Óleo

Óleo

Como FDR encantou um rei saudita e conquistou o acesso dos EUA ao petróleo

Uma reunião secreta durante a guerra. ...consulte Mais informação

Derramamento de óleo Exxon Valdez

O derramamento de óleo do Exxon Valdez foi um desastre causado pelo homem que ocorreu quando o Exxon Valdez, um petroleiro de propriedade da Exxon Shipping Company, derramou 11 milhões de galões de petróleo bruto no Prince William Sound do Alasca em 24 de março de 1989. Foi o pior derramamento de óleo em História dos EUA até ...consulte Mais informação

Grande derramamento de óleo começa no Golfo do México

20 de abril de 2010: Uma explosão e incêndio a bordo da plataforma de perfuração Deepwater Horizon no Golfo do México, a aproximadamente 50 milhas da costa da Louisiana, mata 11 pessoas e provoca o maior derramamento de óleo offshore da história americana. A plataforma estava nas fases finais de ...consulte Mais informação

Spindletop

Em 10 de janeiro de 1901, um enorme gêiser de petróleo explodiu de um local de perfuração em Spindletop Hill, um monte criado por um depósito subterrâneo de sal localizado perto de Beaumont no Condado de Jefferson, sudeste do Texas. Alcançando uma altura de mais de 150 pés e produzindo perto de 100.000 ...consulte Mais informação

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), fundador da Standard Oil Company, tornou-se um dos homens mais ricos do mundo e um grande filantropo. Nascido em circunstâncias modestas no interior do estado de Nova York, ele ingressou no então incipiente negócio do petróleo em 1863, investindo em uma empresa de Cleveland, Ohio. ...consulte Mais informação

Indústria de Petróleo

O século 19 foi um período de grandes mudanças e rápida industrialização. A siderurgia gerou novos materiais de construção, as ferrovias ligaram o país e a descoberta de petróleo forneceu uma nova fonte de combustível. A descoberta do gêiser Spindletop em 1901 ...consulte Mais informação

Bugatti raro encontrado na garagem britânica

Em 2 de janeiro de 2009, a mídia relatou que um raro Bugatti Type 57S Atalante Coupe 1937 não restaurado foi encontrado na garagem de um médico britânico. Um mês depois, em 7 de fevereiro, o carro foi vendido em um leilão de Paris por cerca de US $ 4,4 milhões. O preto de dois lugares, um de apenas 17 57S ...consulte Mais informação

Gusher sinaliza início da indústria de petróleo dos EUA

Em 10 de janeiro de 1901, uma torre de perfuração em Spindletop Hill perto de Beaumont, Texas, produz um enorme jorro de petróleo bruto, cobrindo a paisagem por centenas de metros e sinalizando o advento da indústria petrolífera americana. O gêiser foi descoberto a uma profundidade de mais de 1.000 pés, ...consulte Mais informação

Petroleiros morrem afogados no Mar do Norte

Um apartamento flutuante para petroleiros no Mar do Norte desaba, matando 123 pessoas, em 30 de março de 1980. A plataforma Alexander Kielland abrigava 208 homens que trabalhavam na plataforma petrolífera Edda próxima no campo Ekofisk, 235 milhas a leste de Dundee, Escócia. A maior parte do petróleo Phillips ...consulte Mais informação

A condenação do capitão do Exxon Valdez é anulada

O tribunal de apelações do Alasca anula a condenação de Joseph Hazelwood, o ex-capitão do petroleiro Exxon Valdez. Hazelwood, que foi considerado culpado de negligência por seu papel no enorme derramamento de óleo em Prince William Sound em 1989, argumentou com sucesso que ele era ...consulte Mais informação


Óleo - HISTÓRIA

Por causa de seu estado de deserto, havia muitas atividades de perfuração na Líbia, muito antes de haver qualquer suspeita de que houvesse petróleo. A busca por água envolveu a perfuração de poços muito profundos. Já em 1915, poços de águas profundas perfurados por italianos às vezes encontravam gás natural. Isso era interessante, mas o gás natural não era uma commodity principal naquela época. Nos EUA, o gás natural dos óleos foi queimado (queimado) como um incômodo.

Em 1935, um professor da Universidade de Milão encarregado de um programa de perfuração de poços de água fez questão de ficar de olho no petróleo. Provavelmente, isso estava mais por interesse acadêmico do que por uma preocupação séria em encontrar um recurso econômico significativo. Alguns anos depois, o petróleo foi detectado em um poço de água perfurado perto de Trípoli.

Essa descoberta foi suficiente para motivar um levantamento geológico na Tripolitânia. Um poço foi perfurado em busca de petróleo, mas nenhum foi encontrado. No entanto, em 1940 um programa de exploração foi iniciado, mas o equipamento disponível era inadequado para lidar com as severas condições do deserto do Saara. Pouco tempo depois, a guerra chegou à Líbia e todas as explorações foram interrompidas.

Imediatamente após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a situação política da Líbia, que era controlada pela Itália, era incerta. Não havia Estado que pudesse garantir às empresas de exploração de petróleo os direitos sobre o que encontrassem. Portanto, nenhuma exploração foi realizada até depois que a Líbia se tornou um reino independente em 1951. O novo reino desenvolveu a lei de direitos minerais por meio de consultas com as companhias internacionais de petróleo. Em 1953, a Líbia concedeu licenças de prospecção a onze empresas de petróleo. Levantamentos geológicos foram realizados por essas empresas. Em 1955, um poço de petróleo foi perfurado com sucesso em condições desérticas do outro lado da fronteira com a Argélia.

Os líderes Lidyan estavam determinados a manter o mercado de licenças exploratórias na Líbia, em vez de conceder uma concessão a uma empresa ou a um consórcio de algumas empresas. Além disso, mesmo quando uma empresa recebeu uma concessão em uma área específica, ela teria que abrir mão de um quarto da concessão após cinco anos. Isso permitiria ao governo conceder esse território a uma nova empresa na esperança de que uma nova empresa pudesse ter sucesso onde outra falhou.

As condições eram que as empresas petrolíferas tivessem de pagar um royalty de 12,5% sobre suas receitas e um imposto de 50% sobre os lucros. Os royalties e outras despesas operacionais eram obviamente dedutíveis no cálculo dos lucros da empresa.

As empresas petrolíferas estavam muito interessadas em desenvolver fontes de petróleo na Líbia porque ela estava localizada no Mar Mediterrâneo. Suas fontes do Irã foram limitadas por uma crise política nos anos de 1951 a 1954. A Crise de Suez de 1956-57 resultou no fechamento do Canal de Suez. Todo o petróleo do leste de Suez teve de ser transportado para a ponta sul da África com grande despesa adicional. Além disso, pensava-se que a Líbia tinha um governo estável e pró-Ocidente.

Em 1957, havia cerca de uma dúzia de empresas operando na Líbia em cerca de sessenta concessões diferentes. As empresas que operavam lá incluíam os sete majors e a paraestatal francesa Compagnie Fran & ccedilaaise des P & eacutetroles. Havia também o Oasis, um consórcio de três empresas novas na exploração internacional de petróleo, Amerada Hess, Conoco e Marathon. Havia também a petroleira Bunker Hunt, filho do magnata americano do petróleo H.L. Hunt.

Em 1957, a Esso decidiu perfurar na área da fronteira de onde o poço de petróleo argelino havia sido trazido. Ela perfurou três poços e um deles foi bem-sucedido. Foi trazido em janeiro de 1958 com um fluxo de 500 barris por dia. Isso não era muito considerando as despesas de perfuração.

