Longhorn Cattle

Longhorn Cattle

Os espanhóis trouxeram o primeiro gado de chifre longo para a América em 1493. Os descendentes desses chifres longos formaram a primeira população de gado na América do Norte. Alguns deles escaparam para a selva. Os primeiros colonos europeus no Texas trouxeram vacas. Essas vacas se misturaram com as raças espanholas já no Texas e logo se transformaram em rebanhos consideráveis. Estima-se que no final da Guerra Civil Americana havia cerca de seis milhões de longhorns no Texas.

Na segunda metade do século 19, os cowboys levaram Longhorn do Texas para os bairros de Abilene, Dodge City, Wichita e Newton. O negócio de gado eventualmente se espalhou para Kansas, Wyoming, Montana, Novo México, Colorado e Arizona.

Em 1867, Joseph McCoy providenciou a transferência do gado de Abilene para o Union Stockyards em Chicago. Longhorns, com suas pernas longas e cascos duros, eram gado de trilha ideal; eles até ganharam peso no caminho para o mercado.


Longhorn Cattle - História

O Texas Longhorn foi fabricado inteiramente pela natureza na América do Norte. Proveniente de ancestrais que foram os primeiros bovinos a pisar em solo americano há quase 500 anos, tornou-se o produto final sólido da "sobrevivência do mais apto". Formado por uma combinação de seleção natural e adaptação ao meio ambiente, o Texas Longhorn é a única raça de gado na América que - sem a ajuda do homem - está verdadeiramente adaptada à América. Em seu livro The Longhorns, J. Frank Dobie afirma bem essa situação: "Se tivessem sido registrados e regulamentados, restringidos e fornecidos pelo homem, não teriam sido o que eram."

Com a destruição dos búfalos após a Guerra Civil, os Longhorns foram levados às pressas para ocupar as Grandes Planícies, um vasto império de grama desocupado pelos búfalos. Os pecuaristas trouxeram seus rebanhos de reprodução para o norte, para correr nas ricas pastagens do oeste de Nebraska, Wyoming, Dakotas e Montana. Assim, as Grandes Planícies foram abastecidas em grande parte com esses "cidadãos bovinos" do sudoeste. E os Texas Longhorns se adaptaram bem ao seu mundo em expansão. Eles haviam alcançado seu apogeu histórico, dominando a cena da carne bovina da América do Norte como nenhuma outra raça de gado fez desde então. No entanto, a romântica era do Longhorn chegou ao fim quando sua área foi cercada e arada e gado importado com características de maturação rápida foi trazido para "melhorar" as qualidades da carne. O cruzamento intensivo quase apagou o verdadeiro Longhorn típico em 1900.


Foto cortesia de Dickinson Cattle Co. Inc. www.texaslonghorn.com
Felizmente, começando em 1927, o Texas Longhorn foi preservado pelo governo dos Estados Unidos em refúgios de vida selvagem em Oklahoma e Nebraska. Além disso, alguns pecuaristas do sudoeste, convencidos do valor do Longhorn como um elo genético e preocupados com sua preservação, mantiveram pequenos rebanhos ao longo dos anos. O Texas Longhorn foi perpetuado por membros da Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America, que foi formada em 1964. Assim, o Texas Longhorn foi resgatado da extinção. Foi lamentável para a indústria de carne bovina de hoje, no entanto, que a maior parte do interesse contínuo no Texas Longhorn estivesse em seus aspectos históricos e acadêmicos. As perspectivas genéticas e o potencial econômico do Longhorn foram quase completamente esquecidos por muitos anos.

O longhorn agora parece encabeçado por outra nova trilha importante. Carne magra e natural, que oferece mais nutrição por caloria, está em demanda, e o longhorn preenche a conta. Quem já provou o longhorn beef considera-o tenro e cheio de sabor.

Mas as mudanças na cadeia alimentar dos EUA não acontecem da noite para o dia. São necessários 107.000 cabeças de gado todos os dias para suprir nosso gosto pela carne bovina, e os longhorns chegam a apenas cerca de 100.000. Embora ainda demore um pouco para pedir "longhorn lean" nos supermercados, a perspectiva é otimista de que seus atributos singulares ajudarão a fortalecer outras raças e, assim, revitalizar a indústria.

Características

O mais espetacularmente colorido de todos os bovinos, com matizes e combinações tão variadas que não há dois iguais, eles atingem o peso máximo em oito ou dez anos e variam de 800 a 1500 libras. Embora lento para amadurecer, seu período reprodutivo é duas vezes mais longo do que o de outras raças. A maioria das vacas e touros longhorn tem chifres de quatro pés ou menos. No entanto, os novilhos adultos têm uma envergadura média de seis pés ou mais e a envergadura do chifre de um menino de 15 anos chega a nove pés.

Não leva de oito a dez anos para que os Longhorns do Texas atinjam seu peso máximo e eles não demoram a amadurecer. Sabe-se que novilhas Texas Longhorn engravidam enquanto ainda amamentam sua mãe e produzem um bezerro vivo sem assistência antes mesmo de completarem 16 meses de idade. Isso não é uma maturidade lenta.


