compliance program, you may write or phone the OCR regional office which serves your state or territory. The addresses and telephone numbers of the regional civil rights offices are listed below.