Em 1959, a Esso perfurou na região da Siritica, que é o centro-norte do país. Ele trouxe um poço fluindo a 17.500 barris por dia. Isso seguido por outro poço fluindo com 15.000 barris por dia. Mais tarde, em 1959, outros poços de petróleo em Siritica foram abertos. Ao todo, seis grandes campos de petróleo na Líbia foram descobertos em 1959. Esso e Oasis eram os líderes no campo.


Recursos energéticos

O Wilmington Oil Field é o terceiro maior campo nos Estados Unidos contíguos, com uma recuperação final estimada em três bilhões de barris de petróleo. O campo está localizado na Wilmington Anticline de 13 milhas de comprimento e 3 milhas de largura que se estende desde a costa de San Pedro até a costa de Seal Beach e é dividida verticalmente por falhas criando entidades de produção separadas chamadas Blocos de Falha. O petróleo é produzido em cinco grandes intervalos de areia que variam em profundidades de 2.000 pés a 11.000 pés, onde mais de 2,5 bilhões de barris de petróleo foram recuperados. O óleo e o gás são recuperados por meio da produção primária, inundação secundária de água e inundação de vapor. Um total de 6.150 poços foram perfurados até o momento.

Áreas de operação de óleo

Operações de Petróleo

No campo petrolífero de Wilmington, que abrange propriedades de terras altas e tidelands, o DOP supervisiona o trabalho de dois empreiteiros privados e seus 300 funcionários. Tidelands Oil Production Company é o Empreiteiro de Campo de West Wilmington. Desde 1932, mais de 3.400 poços terrestres foram perfurados. Nas décadas de 1950 e 1960, inundações de água foram iniciadas para aumentar a recuperação e controlar o subsidência.

A California Resources Corporation (CRC) é a Contratada de campo da Unidade de Long Beach (LBU), a porção leste da costa do Campo de Wilmington. THUMS Long Beach Company (nomeado em homenagem aos contratantes de campo originais: Texaco, Humble, Union, Mobil e Shell) é o agente da CRC. Em 1964, quatro ilhas artificiais, com o nome dos astronautas que perderam suas vidas durante os primeiros anos da exploração espacial dos EUA (Grissom, White, Chaffee e Freeman), foram construídas. O Píer J foi expandido para o Porto de Long Beach para desenvolver o LBU. Aproximadamente 1.450 poços foram perfurados. A Unidade de Long Beach começou a inundar as águas no início para ajudar a prevenir o afundamento. Hoje, a produção de petróleo do Campo de Wilmington é de aproximadamente 46.000 barris por dia em 1.550 poços ativos.

Esquemático da Ilha

Ilha Grissom

No Planaltos, a cidade é participante de royalties e proprietária de uma participação ativa em suas propriedades adjacentes a Signal Hill e outras propriedades em toda a cidade. A Signal Hill West Unit (SHWU) e a Signal Hill East Unit (SHEU) fazem parte do campo de petróleo de Long Beach localizado em Long Beach e em Signal Hill. A estrutura anticlinal expressa na superfície é visível a quilômetros e é um marco local próximo ao aeroporto de Long Beach. Signal Hill Petroleum Inc. é atualmente a operadora oficial. Recreation Park está localizado no lado norte da 7th Street. Um total de 7 poços são agora operados pela Breitburn Energy Company LLC, uma empresa petrolífera independente com sede em Los Angeles. O City Wasem Community Lease está localizado perto do Estádio Marinho, que é uma extensão do campo de petróleo de Seal Beach. O reservatório de óleo da área marinha foi descoberto e desenvolvido em 1979 por Elliot & amp Ten Eyck (ET). O arrendamento possui atualmente 16 poços ativos.


O meu estoque de óleo antigo vale alguma coisa?

Por favor, apoie esta pesquisa! A pesquisa original da American Oil & amp Gas Historical Society e a manutenção do fórum que a acompanha dependem do seu apoio financeiro individual. AOGHS não é afiliado a nenhuma empresa de petróleo, grupos de defesa ou organizações de lobby da indústria.

A vinheta de um certificado de ações de petróleo muitas vezes é uma parte importante de seu valor para a scripophily - a compra e venda de certificados como itens colecionáveis ​​depois de não terem valor resgatável como garantia.

Histórias de empresas de petróleo

Embora muitas vezes controversa, a história da exploração, produção e transporte de petróleo nos Estados Unidos deve ser preservada. De querosene para lâmpadas, gasolina para carros e polímeros plásticos para produtos de uso diário, a história social, econômica e tecnológica da indústria # 8217 oferece um contexto para a compreensão dos debates sobre energia moderna.

Na pressa para imprimir certificados de ações durante o boom do petróleo, as novas empresas frequentemente optavam por imprimir certificados usando uma vinheta de torres!

Os colecionadores encontraram um número surpreendente de exemplos em que empresas de exploração formadas rapidamente escolheram exatamente o mesmo cenário de campo de petróleo para certificados de ações. Poderia ter economizado tempo e dinheiro ao escolher uma vinheta comum encontrada hoje em ações da Centralized Oil & amp Gas Company Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company Evangeline Oil Company Texas Production Company Tulsa Produtora e Refinaria Empresa Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company Oil Prospectors Inc. Craven Oil & amp Refining Buck Run Oil and Refining Home Oil & amp Gas Hog Creek Carruth Company Buffalo-Texas Oil Company e a Champion Oil Company.

Você pode me dizer algo sobre essa antiga empresa de petróleo (de graça)? Encontrei seu certificado de ações em um sótão. Eu sou rico? Provavelmente não. Conforme mostrado nas empresas abaixo, desde a década de 1850, os ciclos de expansão e contração da indústria do petróleo dos EUA e # 8217 deixaram muitas vítimas. Para ver um exemplo de um que realmente chegou aos tribunais, consulte Not a Millionaire from Old Oil Stock.

A primeira empresa de petróleo da América & # 8217 & # 8211 a Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company de Nova York & # 8211 a organizou em 1855.

Infelizmente, esta pequena sociedade histórica não pode atender aos pedidos de gratuitamente pesquisas sobre histórias de empresas individuais e o valor potencial dos certificados de ações. Como você deve ter descoberto, a pesquisa financeira é difícil e demorada. Se você tiver sorte, um visitante deste site ou um voluntário da sociedade pode ter postado informações úteis.

Se o seu certificado não estiver listado aqui, e para compartilhar mais experiências de pesquisa, você está convidado a enviar sua consulta no atual Fórum de perguntas e respostas sobre certificados de ações.

Abaixo está uma pesquisa enviada por um importante voluntário da American Oil & amp Gas Historical Society. As histórias de empresas apresentadas costumam contar histórias fascinantes & # 8211 e são exclusivo das postagens do fórum de perguntas e respostas sobre certificados de ações também neste site. Volte aqui para mais dessas histórias raras.