Foto cortesia de Dickinson Cattle Co. Inc. www.texaslonghorn.com
Os longhorns têm uma resistência natural às doenças e parasitas mais comuns do gado, incluindo o pior inimigo do gado, o verme. Logo após o nascimento de um bezerro, as moscas-balão depositam os ovos em seu umbigo e sob a cauda da vaca. As vacas lambem instantaneamente os vermes do bezerro e a si mesmas. Se os vermes infestarem alguma parte do corpo de um chifre longo que ele não pode alcançar, ele ficará horas em águas profundas, afogando-os.

O gado Texas Longhorn come uma variedade maior de gramíneas, plantas e ervas daninhas do que a maioria dos outros bovinos. Os proprietários do Texas Longhorn podem usar pastagens que requerem menos fertilizantes e herbicidas do que os proprietários de outras raças de gado.

O Texas Longhorn produz uma carne muito magra (mais carne menos gordura por grama). Estudos nas principais universidades mostraram que a carne bovina Texas Longhorn tem níveis significativamente mais baixos de colesterol do que outras raças de gado bovino. Um Texas Longhorn, que foi criado na grama sem produtos químicos ou suplementos, a carne tem menos colesterol do que um peito de frango sem pele. O proprietário do Texas Longhorn pode se sentir bem sabendo que está produzindo um produto saudável para o coração para consumo. Sua carne é muito saborosa e de uma cor vermelha bem viva.

O Texas Longhorn é o símbolo vivo do Velho Oeste.

Estatisticas

  • Carne magra - A raça produz naturalmente menos gordura e colesterol mais baixo para o público que se preocupa com a saúde de hoje.
  • Longevidade - os Longhorns do Texas se reproduzem até a adolescência. Mais bezerros vivos ao longo dos anos significam mais dólares.
  • Utilização do Browse - Menos ração suplementar é necessária porque o gado aproveita a forragem disponível.
  • Resistência a doenças / parasitas - uma imunidade natural desenvolvida ao longo dos séculos significa menos contas do veterinário e menos manutenção para o vaqueiro de hoje.
  • Eficiência reprodutiva - Grandes aberturas pélvicas e baixo peso ao nascer resultam em bezerros vivos. Os pecuaristas ocupados podem dizer “adeus” às noites sem dormir.
  • Docilidade - O gado Longhorn é inteligente, fácil de trabalhar e manejar.
  • Adaptabilidade - A raça prospera em climas desde as regiões costeiras quentes e úmidas até os invernos rigorosos do Canadá.
  • Hybrid Vigor - a qualidade hereditária aprimora sua raça atual e oferece um novo pool genético.
  • Não há dois Texas Longhorns iguais. Todos eles diferem no padrão de cor, tamanho, comprimento do chifre e personalidade.
  • Tradição e nostalgia - O Texas Longhorn é o símbolo vivo do Velho Oeste. Onde quer que a influência ocidental seja desejada - pastagens, gado ou atração turística - você encontrará uma demanda por esta raça magnífica.
  • Horns and Hide - O Texas Longhorn vale dinheiro, mesmo depois de ter deixado de ser útil como produtor de carne bovina. Os melhores dólares são pagos pelos chifres, crânios e montarias que são usados ​​na popular decoração do sudoeste de empresas e residências.
  • Puro prazer - Inteligente e fácil de trabalhar, o Texas Longhorn é facilmente treinado para expor no ringue, liderar ou dirigir em desfiles, puxar carroças e, sim, até mesmo andar!

Distribuição

Os Texas Longhorns estão se tornando bastante populares e são distribuídos principalmente pela América e Canadá, embora algumas exportações do Texas Longhorn estejam ganhando ritmo.

Referências (as informações acima foram citadas dos seguintes sites)


Eles voltaram! Uma História do Gado Longhorn do Texas

Os exploradores espanhóis recebem o crédito por trazerem o primeiro gado de chifre longo para o Novo Mundo. Colombo, em 1493, trouxe-os para Santo Domingo. Alguns anos depois, Cortez estocou gado Longhorn em suas propriedades no México, batizando aquela grande propriedade de Cuerno Vaca como "Vaca de Chifre".

Em 1540, Coronado levou um número incômodo de ovelhas, cabras, porcos e pelo menos 500 cabeças de gado espanhol como alimento para sua expedição para encontrar as Sete Cidades de Cibola. Alguns desses Longhorns foram abandonados ao longo do caminho, deixados à solta e, vinte e cinco anos depois, eles chegavam aos milhares, disponíveis para qualquer um que pudesse pegá-los.

Outras raças fizeram uma longa viagem marítima para a América do Norte, mas não sobreviveriam ao novo ambiente. Eventualmente, na Virgínia durante o início de 1600, os colonos britânicos conseguiram manter uma raça de bovinos ingleses que mais tarde seria conhecida como gado nativo americano. Mas seriam os animais espanhóis das montanhas da Andaluzia do sudoeste da Espanha que acabariam influenciando a história do continente norte-americano e se tornariam a pedra angular do lendário gado americano, o Texas Longhorn.