Pesquisa mais recente & # 8211 atualizado em maio de 2021

Badger Oil & amp Gas Company *
Bailey Gaunce Oil & amp Refining Corporation *
Barrington Oil Company
Beaumont Confederated Oil & amp Pipe Line Company
Big Indian Oil & amp Development Company
Big Six Oil Company *
Black Gold Petroleum Company *
Black Hills Petroleum Company
Block Oil & amp Gas Syndicate *
Blue Ridge Natural Gas & amp Oil Corporation *
Bluebird Oil & amp Gas Association *
Boulder Petroleum Company
Buck Run Oil and Refining Company
Buffalo Oil Company
Buffalo-Texas Oil Company
Bug Drilling Company *
Burkburnett-Center Oil Company *
Burkburnett-Claiborne Oil Company *
Burk Imperial Oil Company *
Burk-Tex Production Company *
Busseyville Oil & amp Gas *
Butler Perryman Interests *
* Pesquisa em andamento

D.M. Simon Oil & amp Gas Company *
Dallas Oil Company of Texas *
Delaware Union Oil Company *
Delhi Oil Company
Denton-Eastland Oil Company *
Desoto Oil Company *
DeSoto Oil Company *
Detroit Oil & amp Refining Company *
Dominion Oil Company *
Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company
Doughboy Oil Company
Dysart Oil Company
* Pesquisa em andamento

Fairchild Petroleum *
Farmers Oil & amp Gas Company *
Federal Consolidated Oil Company *
Companhia Federal de Petróleo e Gás
Fifty-Seven Oil Company *
Fort Stockton Oil Company *
Foster Farm Oil Company
Franklin Oil & amp Refining Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Garfield Oil & amp Refining Company *
Gate City-Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company *
Gatex Oil Company *
Galloway Oil Corporation
Gás, Petróleo e Empresa de Desenvolvimento (The)
General Oil Company *
General Resources Corporation *
Gin Site Oil Company *
Gladys City Oil, Gas & amp Manufacturing Company
Gladys Oil Company
Glenn McCarthy, Inc.
Globe Natural Gas Company *
Gold Medal Oil Company *
Golden Gate Oil Company
Golden Goose Oil and Refining Company
Golden Valley Oil & amp Gas Company
Good Luck Oil Company *
Goshen Oil & amp Gas Company *
Grand County Oil & amp Refining Company *
Great Basin Oil Company *
Títulos da Great Oil Basin *
Great Southern Oil & amp Refining Association *
Great Southwestern Petroleum Company *
Óleos de grama ótimos doces *
Great Western Oil & amp Gas Company
Greater Great Falls Oil Company *
Green River Oil & amp Uranium Company *
Gypsy-Burke Oil Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Hamilton Oil & amp Gas Company *
Hale Petroleum Company *
Harris-Fisher Oil Company *
Havana Oil Company
Hayden-Burk Petroleum Company *
Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company *
Hesperian Petroleum Company *
Higgins Wonder Oil Company
Hiram Wilson Oil Company *
Hoffman Oil & amp Refining Corporation
Hog Creek Carruth Oil Company
Holiday Oil & amp Gas Company *
Holly Oil Company
Homa Oil & amp Gas Company *
Home Oil & amp Development Company
Home Oil Company *
Homestead Oil Company
Horse Shoe Four Leaf Mining & amp Oil Company *
Ferradura-Western Oil Company
Humble Oil Ridge Company *
Huntsville Consolidated Gas Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Imperial Drilling Company *
Indian Oil & amp Gas Company *
Petróleo industrial e empresa de refino *
Petróleo Intercontinente *
International Oil & amp Gas Corporation
Interstate Oil Company *
Iowa e California Oil & amp Gas Company *
Iowa-Beaumont Oil Company
* Pesquisa em andamento

Kantexo Oil & amp Gas Company *
Keck Oil Company *
Ken-Saw Petroleum Corporation *
King George Oil Company *
Kokernot Oil Company
Kutz Canon Oil & amp Gas Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

La Lomita Oil Syndicate *
Lewis Oil Corporation
Lewiston-Clarkston Oil & amp Gas Company *
Lexa Oil Company *
Lincoln-Idaho Oil Company
Lincoln Oil Producing Company *
Liquid Gold Oil Company *
Louisiana Consolidated Petroleum Company *
Love Petroleum Company *
Loy Oil Company *
Lucky Jim Oil Company
Lucky Long Oil Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Como este livro best-seller da década de 1950 se relaciona com investidores incautos e os homens por trás de uma empresa de exploração duvidosa? Leia Oil Prospectors, Inc.

Mahala Oil & amp Gas Company *
Mary Owens Oil Company *
McKeesport Gas Company
McTon Oil Company *
Meridian Petroleum Company
Mexican Oil & amp Coal Company *
Mid-Central Oil & amp Minerals Company *
Middle States Oil Corporation
Midfields Oil Company
Mid-Texas Petroleum Company *
Minnesota-Western Oil Company
Minnesota Victoria Oil Company *
Milwaukee Electra Oil Development Company *
Mississippi Oil Company *
Monarch Vacuum Petroleum Company *
Monroe Prospect Company *
Montana-Canadian Oil Company *
Montrose Gas, Oil and Coal Company
Sindicato de Petróleo e Gás Morris-Van Keuren
Motex Oil Company *
Mountain States Resources Corporation
Multiple Dome Oil Company *
Murdock Oil & amp Gas Company
Muskogee Oil & amp Gas Company *
Mutual Consolidated Petroleum Corporation *
Mutual Oil & amp Development Company *
Mutual Oil Union Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Nanticoke Oil Company *
Companhia Nacional de Petróleo Consolidada *
National Energy Corporation *
National Oil Company *
National Oil Company of New Jersey
Empresa Nacional de Refino e Fabricação de Petróleo *
Companhia Nacional de Petróleo *
National Petroleum Lease Corporation *
National Union Oil & amp Gas Company
New Mexico Oil Properties Association
Neilan Oil & amp Refining Company
New England Petroleum Company *
Sindicato de Refino de Petróleo New England-Texas
Newfield Gas & amp Oil Company *
Nordon Corporation *
North Coast Oil & amp Refining Company *
Companhia de Petróleo dos Condados do Norte
Northern Oil Company *
Northwest Petroleum *
Northwestern Oils Inc.
Nova Petroleum Corporation
* Pesquisa em andamento

Occident Oil Company *
Outubro Oil Company *
Ohio Oil Company (Maratona)
Ohio-Kansas Oil & amp Gas Company
Oil Exploration International *
Oil Prospectors Inc.
Oil Lease Development Company *
Okla-Queen Oil Company *
Oklahoma-Gulf Royalty Corporation *
Okmulgee Producing & amp Refining Company *
Old Colony Oil Company
Omaha Oil & amp Refining Company
Omaha-Lusk Oil Company *
Orange County Petroleum Company *
Oregon e Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company *
Otter Creek Oil & amp Gas Company
Overland Oil Inc. *
Over the Top Oil Company
Owl Petroleum Company *
Ozena Oil Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Pacific Land and Oil *
Pacific States Oil Company *
Pacific States Petroleum Company *
Palmer Union Oil Company
Paramount Petroleum Company
Pawnee Bill Oil Company
Pelican Petroleum Company
Peoples Oil and Production Company *
Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek Company
Associação de Produtores de Petróleo
Penn Bayless Oil & amp Gas Company *
Penn Royal Oil Company *
Pennsylvania Oil & amp Development Company
Empresa de Consolidação de Petróleo *
Companhia de Produção de Petróleo da América *
Phenix Oil and Gas Company *
Philippine Oil Development Company *
Phoenix Oil Company *
Pine Valley Oil Company *
Pioneer Oil & amp Gas Company *
Pittsburgh-Youngstown Oil & amp Gas Company *
Plateau Oil & amp Gas Company *
Plateau Petroleums Limited *
Pongratz Petroleum Company *
Empregados dos Correios Oil & amp Gas Company *
Power Petroleum Trust Estate *
Powers Manufacturing Company *
Prescott-Peoria Oil Company *
Price River Petroleum Company
Producers and Refiners Corporation
Provident Oil & amp Refining Company *
Prudential Oil and Refining Company
Puente Crude Oil Company
Puente Oil Company
* Pesquisa em andamento