Em 1783, 1.400.000 peles foram enviadas para a Europa somente de Buenos Aires. Alguns fazendeiros mexicanos eram conhecidos por marcar até 30.000 bezerros por ano. Esta raça de gado espanhol do Novo Mundo ficou conhecida como Crioulo, ou "gado do país".

Durante os 300 anos seguintes, os Crioulos, ancestrais do Texas Longhorn, foram comprados, vendidos, roubados e disputados. Alguns foram criados seletivamente, enquanto, ao mesmo tempo, milhares sobreviviam muito bem por conta própria. Em 1800, o gado Longhorn era abundante na face ocidental da América. Alimentar a crescente população de caçadores de ouro fez com que o preço da carne Longhorn subisse de US $ 1,50 para US $ 30,00 por cabeça na região de São Francisco. 1.000 cabeças de gado Longhorn foram levadas para o sul de Alberta, Canadá, em 1876, que se multiplicaram para quase 40.000 cabeças nos próximos 8 anos.

O gado Longhorn sobreviveu a climas congelantes, enchentes e secas, invasões indígenas, Guerra Civil e condições difíceis pelas quais nenhum outro gado poderia ter sobrevivido. A maioria funcionava de graça, não exigindo que ninguém cuidasse deles. Robusto, vigoroso e ileso por muitas das doenças que afetam outras raças, o Longhorn confiava então como agora na astúcia intuitiva, resistência, força e seus longos chifres para proteger a si e aos seus filhotes.

Quer tenham sido criados por fazendeiros ou arrebatados da natureza, os Longhorns foram eventualmente levados para o norte em fenomenais movimentações de gado. De acordo com a história e as autoridades atuais, foi o Longhorn o responsável pela abertura do mercado de gado de Dodge City, no Kansas. Compradores de Nova York a Wyoming chegaram cedo apenas para assistir ao magnífico gado de chifre comprido sendo levado para os currais.

O fascínio do autor J. Frank Dobie pelo Longhorn levou a uma intensa pesquisa sobre o assunto e, posteriormente, a um excelente livro, The Longhorns, que detalha a história dessa raça excepcional de gado. Dobie escreve: “Depois de 1888, o riacho de Longhorns que fluía para o norte tornou-se um gotejamento. Em 1895, as trilhas que saíam do Texas eram todas cercadas ou aradas. Dez milhões de cabeças de gado, estimou-se com autoridade, foram atropelados por cima deles entre 1866 e 1890. '

Na década de 1920, o gado Longhorn se tornou uma visão rara. Seis famílias de fazendeiros preservaram e criaram estoque puro do Texas Longhorn. Eles eram as famílias Wright, Yates, Butler, Marks, Peeler e Phillips. Cada um, por muitos anos, criou animais completamente alheios aos outros rebanhos. Seus esforços planejados ou não, foram o fator vital que impediu a extinção da raça. Em 1927, para garantir sua preservação, um rebanho do governo foi estabelecido no Refúgio de Vida Selvagem das Montanhas Wichita em Cache, Oklahoma. Todos os criadores de Longhorn de hoje estão criando descendentes diretos de animais coletados e protegidos por essas sete entidades.

Mas mesmo em meados do século XX, a situação do gado Longhorn era precária. A edição de 1959 da Encyclopedia Britannica afirma, '. gado longhorn outrora numeroso nas cordilheiras ocidentais dos Estados Unidos. trazidos para a América pelos espanhóis estão agora praticamente extintos. '

Por mais de 500 anos, o gado Longhorn fez contribuições importantes para a história deste continente: alimentando exploradores, pioneiros, índios e exércitos. Como uma besta de carga, eles puxavam mais conestogas para o oeste do que qualquer outra raça. Eles criaram riqueza histórica, saúde e agora uma indústria moderna que está prosperando novamente. Tendo sobrevivido à ameaça de extinção, o gado Longhorn está mais uma vez aumentando em número, popularidade e lucratividade. Conhecida por sua carne naturalmente magra, a carne Longhorn é procurada por suas propriedades saudáveis. As peles coloridas e os crânios com chifres longos tornaram-se itens decorativos populares e valiosos. Bois montados e animais-troféu chamam a atenção por sua gentileza, pelos coloridos e pelos enormes chifres.

Em 2007, na prestigiosa Texas Longhorn Legacy Sale, vacas selecionadas com mais de 70 polegadas de chifre ponta a ponta, arrecadaram mais de $ 2.000.000 em 113 lotes premium. Quando o martelo caiu sobre o animal mais vendido, o lance final foi de $ 82.000. Em 2006, uma vaca foi vendida por um recorde de $ 100.000. Ela teve essa honra apenas alguns minutos antes de ser superada por uma vaca vendida por US $ 150.000.

Em algum momento, o nome Texas Longhorn foi usado para descrever esse gado espanhol único e se tornou seu nome oficial. Nas Américas, Canadá, México e partes da Europa, o gado Texas Longhorn está sendo criado e criado. Os pecuaristas estão ansiosos para manter a herança, a qualidade da carne magra e o legado deste animal verdadeiramente incrível.