Sable Oil & amp Gas Company *
St. Elco Oil & amp Gas Company *
St. Martins Oil & amp Gas Company *
Sammies Oil Corporation (Choate Oil)
San Jacinto River Oil Company *
San Mateo Oil and Refining Company *
Sanger Oil & amp Refining Company
Santa Fe Dome Oil Company
Santa Fe Western Gas & amp Uranium Corporation *
Sawyer Petroleum Company
Sawyer-Adecor International
Scofield, Shurmer e amp Teagle *
Seaboard Oil & amp Gas Company
Seattle Toledo Oil Company *
Security Oil Company *
Security Oil Syndicate No. 2 *
Sen-Burk Oil Company *
Seven States Oil Company *
Sherman Gasoline Company *
Companhia de Petróleo de Sapatos e Couro
Shoshone Oil Company
Signal Oil and Gas Company *
Solar Oil Corporation *
Sound Cities Gas & amp Oil Company
Sour Lake Texas Oil Company *
Southeastern Limited Oil Company *
Southern Montana Oil Company *
Southern Rose Oil & amp Gas Company
Companhia de Perfuração dos Estados do Sul *
Southern States Oil Company *
Corporação Southwest Oil Corporation *
Southwestern Oil Development Company
Southwestern Petroleum & amp Pipe Line Company *
Spear Oil Company
Square Deal Oil Company *
Standard Consolidated Oil & amp Land Company *
Empresa de Exploração Padrão *
Star Oil Company
Staveless Barrel & amp Tank Company
Steelman Realty Gas & amp Oil Company
Sterling Oil Company of Oklahoma *
Studebaker Oil & amp Refining Company *
Sulphur Oil Company *
Sunset Pacific Oil Company
Sunshine State Oil & amp Refining Company
Sure Oil Company *
Syndicate Oil Corporation of America *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Tapo Oil Company *
Texas-Bunger Oil and Refining Company *
Texas-Rotan Oil Company *
Texas-Washington Oil Company *
Texas Control Consolidated Oil Company *
Texas Crude Oil Company *
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation
Texas Independent Pipe Line Company *
Texas Oil & amp Refining Company
Texas Oil, Gas & amp Mineral Products Company *
Texas Oil Products Company
Texas Producers Oil Company *
Companhia de Produção do Texas
Texas United Oil Company
The 1919 Oil Company *
Tideland Oil & amp Gas Corporation *
Toltec Oil Company *
Trans-World Oil Company
Treasure State Oil & amp Gas Company
Triangle Petroleum Company *
Empresa de Perfuração Tri-State *
Empresa de produção e refinação de Tulsa
Twentieth Century Oil & amp Gas Company *
Twentymile Oil & amp Gas Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Uncle Sam Oil Company *
Union Oil & amp Gas Company *
Union Oil, Gas & amp Refining Company *
United Cuban Oil Inc.
United Plains Oil Company *
United Southern Oil Company *
Companhia de Petróleo e Gás dos Estados Unidos
United Sulphur & amp Oil Company *
United Texas Petroleum Company *
Uranium-Petroleum Company *
U.S.A. Oil Company *
Ute Oil Company & # 8211 Oil Shale Pioneer
* Pesquisa em andamento

Ventura Oil Development Company *
Vernon Winner Oil Company *
Vista Petroleum *
Volunteer Oil Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento

Wallace Oil Company; Warren Oil & amp Uranium Mining Company *
Washington-Montana Oil Company *
Wellington Oil Company
Wellmington Oil Corporation *
Companhia de Oleodutos da Costa Oeste
Western Giant Oil Company *
Companhia de Gás Natural Ocidental *
Western Nebraska Oil Company *
Western States Oil Company *
Wichita Oil & amp Gas Company
Winona Oil Corporation
Wolf Butte Oil & amp Gas Company *
Woman’s Federal Oil Company of America
Women & # 8217s National Oil & amp Development Company
World Oil Company
Wyoming Chief Oil Refining Company *
Wyoming Consolidated Oil Company *
Wyoming-Dakota Oil Company
Wyoming Oil & amp Coal Company *
Wyoming Peerless Oil Company
Wyoming Prairie Oil & amp Gas Company
Wyoming Second Standard Oil Company *
* Pesquisa em andamento


Óleo Combustível - História

Por volta de 1847, o residente de Pittsburgh, Samuel Keir, inventou uma maneira de destilar o petróleo em uma lâmpada que ele chamou de "óleo de carbono". A invenção da lâmpada de querosene em meados da década de 1850 levou ao estabelecimento da primeira companhia petrolífera dos Estados Unidos, a Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. A indústria petrolífera americana nasceu perto de Titusville, no noroeste da Pensilvânia, em 1859. Lá, Edwin L. Drake perfurou o primeiro poço de petróleo comercialmente bem-sucedido nos Estados Unidos. No entanto, a primeira grande empresa de petróleo foi a Standard Oil Company, fundada por John D. Rockefeller em 1870. A Standard Oil construiu sua primeira refinaria de petróleo na Pensilvânia e, posteriormente, expandiu suas extensas operações em todo o país.

Desde a introdução do petróleo como iluminador, e sua subseqüente abundância e conseqüente baixo custo, várias atenções foram feitas para usá-lo como combustível como substituto do carvão, especialmente para a produção de vapor. As vantagens e desvantagens eram facilmente compreendidas. Entre os primeiros estava o menor espaço que ocupa, com menor peso, e a facilidade com que pode ser manipulado sem grades, sem cinzas, sem varrimento, etc. Em vez de bombeiros necessários para manusear os pedaços sólidos de carvão, observe sua combustão, e manter a fornalha em condições adequadas varrendo o fogo, limpando o poço de cinzas, etc., a combustão de um combustível líquido, tal como o petróleo, pode ser gerenciada simplesmente variando o fornecimento por torneiras adequadas, simplesmente uma observação ocasional e regulação da oferta sendo suficiente, trazendo mais perto do grande desideratum a que todas as boas invenções conduzem: a abolição de todo trabalho mecânico pesado por seres humanos, para todos os quais a natureza abundante não deu uma quantidade tão abundante de cérebros para nada, para ser desperdiçado ao fazer o trabalho que animais ou máquinas sem cérebro podem realizar tão bem, se não melhor.

As desvantagens do uso universal do petróleo como combustível foram, em primeiro lugar, os problemas e o trabalho relacionados com o seu transporte e armazenamento, enquanto o carvão sólido pode ser carregado em carros abertos e mergulhado em pilhas, o petróleo líquido deve ser armazenado antes de ser transportado em embarcações herméticas, envolvendo muito mais despesas e investimento de capital do que o incidente com o transporte e armazenamento de carvão. Outra desvantagem é sua grande combustibilidade e o conseqüente perigo de tê-lo armazenado em quantidade, enquanto o carvão é perfeitamente seguro a esse respeito, tão seguro, de fato, que um fósforo aceso, ou mesmo um pedaço de pau ou pedaço de madeira pode ser jogado com segurança uma pilha de carvão e queimará sem acender o carvão, enquanto o petróleo, e às vezes seus vapores, são tão combustíveis que é perigoso chegar perto deles com qualquer chama; esses vapores, misturados com o ar, produzem uma mistura explosiva. Uma vez inflamada, a água não extingue o petroieum, pois flutua em cima dele.

Essa primeira experiência foi feita por volta do ano de 1864 em um dos estaleiros da Marinha dos Estados Unidos, no Brooklyn ou em Pidladelphia, onde um engenheiro teve a ideia de colocar um grande número de lâmpadas de querosene sob uma caldeira a vapor. Ele havia observado o grande calor emitido por uma lamparina a querosene e supôs que, se o número fosse grande o suficiente para encher toda a sala de fogo de uma caldeira, eles iriam aumentar o vapor. Ele negligenciou o fato de que o grande calor produzido por tal lâmpada não se estende muito além da chaminé e que, para aumentar o vapor, um longo fluxo de gases queimados ou aquecidos deve ser passado sob a caldeira e através dos condutos, e que apenas um massa suficiente de carvão ou outro material adequado deve estar em estado de ignição, e a queima, auxiliada por uma corrente de ar, projeta um longo fluxo de calor, que se dispersa onde é necessário, enquanto as lâmpadas aquecem apenas moderadamente o local sob o qual estão colocado diretamente. Uma ideia melhor era projetar um spray contínuo de petróleo sobre pedaços de tijolo, acendê-los e fazer uma explosão entre eles. Isso foi tentado, porém com sucesso duvidoso.

O próximo teste foi no Battery, New York, em 1865. O inventor queimou um spray de petróleo que procedia de tubos perfurados, enquanto duas explosões, uma de uma série de pequenas rajadas de ar e uma de uma série de rajadas de vapor superaquecido, ajudaram na combustão . Isso funcionou muito melhor, pois foi capaz de conduzir as chamas pelos condutos de retorno. Desde então, vários ensaios foram feitos, mas a maioria aceitando a mesma pulverização plana fina de petróleo e uma rajada de ar e de vapor superaquecido. Logo se descobriu, no entanto, que o jato de vapor, embora ajudasse a atomizar o petróleo (ou seja, ajudava poderosamente a subdividir o jato em inúmeras pequenas gotas como poeira), também reduzia a temperatura se não fosse superaquecido muito , de fato tão alto que volatilizou o óleo quando entrou em contato com ele. Também foi descoberto que a quantidade de tempo de ar necessária para a combustão perfeita era enorme, não inferior a 50 volumes de ar para 1 volume de vapor de petróleo. Mas isso não é objetado, pois o ar não custa nada.

No que diz respeito à metalurgia, o problema foi muito bem resolvido a chapa de ferro polido e o aço foram feitos com sucesso e economia por meio do petróleo como combustível, enquanto para outras operações metalúrgicas isso pareceria claro, mas o que se queria era uma boa caldeira a vapor forno destinado a usar petróleo como combustível. Verificou-se, tentando melhorias nos métodos referidos, que o petróleo pode ser utilizado com grande vantagem no lugar do carvão para a fabricação de ferro, aço, vidro, etc., e que mesmo que custe $ 10 o barril e o carvão $ 5 por tonelada, a vantagem estava totalmente do lado do petróleo na quantidade de 50 por cento, enquanto sob caldeiras a vapor 1 libra de óleo evapora quase 15, 16 libras ou mais de água. Este resultado muito favorável se deve, sem dúvida, ao fato de que a combustão do carvão é natural e necessariamente mais desperdiçadora, enquanto um combustível líquido pode ser queimado com muito mais economia, desde que apenas o método correto tenha sido planejado.

Em relação a outros métodos rivais, no final de 1878, um estava no estaleiro da Marinha dos Estados Unidos, no Brooklyn, e mostrou que a invenção estava terrivelmente desarticulada, como provam as idéias pouco práticas e rudes em que se baseava. Em 1880, a arte de queimar petróleo como combustível, de modo a obter o máximo de calor disponível, ainda estava em sua infância.

Em 1882, um observador afirmou que os russos estavam consideravelmente à frente dos Estados Unidos na aplicação de petróleo como combustível. Eles a empregaram com sucesso em algumas de suas ferrovias para conduzir loconlotivas, usando para esse fim a nafta bruta que vem dos poços. A maior parte dos navios a vapor que navegavam no Mar Cáspio usavam o combustível líquido, que era muito mais barato do que o carvão. Foi consumido com os injetores, e a combustão foi regulada com a maior facilidade. Uma série de vantagens foram reivindicadas para o combustível líquido. Os fornos duram mais por causa da ausência de enxofre, não há cinzas, fumaça ou faíscas, o trabalho dos atendentes é muito simplificado e o efeito de aquecimento do combustível consideravelmente maior do que o da lenha ou do carvão.

A marinha italiana foi a primeira a fazer experiências com petróleo a partir de 1890 e, em 1900, a maioria de seus torpedeiros queimava petróleo. No início da década de 1890, estava claro que as mentes navais em toda parte se endureciam quanto à questão da resistência do carvão. Em 1893, alguns consideravam que o advento do combustível líquido estava próximo, e como os navios podem ser abastecidos (o almirante PH Colomb da Marinha de Royaal afirmou ter cunhado este verbo) no mar com combustível líquido, quando seria impossível receber carvão, a aceleração desse advento era algo a ser calculado. With coal, the experience of such ships as the HMS Amphion, with a nominal extreme speed of 17 knots and a nominal coal endurance of 11,000 miles at 10 knots, on a displacement of 4,300 tons, appeared to give more satisfaction to the naval mind as a combination than the HMS Blenheim's 21.6-knot speed with 15,000 miles coal-endurance on a displacement of 9,000 tons. An Amphion would not be justified in running away from a Blenheim, so that the extra speed was not so far called for and while the nominal 4,000 miles greater coal-endurance may be an advantage, it would seem to be much more than balanced by the displacement of the Blenheim. While, therefore, great stress must be laid on coal-endurance so long as coal is the fuel, it may be easy to overdo it in sacrificing other elements.

Oil offered many benefits compared to coal. With twice the thermal content of coal, boilers could be smaller and ships could travel further at greater speed. Oil burned with less smoke, so the location of the fleet would not be so readily compromised. Oil could be stored in tanks anywhere on the ship, allowing more efficient designs. Oil could be transferred through pipes without reliance on stokers, reducing manning. Refueling at sea was feasible, which provided greater operational flexibility. When coal fired boilers are compared with oil fired ones, the biggest differences exist in the combustion equipment. As oil can be combusted in burners of rather simple design, extensive equipment is needed in combustion of coal. In the rest of the boiler, however, there are only a few minor differences in design between boilers fired with solid fuels and those fired with oil. One major difference is that generally more combustion air is needed with solid fuels than with oil, which leads to bigger amounts of flue gases and also to a bigger boiler volume. To turn it the other way round, with a given boiler a bigger output is obtained by oil firing than by coal firing, presuming that combustion of both is possible. The US Navy had conducted significant experiments with oil as fuel almost continuously after 1864. George Wallace Melville, a graduate of Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, worked in the engineering field until July 1861, when he joined the Navy in the rank of Third Assistant Engineer. In August 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Commodore Melville as the Navy's First Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. He rapidly realized the urgent need for the establishment of a test and evaluation station where naval machinery and components could undergo examination and trial for reliability before being placed aboard Navy ships. Submitting a Congressional request for funds to establish an experiment station and test laboratory, Melville's arguments finally convinced Congress to authorize a modest $400,000 for the buildings and equipment which became the US Naval Engineering Experiment Station when it was completed in 1908.

During his administration of over 16 years, Melville superintended the design of 120 ships of the "New Navy" and introduced such widely acclaimed innovations as the water tube boiler, vertical engines, and the repair ship. Promoted to Rear Admiral (RADM) in 1899, Melville was appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900. Melville worked to create an oil-burning fleet.

The mixed-firing method of spraying oil on coal was routine by the early 1900s. By 1900 natural gas still provided a significant amount of illumination and some heating. Coal and fuel oil provided most of the energy for heating of homes and offices in cities. Wood was still the dominant source of heat energy in rural areas.