Para encerrar esta lição de história, parece apropriado citar Dobie novamente. Em sua introdução aos Longhorns, ele afirma: 'O Texas Longhorn fez mais história do que qualquer outra raça de gado que o mundo civilizado já conheceu. . ele permanecerá o alicerce sobre o qual a história do país das vacas na América está fundada. '


Longhorn Cattle - História

e copie David M. Hillis, Double Helix Ranch
Professor de Biologia Integrativa
Universidade do Texas em Austin


L Brilliant Mary (uma vaca Texas Longhorn) com um bezerro recém-nascido

Eu listei algumas das perguntas que freqüentemente me perguntam sobre o gado Texas Longhorn aqui, junto com minhas respostas. Se sua pergunta sobre o gado Texas Longhorn não foi respondida aqui, envie-me um e-mail e eu mesmo responderei ou encontrarei alguém que possa.

Você também pode procurar em minha página de Links links para outros sites sobre o Texas Longhorns, bem como para páginas de outras fazendas e sites de gado do Texas Longhorn.

Qual é a origem do Texas Longhorns?

Ao contrário da maioria das raças de gado, ninguém se propôs a desenvolver o gado Texas Longhorn como raça. Em vez disso, eles evoluíram na América do Norte a partir de descendentes de gado trazido para as Américas pelos espanhóis no final de 1400 e início de 1500 (o primeiro gado foi trazido para Hispaniola em 1493). No entanto, o gado não descendia diretamente do estoque espanhol. Em vez disso, o primeiro gado importado pelos primeiros exploradores espanhóis era das Ilhas Canárias. Este gado, por sua vez, foi importado de Portugal, sendo que os parentes mais próximos do Texas Longhorns entre as raças europeias existentes são as raças portuguesas (como o Alentejana e o Mertolenga). Essas primeiras importações de gado ibérico das Ilhas Canárias logo se tornaram selvagens no norte do México (que incluía terras que se tornaram a República do Texas em 1836 e parte dos Estados Unidos em 1845). Esses rebanhos selvagens passaram por intensa seleção natural e os únicos bovinos que sobreviveram eram altamente resistentes a doenças, podiam viver em condições adversas (por meio de secas, enchentes, calor e frio) e podiam defender-se e a seus bezerros contra predadores.

No início de 1800, o gado selvagem de chifre longo foi encontrado em grande parte do Texas. Durante a corrida do ouro na Califórnia no final da década de 1840 e início da década de 1850, havia grande demanda por gado na Califórnia, e o gado começou a ser retirado do Texas às dezenas de milhares para atender à demanda. Essa prática foi interrompida pela Guerra Civil dos Estados Unidos, bem como pelo fim da corrida do ouro na Califórnia. Os texanos que voltaram ao Texas após a Guerra Civil tinham poucas fontes de renda, mas havia muito gado selvagem no Texas e pouco gado sobrou no leste dos Estados Unidos. Os texanos começaram a reunir o gado e levá-lo até as cabeceiras dos trilhos no Kansas, de onde eram despachados para as cidades da costa leste para atender à crescente demanda por carne bovina. Muitas trilhas famosas de gado foram estabelecidas, como a Trilha Chisholm e a Trilha Goodnight-Loving, e muitos milhões de gado (então chamado de "gado texas") foram conduzidos por essas trilhas para serem transportados para o leste.

No final dos anos 1800, grandes fazendas começaram a ser estabelecidas no Texas. Cercas foram construídas, o gado foi capturado e contido e os dias de gado solto chegaram ao fim. Embora essas fazendas originalmente mantivessem os Longhorns do Texas, a maioria logo passou a importar raças europeias de gado "melhoradas". As raças europeias produziam muito mais gordura do que o Texas Longhorns, e o sebo era a principal força motriz por trás dos preços do gado na época. No entanto, vários fazendeiros mantinham rebanhos do gado original do Texas, seja por nostalgia ou porque apreciavam as habilidades e qualidades desse gado. Na década de 1920, o gado de chifre comprido era raro o suficiente para que o governo dos Estados Unidos pagasse para montar um rebanho de gado do Texas no Refúgio de Vida Selvagem de Wichita, no sudoeste de Oklahoma, para preservá-lo da extinção. Cerca de meia dúzia de rebanhos particulares também foram mantidos durante (ou começaram na) primeira metade dos anos 1900, e a maioria dos Texas Longhorns modernos pode ser rastreada até essas sete "famílias" de longhorns (o Refúgio Wichita, Butler, Marks, Peeler , Linhas de Phillips, Wright e Yates).

Em 1964, a Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America (TLBAA) foi fundada e um processo de registro foi estabelecido. Assim, Texas Longhorns se tornou uma raça registrada. Hoje, os Longhorns do Texas são criados e valorizados por muitas razões diferentes. Sua carne naturalmente magra agora é considerada uma vantagem, e a capacidade dos Texas Longhorns de prosperar em condições naturais (sem o uso de antibióticos, adição de hormônios ou o uso de confinamentos) os torna os favoritos para a carne magra. de carne bovina e de carne orgânica. Eles também são amplamente criados por suas belas cores e chifres, e por pessoas que apreciam a história e as qualidades da raça. Os touros Texas Longhorn são freqüentemente usados ​​como touros de serviço em outras raças de gado, porque os cruzamentos produzem menos dificuldades de parto e bezerros que crescem rapidamente e têm poucos problemas de saúde. No Double Helix Ranch, fomos atraídos pelos Texas Longhorns por sua alta diversidade genética e alta aptidão associada, além de seu interesse histórico e sua beleza. As características que se destacam no Texas Longhorns são sua resistência natural a doenças, grande longevidade, alta taxa reprodutiva, facilidade de parto, capacidade de prosperar em condições adversas de alcance e capacidade de se defender contra predadores. Nunca perdemos um único bezerro Texas Longhorn devido a doenças ou predação, e eles prosperam sem cuidados extensivos ou alimentação suplementar.

Para obter informações mais detalhadas sobre a história do gado Texas Longhorn, recomendo o excelente livro de T. J. Barragy, Gathering Texas Gold, além do livro clássico de J. Frank Dobie, The Longhorns. Veja também a série de onze partes de Alan Hoyt sobre a História dos Longhorns do Texas (originalmente publicada no Texas Longhorn Journal).

Os Longhorns do Texas são difíceis de controlar e podem ser perigosos?

A maioria dos Texas Longhorns modernos é um gado manso e está entre as raças mais fáceis de manusear e controlar. Sua disposição gentil e aparência marcante os tornam favoritos como bois, e sua saúde geral e adaptabilidade os tornam ideais para fazendeiros de fim de semana. Os Longhorns do Texas que interagem regularmente com as pessoas são fáceis de manusear como com qualquer raça, no entanto, o gado que raramente vê os humanos pode crescer selvagem e cauteloso.

Claro, é necessário cautela entre os Longhorns do Texas por causa dos chifres longos. Embora nosso gado nunca tenha atacado ou machucado um humano propositalmente, eles podem e usam seus chifres para manipular objetos e arranhar seus corpos, então um cuidado razoável deve ser tomado ao redor do gado para evitar o contato acidental com os chifres. Os Texas Longhorns também defendem seus bezerros contra cães, por isso temos o cuidado de manter nossos cães a uma distância segura do rebanho.

Que tipo de cerca eu preciso para manter os Texas Longhorns?

Qualquer cerca que contenha outras raças de gado é suficiente para Texas Longhorns. Preferimos usar cercas de arame farpado, pois elas têm se mostrado as mais confiáveis ​​para nós e os custos de manutenção são baixos. No entanto, muitos criadores usam cercas elétricas simples de um ou dois fios com grande sucesso e, claro, cercas de pranchas, tubos e telas de arame são mais do que adequadas. Evitamos cercas elétricas porque podem ser difíceis de manter em longas distâncias e porque estão sujeitas a problemas de aterramento (geralmente causados ​​pela travessia de veados) e perdas devido à queda de raios em nossa parte do país. No entanto, se puderem ser monitorados e mantidos de perto, as cercas elétricas são eficazes no controle dos Longhorns do Texas. Se você tem cercas que mantêm outro gado ou gado dentro ou fora de sua propriedade, elas devem ser adequadas para conter a maioria dos Texas Longhorns.

Como acontece com qualquer raça de gado, alguns touros individuais não respeitarão as cercas e pularão ou passarão por elas. No entanto, tivemos mais problemas em manter os touros de nossos vizinhos (de outras raças) fora de nossas pastagens do que em manter nossos touros Texas Longhorn. Certa vez, tivemos um touro que saltava na cerca e então o abatemos. Agora selecionamos touros em parte por sua disposição, e raramente temos problemas com nossos touros cruzando nossas cercas.

Os Longhorns do Texas requerem muitos cuidados veterinários?

Não. Os Longhorns do Texas têm problemas mínimos de saúde. Você deve seguir o programa de vacinação padrão para gado em sua parte do país, fornecer pasto ou feno razoavelmente bom, minerais adequados conforme necessário para a sua área e uma fonte de água potável e seguir um programa regular de controle de parasitas, conforme recomendado pelo seu veterinário . Se a qualidade do feno ou do pasto for ruim, pode ser necessário complementar a dieta sazonalmente. Se os Longhorns estão recebendo nutrição suficiente (incluindo minerais) e foram vacinados conforme recomendado pelo seu veterinário, os problemas de saúde são raros.

Os Longhorns do Texas têm muitos problemas de parto?

Não. Nunca tivemos problemas de parto com nenhum bezerro Texas Longhorn, e problemas de parto são virtualmente inexistentes na raça. Esta é uma das razões pelas quais muitos criadores comerciais usam touros Texas Longhorn como touros de serviço com vacas de muitas raças europeias. Os bezerros resultantes nascem sem dificuldade e o gado mestiço geralmente ganha peso muito rapidamente.

Quais são os mercados para os Longhorns do Texas?

1. Animais reprodutores (vendas por tratado privado e leilões dedicados)
2. Touros para touros de serviço
3. Boia para cavalgar e nostalgia ocidental
4. Estoque para rodeios (ropers)
5. Vendas de gado para carne orgânica, carne magra e carne bovina de confinamento (conforme apropriado para o programa de criação individual)
6. Gado para o mercado de carne bovina comum (fácil de vender em celeiros de vendas locais, mas normalmente o preço mais baixo)

Com que rapidez os chifres do Texas Longhorns crescem? Como eles crescem?