The Royal Navy laid down [Dec 05], built [Dec 05-Oct 06], and commissioned [Dec 06] the first all big-gun battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval architecture (in spite of the fact that the US Navy already had the USS South Carolina class approved in 1905, they were not laid down until December 1906, hence, the failure to complete in a timely manner gave Dreadnought the honors). This opened up a frantic naval construction race between all of the great naval powers, since all of their ships were now obsolete. HMS Dreadnought mounted 10x12-inch naval rifles in five dual barbettes, three on the center line and one on each side of the forward structure, giving her an 8-gun broadside she turned 21-knots max. with a radius of operations of 6600 miles at 10 kts and 5000 at 19 kts her power plant was a hybrid in as much as she burned both coal and oil. The transition by the Royal Navy from coal to oil was stimulated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir John (Jacky) Fisher. The Royal Navy had already adopted oil for submarines and destroyers, as had the American Navy. When Churchill went to Whitehall in 1911, coal was still the primary source of power for naval vessels. Ordered in 1912 to outmaneuver and cross the T of the German fleet, the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were built to burn oil only. Once this decision was made, it followed that the rest of the Royal Navy would turn to oil. This technological change was a great success, and every navy soon switched to oil. An extensive investigation of petroleum as fuel by the Liquid Fuel Board in 1902-03 proved tremendously important to the entire naval and commercial world. The Board recommended using oil as a standalone fuel in 1904. The first oil-burning American destroyer, USS Paulding, was commissioned in 1910. The BB-34 New York Class battleships, laid down in 1911, were the first US Navy battleships armed with 14-inch guns, and the last to be built with more than four main battery turrets, intermediate weight side armor and coal-fired boilers. The BB-36 Nevada Class were the last US Navy battleships to have reciprocating engines, and the last to have two propellers. At the same time they were the first of the ships to carry fourteen-inch guns, and the US Navy's first to have oil as their primary fuel. The US Navy began to establish fuel oil depots in 1910 to supply the needs of submarines and destroyers. Its first fuel oil facilities were located on the East Coast at Key West, Charleston, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay.


Oil is a natural resource formed by the decay of organic matter over millions of years, and like many other natural resources, it can only be extracted from reserves where it already exists. The only difference between oil and every other natural resource is that oil is well and truly the lifeblood of the global economy.

The world derives over a third of its total energy production from oil, more than any other source by far. As a result, the countries that control the world’s oil reserves often have disproportionate geopolitical and economic power.

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 14 countries make up 93.5% of the proven oil reserves globally. The countries on this list span five continents and control anywhere from 25.2 billion barrels of oil to 304 billion barrels of oil.


Oil and Gas Industry in Alabama

Mobile Bay Gas Platforms Alabama is among the top 17 producers of oil and among the top 16 producers of natural gas in the United States. Oil and gas are found in many counties as well as in Mobile Bay. The state has developed some of the most stringent environmental regulations regarding drilling in its offshore waters. Alabama's oil production has steadily increased from an average of just over five million barrels in 2009 to nine million barrels in 2015. Alabama's natural gas production has steadily declined since 2005 but has leveled since 2012 at about 200 billion cubic feet per year. In 2015, the state the oil and gas industry contributed $11.3 billion to the Alabama economy, which was 6.4% of the state's GDP. Alabama Oil and Gas Regions Oil in Alabama generally occurs in the state's two sedimentary basins, the Interior Salt Basin in the southwest and the Black Warrior Basin in the northwest, both of which extend westward into Mississippi. Geologists use the term "basin" to describe a broad area where layered sedimentary rocks sag thousands of feet downward into a "bowl" shape, although there is often no evidence of this at the surface. The Interior Salt Basin consists of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, which date back 200 million years. The Black Warrior Basin is composed of Paleozoic rocks, some of which date back 580 million years. This region is also famous for its vast coal reserves, such as the Warrior Coal Field. Oil Rig Petroleum forms in the microscopic pores of rocks such as sandstone and limestone and slowly makes its way to the surface. When the petroleum becomes trapped in its migration, it forms an oil or gas field. Common traps are geologic features known as faults and anticlines. Faults are cracks in layers of rock in which the rocks on either side of the crack move in relation to each other. This can be envisioned by thinking of a knife slicing through a layer cake and seeing one side of the cake slump downward. Anticlines are dome-shaped folds in sections of layered rock. Geologists search for these traps with machines that measure gravity, magnetic, and seismic data, all of which tell them critical properties of buried rock layers. Geologists refer to a likely place for oil or gas as a "prospect." When a prospect is identified, "landmen" are sent in to lease the mineral rights from property owners, who retain a royalty, which is a share of the revenue generated by the oil and gas produced from the owner's property. After the leases are acquired, drilling rigs are brought in to drill and test the prospect. Chesley Pruet and Dudley Hughes Knowing the geology of the state extremely well, Jones became convinced that Alabama would one day become a significant petroleum producer. He continued to lobby the legislature for laws to encourage oil men to come to Alabama with their drilling rigs. But it was not until World War II broke out in 1939 that Jones saw his wishes come true, when demand for oil rose and Alabama's fortunes changed. In 1944, Texas oilman Haroldson "H. L." Hunt drilled beside a fault in Choctaw County and discovered the Gilbertown Field in the Eutaw Sand at a depth of 3,700 feet. That field produced 15 million barrels of oil (1 barrel = 42 gallons), not a lot by modern standards but enough to make "oil fever" spread rapidly. Other companies, many of which were run by independent prospectors popularly known as "wildcatters," followed Hunt's lead, but 11 years passed before they found the next significant discovery. Early Jurassic Landscape Reconstruction As oil drilling boomed in south Alabama in the late 1960s and 1970s, wildcatter Walter Sistrunk struck gas in the Black Warrior Basin in Lamar County, as did engineer William Tucker in Fayette County. Both men, as well as Pruet and Hughes, headed small but aggressive companies called "Independents" that used investment money from various other oil industry sources. These pioneers lured many more companies, which spread natural gas development through the northwest Alabama region. Gas Rig in the Gulf of Mexico In 1978, with protections in place to preserve the bay's ecology, Mobil moved in a huge offshore rig. They drilled more than 21,000 feet into an ancient desert called the Norphlet Sandstone and discovered the largest natural gas field east of the Mississippi, the Lower Mobile Bay–Mary Ann Field. The discovery formed the core of offshore development that eventually located six trillion cubic feet of reserves and as of 2007 has sent $2.1 billion worth of royalties to Alabama's Heritage Trust Fund, which uses the interest from the funds to help pay for the state's education and infrastructure needs. The fund was the first of its kind in U.S. history. Oil and gas activity in Mobile Bay and the nearby Gulf of Mexico waters stands today as a global environmental standard for offshore drilling and production operations. Choctaw Ridge Oil Field Walter B. Jones's vision for Alabama has come true. Alabama now ranks 10th among the states in natural gas production and 15th in liquid petroleum. Since the first meager gas discovery at Hazel Green, thousands of wells have been drilled across the state. Most have produced nothing, but by 2007 the successful ones were producing nearly $2.5 billion worth of oil and gas annually, $500 million of which goes to Alabama's citizens in the form of taxes, royalties, and trusts. Alabama's several locally owned and operated companies join many others from across the nation and abroad to employ thousands of local workers in finding, extracting, refining, and transporting the state's petroleum resources.

Oil and gas is still being found in Alabama, and geologists believe new opportunities exist in the hard shales of the deep Black Warrior Basin beneath Pickens and Tuscaloosa Counties and in the thick fractured shales of St. Clair and neighboring counties.

Cockrell, Alan. Drilling Ahead: The Quest for Oil in the Deep South, 1945-2005. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.


Nossa história

Today we operate in most of the world's countries and are best-known by our familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. We make the products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods.

Colonel Edwin Drake and Uncle Billy Smith drill the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The colonel's discovery triggers an oil boom that parallels the gold rush of a decade earlier.