Em um artigo publicado em Texas Longhorn Journal em dezembro de 1999, Malcolm Goodman sugeriu que os touros do Texas Longhorn alcançassem cerca de 50% de sua medição ponta a ponta do chifre por volta de um ano de idade (em média). Aos quatro anos, atingem aproximadamente 95% de seu comprimento máximo. Os chifres de uma vaca Texas Longhorn média alcançam 50% de sua medida ponta a ponta um pouco mais tarde, por volta dos 15 meses de idade, e chegam a 95% entre cinco e seis anos de idade. Eles continuam a crescer, mas geralmente diminuem consideravelmente com a idade. Essas são apenas médias, é claro, e há uma grande variação dependendo do formato dos chifres. Os chifres dos bois continuam a crescer a uma taxa razoável ao longo da vida, porque os baixos níveis de testosterona nos bois permitem que a placa de crescimento do núcleo ósseo interno permaneça sem ossificação.

Os chifres crescem da base, não das pontas, e os "anéis de crescimento" podem ser vistos perto da base dos chifres das vacas mais velhas. As vacas produzem um novo anel em associação com cada bezerro que produzem, embora esses anéis de crescimento possam ficar bem próximos em animais mais velhos. Os chifres consistem em um núcleo ósseo, rodeado por carne e sangue e, em seguida, uma camada externa de queratina. Em muitos animais (especialmente animais com chifres de cor clara e de crescimento rápido), pode-se ver a cor avermelhada do suprimento de sangue abaixo da camada de queratina, particularmente perto da base de crescimento.

Quais são os chifres mais largos de vacas, touros e bois do Texas Longhorn já registrados?

Esta é uma pergunta difícil de responder, porque muitas afirmações foram feitas ao longo dos anos que são difíceis de verificar. Além disso, existem pelo menos duas maneiras comuns de medir chifres. A medição ponta a ponta é a mais fácil de reproduzir: é simplesmente a medida em linha reta de uma ponta de chifre à outra. O "chifre quottotal" ou medição de pesquisa tenta medir os chifres ao longo de sua curva, para obter uma medida do comprimento total dos chifres. Esta medição é muito mais difícil de replicar com precisão, mas é um reflexo melhor do comprimento total do chifre. A medição ponta a ponta atribui valores mais longos às pontas retas laterais do que às pontas curvadas para cima do mesmo comprimento total.

Dadas as dificuldades de comparar medições feitas por pessoas diferentes, a melhor resposta que posso dar a essa pergunta é apontar para a competição anual Horn Showcase conduzida pela Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America. Esta competição obviamente não inclui todos os Texas Longhorns vivos, mas os proprietários dos animais com chifres mais longos tendem a se orgulhar muito de seu gado e, portanto, os vencedores estão pelo menos entre os Texas Longhorns com chifres mais longos. Embora existam algumas histórias de novilhos com chifres ainda mais longos no passado distante, a seleção recente de chifres muito longos significa que os Longhorns do Texas que estão vivos hoje estão provavelmente entre os animais de chifres mais longos que já fizeram parte da raça.

No Horn Showcase de 2006:
1. A vaca Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição ponta a ponta) foi Day's Feisty Fannie, a 82 & quot
2. A vaca Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição total do chifre) foi
Sunrise Hope, em 97 3/8 & quot
3. O touro Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição ponta a ponta) foi o Superbowl, a 76 & quot
4. O touro Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição total do chifre) foi o Wyoming Warpaint, a 96 1/4 & quot
5. O boi Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição ponta a ponta) foi o Watson 101, a 101 & quot
6. O boi Texas Longhorn com os chifres mais largos (medição total do chifre) foi Gilbralter em 126 1/2 & quot

Quais são os requisitos de marca para Texas Longhorns registrados?

Os Texas Longhorns registrados devem ser marcados com uma marca holding (a marca do rancho ou proprietário individual), bem como por um número de rebanho particular exclusivo. A marca pode ser feita com marcas de fogo ou marcas de congelamento. Os designs das marcas devem ser registrados na associação da raça e no seu estado, condado ou província de residência (de acordo com os regulamentos locais de registro de marcas). No Texas, as marcas de gado devem ser registradas em cada condado onde uma fazenda opera. O registro é feito no Tribunal do Condado (e renovado uma vez por década).

Onde os Longhorns do Texas podem ser criados? Eles exigem um clima quente e seco?

Texas Longhorns são criados em toda a América do Norte, bem como em alguns países europeus e na Austrália. Eles prosperam em climas quentes e frios, e tudo mais. Existem criadores de Texas Longhorn de grande sucesso em toda a América do Norte, em todos os lugares onde o gado é criado. Eles prosperam onde outras raças têm dificuldade de viver, mas não requerem um clima quente e seco. Eles também prosperam no Canadá, no noroeste do Pacífico, nas planícies do norte, no nordeste e nos estados do sudeste.

O que comem os Longhorns do Texas?