Rockefeller and his associates form the Standard Oil Company (Ohio), with combined facilities constituting the largest refining capacity of any single firm in the world. The name Standard is chosen to signify high, uniform quality.

Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil.

Standard Oil lubricates Thomas Edison's first central generating system. Also in this year, Standard Oil Trust forms to include the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard) and the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony).

The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark. The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Socony gains a strong foothold in the vast market for kerosene in China by developing small lamps that burned kerosene efficiently. The lamps become known as Mei-Foo, from the Chinese symbols for Socony, meaning "beautiful confidence."

Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil. The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Ralph De Palma, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is the first of many Indy winners to use Mobil products. His average speed: 89.84 mph.

Jersey Standard acquires a 50-percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Company of Texas. It was during this year that Humble, led by its pioneering Chief Geologist Wallace Pratt, employed micropaleontology, the study of microscopic fossils contained in cuttings and core samples from drilling, as an aid in finding oil.

Jersey Standard researchers produce rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol &mdash the first commercial petrochemical.

Embodying the phonetic rendition of the initials &lsquoS&rsquo and &lsquoO&rsquo in Standard Oil, Jersey Standard brings out a new blend of fuel under the trade name Esso.

Humble geophysicists use a refraction seismograph and discover an oil field in Sugarland, Texas.

Amelia Earhart uses Mobiloil to protect Friendship when she makes her historic solo flight across the Atlantic. The previous year, Charles Lindbergh used Mobiloil in the Spirit of St. Louis on the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum&rsquos Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Harlem postman Victor Green creates the Green Book. Often referred to as the &ldquoBible of Black travel,&rdquo the Green Book listed service stations, hotels, restaurants and other establishments where Black travelers would be welcomed. Jersey Standard was the only major retail distributor of the Green Book through its network of Esso service stations, which welcomed Black motorists and also provided business opportunities for Black franchisees. The Green Book was published and distributed nationwide until 1967.

Jersey Standard researchers produce an artificial rubber, butyl. Today, butyl is used in the creation of tires, surgical tapes, protective coatings and more.

The world's first commercial production of alkylate begins at a Humble plant in Baytown, Texas. Alkylation made possible the manufacturing of iso-octane, used as a blending agent to produce 100-octane aviation gasoline.

The world&rsquos first fluid catalytic cracker goes onstream at Louisiana Standard&rsquos Baton Rouge refinery. The process, developed by four Jersey Standard researchers known as the &ldquofour horsemen,&rdquo improved on the Houdry method for cat cracking and eventually became the industry standard for producing gasoline. Fortune magazine called it &ldquothe most revolutionary chemical-engineering achievement of the last 50 years.&rdquo

Jersey Standard introduces Uniflo motor oil, the first multigrade motor oil recommended for both summer and winter use.

Jersey Standard establishes the Esso Education Foundation, a program that gives financial aid to private colleges and universities.

Pan American Airways flies its first trans-Atlantic Boeing 707 flight from New York to London. The flight is fueled by Mobil aviation fuel.

An advertising copywriter in Chicago comes up with the advertising slogan &ldquoPut a tiger in your tank.&rdquo

Humble invents 3-D seismic technology, a revolution that completely changes the way the industry searches for oil and gas resources. (This breakthrough technology, coupled with the use of massive parallel computers in seismic imaging, has helped our geologists sharply reduce finding costs since the 1980s while increasing new field resource additions.)

Mobil celebrates 100 years since the founding of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 and changes its name to Mobil Oil Corporation. The company launches a wide-reaching identity program to emphasize the Mobil trade name.

Jersey Standard officially changes its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change is approved by Jersey Standard shareholders in a special shareholders&rsquo meeting.

Mobil introduces a synthetic automotive engine lubricant &mdash Mobil 1. Today, Mobil 1 is the world&rsquos leading synthetic motor oil.

Mobil participates in completion of Beryl A, the world's first concrete production platform. The 50-story-high structure was the prototype for other concrete deepwater facilities operating in the North Sea.

Mobil invents a process for converting methanol into high-octane gasoline through the use of the company&rsquos versatile ZSM-5 catalyst.

Exxon opens its own facility for environmental health research at East Millstone, New Jersey. Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. conducts research to further assure the safety of Exxon operations and products.

Exxon celebrates 100 years since the formation of the Standard Oil Trust in 1882. In its first 100 years, the company evolved from a domestic refiner and distributor of kerosene to a large multinational corporation, involved at every level of oil and gas exploration, production, refining and marketing, and petrochemicals manufacturing.

Exxon Research and Engineering invents a powerful new imaging technique called 3-D microtomography to study the internal structure of opaque objects without damaging them.

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that ExxonMobil deeply regrets. The company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. Learn more about the Exxon Valdez.

Exxon introduces Exxpol, a single-site metallocene catalyst used to produce consistent, controllable molecular structures that make plastic and rubber products tougher and impact-resistant, with less haze and with excellent organoleptics (low off-taste and odor).

Exxon establishes the Save The Tiger Fund in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. The Save The Tiger Fund is dedicated to supporting the conservation of Asia&rsquos remaining wild tigers. Since its establishment, ExxonMobil has provided $1 million annually in support of the Save The Tiger Fund.

Mobil introduces Speedpass, an electronic system which automatically activates the pump and charges purchases to a credit card. Speedpass is similar to the electronic toll technology successfully used on subway, bus and highway systems around the world.

On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil join to form Exxon Mobil Corporation. &ldquoThis merger will enhance our ability to be an effective global competitor in a volatile world economy and in an industry that is more and more competitive,&rdquo said Lee Raymond and Lou Noto, chairmen and chief executive officers of Exxon and Mobil, respectively.

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (EMRE) develops the SCANfining process, which uses a new proprietary catalyst to selectively remove more than 95 percent of the sulfur from gasoline while minimizing octane loss.

ExxonMobil, joined by other sponsors, initiates the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University &mdash a pioneering research effort to identify technologies that can meet energy demand with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

ExxonMobil partners with professional golfer Phil Mickelson and his wife, Amy, to launch the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy. The academy is designed to provide third- through fifth-grade teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate kids to pursue careers in science and math.

ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, with other joint-venture partners, expand development of the giant North Field offshore Qatar, the largest nonassociated gas field in the world.

Exxon Neftegas Limited (a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation) completes the drilling of the Z-11 well, the longest measured depth extended-reach drilling (ERD) well in the world. (Located on Sakhalin Island offshore eastern Russia, the record-setting Z-11 achieved a total measured depth of 37,016 feet [11,282 meters], or more than seven miles.)

ExxonMobil's donation through &ldquoIdol Gives Back&rdquo enables the distribution of hundreds of thousands of bed nets throughout disease-stricken communities in Angola.

Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) and Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) announced the opening of a greenhouse facility enabling the next level of research and testing in their algae biofuels program. In 2017, these efforts will yield a breakthrough involving modification of an algae strain that more than doubles its oil content without significantly inhibiting the strain&rsquos growth.

ExxonMobil finalizes its agreement with XTO Energy Inc., creating a new organization to focus on global development and production of unconventional resources. A plan to build and deploy a rapid response system that will be available to capture and contain oil in the event of a potential future underwater well blowout in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico is announced by Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil leads the containment system efforts on behalf of the sponsor companies.

Exxon Mobil Corporation announced two major oil discoveries and a gas discovery in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after drilling the company's first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This is one of the largest discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade.


The Complete History Of Oil Markets

Like most other commodities in the markets, crude oil prices have routinely experienced wild price swings alternating between times of great shortages, high demand and high prices and periods of oversupply, low demand and depressed prices. These so-called crude oil &ldquoPrice Cycles&rdquo tend to last several years, depending on variables such as oil demand, volume of oil drilled, processed and sold by the major producers.