Como todo gado, os Longhorns do Texas comem principalmente capim e forbes. No entanto, os Longhorns do Texas pastam (e procuram) em uma variedade maior de plantas do que a maioria do gado. Ao utilizar uma variedade maior de plantas, eles causam menos danos às pastagens (uma vez que não têm como alvo apenas algumas espécies favoritas) e podem prosperar em uma ampla variedade de condições.

Os Texas Longhorns podem ser mantidos com segurança com cavalos?

Nós mantemos nossos cavalos em um pasto com Texas Longhorns, como muitos outros criadores, e não tivemos nenhum problema. Pastar gado e cavalos juntos é freqüentemente recomendado para manter a qualidade do pasto e reduzir as cargas de parasitas de gado e cavalos (uma vez que os parasitas internos do gado não podem sobreviver em cavalos e vice-versa).


Decodificando a história genética do longhorn do Texas

O gado Texas Longhorn tem uma ancestralidade híbrida global, de acordo com um estudo realizado por pesquisadores da Universidade do Texas em Austin publicado esta semana no Anais da Academia Nacional de Ciências.

O estudo do genoma do Longhorn e raças relacionadas conta uma fascinante história global da migração humana e do gado. Ele remonta à segunda viagem de Cristóvão Colombo ao Novo Mundo, à invasão mourisca da Espanha e à antiga domesticação dos auroques no Oriente Médio e na Índia.

“É uma história real do Texas, uma história americana”, disse Emily Jane McTavish, uma estudante de doutorado no laboratório do professor de biologia David Hillis. “Por muito tempo, as pessoas pensaram que esse gado do Novo Mundo era domesticado de uma linhagem puramente europeia. Mas acontece que eles têm uma ancestralidade mais complexa, mais híbrida e mais global, e há evidências de que essa diversidade genética é parcialmente responsável por sua maior resiliência às condições climáticas adversas. ”

Para reconstruir a história genética do Texas Longhorns, McTavish, Hillis e colegas da Universidade de Missouri-Columbia analisaram quase 50.000 marcadores genéticos de 58 raças de gado. A análise mais abrangente até hoje, foi financiada em parte pelo Cattlemen’s Texas Longhorn Conservancy, que ajudou os cientistas a obter acesso a amostras usadas pelos fazendeiros.

Entre as descobertas estava que a raça Texas Longhorn são descendentes diretos do primeiro gado no Novo Mundo. O gado ancestral foi trazido por Colombo em 1493 para a ilha de Hispaniola. Eles viajaram o resto do caminho para o continente em 1521 nos navios de colonos espanhóis posteriores.

Nos dois séculos seguintes, os espanhóis moveram o gado para o norte, chegando à área que se tornaria o Texas no final do século XVII. O gado escapou ou foi solto em campo aberto, onde permaneceu principalmente selvagem pelos próximos dois séculos.

“It was known on some level that Longhorns are descendants from cattle brought over by early Spanish settlers,” said Hillis, the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor in the College of Natural Sciences, “but they look so different from the cattle you see in Spain and Portugal today. So there was speculation that there had been interbreeding with later imports from Europe. But their genetic signature is co mpletely consistent with being direct descendants of the cattle Columbus brought over.”

The study reveals that being a “pure” descendant of cattle from the Iberian peninsula indicates a more complicated ancestry than was understood. Approximately 85 percent of the Longhorn genome is “taurine,” descended from the ancient domestication of the wild aurochs that occurred in the Middle East 8,000-10,000 years ago. As a result, Longhorns look similar to purer taurine breeds such as Holstein, Hereford and Angus, which came to Europe from the Middle East.

The other 15 percent of the genome is “indicine,” from the other ancient domestication of the aurochs, in India. These indicine cattle, which often have a characteristic hump at the back of the neck, spread into Africa and from there up to the Iberian peninsula.

“It’s consistent with the Moorish invasions from the 8th to the 13th centuries,” said Hillis. “The Moors brought cattle with them, and brought these African genes, and of course the European cattle were there as well. All those influences come together in the cattle of the Iberian peninsula, which were used to stock the Canary Islands, which is where Columbus stopped and picked up cattle on his second voyage and brought them to the New World.”

Once in the New World, most of the cattle eventually went feral. Under the pressures of natural selection they were able to re-evolve ancient survival traits that had been artificially bred out of their European ancestors. Selection for longer horns allowed them to defend against wild predators. They became leaner and more able to survive heat and drought.

“The Longhorns that were in the area when Anglo settlers arrived almost looked more like the ancestral aurochsen than like modern cattle breeds,” said McTavish. “Living wild on the range, they had to become very self sufficient. Having that genetic reservoir from those wild ancestors made it possible for a lot of those traits to be selected for once again.”

McTavish said it’s possible the indicine heritage in particular helped, because the climate in India and Africa tended to be hotter and drier than in Europe.

The Longhorns remained wild on the range, or very loosely managed, until after the Civil War, when Texans rounded up the wild herds and began supplying beef to the rest of the country. Since then the fortunes of the Longhorns have waxed and waned depending on how their unique genetic profile intersects with the changing needs of American consumers.