Since the early days of commercial production in Baku, Azerbaijan, these price swings have been triggered by economic and political events, technological advancements and changes within the petroleum industry, and continue to influence prices in the present day.

Crude Oil Price History: 1861-Present


Source: IG Group

1800-1869: Early black gold rush

The modern oil industry traces back its roots to Baku where the first commercial refinery was established in 1837 to distil oil into paraffin for heating and lighting purposes.

The first modern oil well was sunk in Baku in 1846 and reached a depth of 21 meters. The single oil field accounted for more than 90% of global production, with most of the oil finding its way to Persia (present-day Iran).

Several commercial oil wells soon followed:

Pennsylvania was the epicenter of the first black gold rush, producing nearly 50% of the world&rsquos oil. Prices shot up rapidly from .49 per barrel in 1861 to $6.59 a barrel in 1865, representing a massive 1,245% climb in the space of just four years.

1870-1913: The auto revolution

Whereas some economists contend that the modern oil industry only took off after WWII with the creation of the Marshall Plan - part of which was an agreement for a Free On Board price for all players - others argue that the incorporation of Standard Oil Co by John D. Rockefeller in 1870 in Ohio was the true launchpad for the industry. Related: EIA Sharply Cuts Oil Price Forecast

Standard Oil quickly rose to prominence over the next two decades, driving down prices and buying up the competition. The company was so successful that it controlled nearly 90% of refined oil in the United States by 1890. As production continued to expand both in the US and in Russia, global oil prices fell from an average of $2.56 a barrel in 1876 to just .56 in 1892. This was further accelerated with the launch of the first commercial cars in Germany and the US in 1896, a technological revolution that would fuel unprecedented growth for the industry.

1901-1911: Rise of the oil majors

Many of the modern oil majors can trace their origins to the early 20th century.

- The discovery of oil at Spindletop, Texas, led to the creation of Texaco and Gulf Oil in 1901

- Increasing competitive pressure led to Shell and Royal Dutch merging in 1907 to form Royal Dutch/Shell

- BP, formerly known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, was incorporated in 1908 following the discovery of oil in Iran

- Chevron, Exxon and Mobil (now Exxon Mobil) came into being in 1911 after the split of Standard Oil Co following an antitrust ruling by the US Supreme Court

The seven oil majors went on to control 85% of the world&rsquos oil reserves during their golden years in the 1970s.

1914-1949: Oil discoveries, wars, crises

The discovery of oil in Cushing, Oklahoma, in 1912 is considered an important milestone for the US oil industry because the region grew to become one of the most important oil fields in the country. Notably, it also became the settlement point for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price, a leading global oil price benchmark.

The next four and a half decades were a turbulent period marked by a series of major wars and economic crises, all of which would have an important bearing on oil prices.

First was WWI (1914-1918) which drove up global demand for oil that more than doubled oil prices from .81 per barrel in 1914 to $1.98 by the end of the war. Demand continued to grow even after the war ended mainly fueled by the ever-increasing popularity of the automobile and a gasoline shortage in the US west coast. At first, prices surged to $3.07 per barrel before retreating and stabilizing around $1.61 as production increased.

Around this time, oil companies started researching other applications for the commodity including commercial production of plastics. However, prices remained relatively low despite the extra demand created by these applications mainly due to a combination of stiff competition and plentiful supply. Meanwhile, major oil discoveries elsewhere continued to keep the markets awash with the commodity including Venezuela, Iraq, the USSR, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Mexico.

The discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930 was one of the major highlights of this period because it helped create an oil glut that happened to coincide with the Great Depression that consequently depressed prices from $1.19 in 1930 to .65 in 1931. It took the intervention of the Texas Railroad Commission which enforced production quotas to stabilize prices and prevent further declines.

Just like WWI, the beginning of WWII in 1939 also helped drive demand and goose prices. However, the effect was less pronounced this time around due to bountiful global supply. Nevertheless, the war made governments acutely aware of the need to control reserves, and it would clearly show in their actions over the next couple of decades.

1950-2003: Battle to control production

The ending of the second world war would usher in a period whereby many countries made concerted efforts to hold sway in global oil production, with several governments nationalizing their oil infrastructure.

Between 1950 and1960, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia all partly nationalized their oil industries. The Suez crisis of 1956-57 saw Egypt seize the Suez Canal through which nearly five percent of the world&rsquos oil flowed.

However, it was the US and USSR that would emerge as the biggest heavyweights in terms of production control. In the late 1950s, the USSR started to flood the market with cheap oil leading to price cuts by the majors in a bid to remain competitive. In response to these developments, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela teamed up and formed OPEC as a means to lower competition between their countries and also as a means to have a bigger impact in controlling supply.

OPEC went on to expand its membership over the next two decades with UAE, Libya, Indonesia, Qatar, Nigeria, Algeria, Gabon and Ecuador joining the organization. Between 1960 and 1976, most of these countries took control of their oil reserves by buying out or forcibly taking shares from the oil majors.

The US and the USSR continued to throw their weight around but soon the influence shifted to OPEC. In 1973, OPEC members embargoed countries supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Consequently, oil prices shot up to levels never witnessed before, from $2.48 per barrel in 1972 to $11.58 by 1974 and even higher in parts of the US. Related: Is The U.S. Gas Boom Already Over?

It was around this time when oil was discovered in the North Sea in a region controlled by the UK and Norway. Oil from this area is referred to as Brent crude and is used alongside WTI to benchmark prices.

Iran sharply cut production during the Iranian revolution (1970-1980) and also during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 leading to a spike in prices to $36.83. However, prices fell again due to demand shocks as well as increased production by the USSR, which became the world&rsquos largest producer in 1988. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War. This created a major supply shock that led to prices shooting up from $14.98 per barrel before the war to $41.00 in September 1991.

The 1990s witnessed wild price fluctuations. The Soviet Union fell in 1991, precipitating the collapse of the Russian oil sector with production halving over the next decade mainly due to reduced investments. However, global demand also tumbled in 1997 due to the Asian financial crisis but managed to recover by the turn of the century after the region&rsquos economic outlook improved.

2003-Present: Hydraulic fracturing and a changing landscape

This next decade witnessed some of the most spectacular explosions in oil prices.

The US invaded Iraq in 2003 leading to supply uncertainties. This was further compounded by massive demand growth by Asia and China. Consequently, prices jumped from $28.38 per barrel in July 2000 to $146.02 in July 2008.

From here prices fell due to the global financial crisis of 2008 before staging a comeback. The Arab Spring of 2011 created supply shortages and helped push prices to $126.48 per barrel.

Technological advancements in recent times have significantly altered the global oil landscape. Hydraulic fracturing has pushed the US to the top of the pack once again, reducing the influence of OPEC and depressing prices. Flooding of the market by US shale has led to a sharp drop in global oil prices, from $114.84 per barrel in June 2014 to $28.47 in January 2016. OPEC has tried to ameliorate the glut by teaming up with non-OPEC countries such as Russia to implement production cuts. Consequently, prices have recovered somewhat but have never approached levels seen in the past decade.

With the US now acting as the new &lsquoswing producer&rsquo OPEC&rsquos influence and ability to control prices is likely to remain diminished. The unresolved trade war between the US and China as well as geopolitical uncertainty in Iran, Syria and other countries has helped goose prices from their 2016 lows of below $30 per barrel to $54.70 in October 2019. But with continued high levels of shale production and a weakening global economy, prices are expected to remain subdued with prices projected to average $66 a barrel in 2019 and $65 a barrel in 2020.


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