“The Longhorns almost went extinct starting in the late 19th century,” said Hillis. “A lot of the value of cattle at that time had to do with the fat they had, because the primary lighting source people had was candles, made of tallow, and Texas Longhorns have very low fat content. Ranchers began fencing off the range and importing breeds from Europe that had higher fat content. That’s when Americans began developing their taste for fatty beef, so then the other cattle became valuable in that respect as well. The only reason the Longhorns didn’t go extinct was because half a dozen or so ranchers kept herds going even though they knew that these other breeds were more valuable in some sense. They appreciated that the Longhorns were hardier, more self-sufficient.”

Hillis, who raises Longhorns of his own out at the Double Helix Ranch, said that the winds of history now seem to be blowing in the Longhorns’ direction. They can survive in hotter, drier climates, which will become increasingly important as the world warms. They provide lean and grass-fed beef, which is seen as healthier by many consumers. And their genes may prove valuable to ranchers, who can use the increasingly sophisticated genetic information to selectively breed the Longhorns’ toughness into other breeds of cattle.

“It’s another chapter in the story of a breed that is part of the history of Texas,” he said.


TEXAS LONGHORN CATTLE BREED OF CATTLE QUICK PROFILE OVERVIEW

CATTLE ⇒ COW BULL
Breed Color: Speckled hides of various colors but most commonly a golden brown Speckled hides of various colors but most commonly a golden brown
Breed Weight: 272 to 545 kgs 272 to 545 kgs
Breed Height: Unclear Unclear
Horns: Long lyre-shaped horns Long lyre-shaped horns
Temperament: Docile, active and intelligent Docile, active and intelligent. All bulls should be handled with extreme care and caution.
Matures at age: 6 to 8 months or 9 + months 6 to 8 months or 9 + months
Puberty Age: 6 to 15 months 9 to 1o months
Breeding Age: 13 to 15 months 1 ano
Breeding Traits: See Cow breeding & Milking Info Cover 25 to 30 Cows in 1 season

The Wild History of the Texas Longhorn

What a difference a century makes. Today Texas longhorns are celebrated as living flags, rugged icons of the American Southwest. But a little more than 100 years ago, the big beasts had an image problem.

During the era of open ranges and extended cattle drives, longhorns thrived. Yet as industrialization took hold, they fell out of favor. With extinction looming, the breed was saved at the eleventh hour by organized conservation efforts — and a burst of Old West nostalgia.

Colonial Cattle

A 2013 genetic analysis found that Texas longhorns are descended from ancient lineages of both Middle Eastern and Indian cattle. Those two groups eventually came into contact in north Africa, resulting in hybrids who made their way to southwestern Europe.

Enter Christopher Columbus. On his transatlantic journey in 1493, the explorer took along several mixed-lineage bulls and cows acquired from the Canary Islands off the coast of Morocco. With these animals, Columbus introduced domestic bovines to the Caribbean — and by extension, the New World.

Other Spanish travelers arrived in the region with cattle from the same general stock. In 1521, the beasts spread into mainland Mexico. And as Spaniards colonized present-day Colombia, Venezuela and Texas, their livestock tagged along.

It didn't take long for Texan cattle to start going native. The San Francisco de los Tejas Mission established one of the area's first domestic herds in 1690. By 1710, what we now know as eastern Texas — where the mission resided — was teeming with feral cattle.

Survival of the Fittest

Wild cows and bulls in those days would've faced many of the same challenges as their ranch-reared counterparts. The area that is now Texas was full of predators, droughts were common and some native plants were poor in nutrients. Natural selection favored long-horned animals (of both sexes) because they had an easier time fending off wolves and coyotes. Likewise, lean cattle with a tolerance for extreme temperatures were more likely to survive in this harsh environment.

Early in the 19th century, a fresh wave of immigrants diversified the gene pool. At the invitation of Spain and Mexico, thousands of Anglo-American settlers came to the area. The transplants were accompanied by herds of cattle descended from northern European breeds.

As these bovine latecomers mingled with the wilderness-hardened natives, an all-new breed emerged. Originally called the "Spanish cattle," "mustang cattle," or simply the "wild cattle," it came to be known as the "Texas longhorn" after the American Civil War.

No matter what you call them, full-grown Texas longhorns are intimidating animals. On neutered bulls, or "steers," the eponymous horns often measure 7 feet (2.1 meters) across from tip to tip. The Guinness World Record-holder is a steer named Pancho Via who currently resides in Alabama. From end to end, his super-sized horns are a jaw-dropping 10 feet, 7.4 inches (3.2 meters) across!

Changing Priorities

Such weaponry presents logistical challenges. Jean Norman, the owner of Our Heritage Guest Ranch in Sioux County, Nebraska is an experienced rancher. She and her family have kept longhorns for many years. Norman recalls that one heifer her late father purchased was quite the escape artist.

"Her horns arched and curled forward," she says in an email. Using these, the animal plucked staples from a number of fenceposts, "thus freeing the barbed wire." Occasionally, the offending cow would join forces with other longhorns to create sizable holes in the fencing.

Barbed wire fences almost doomed the breed. There was huge demand for western cattle after the Civil War. Back then, most ranchers west of the Mississippi allowed their animals to graze freely instead of fencing them in.

Self-reliant Texas longhorns didn't need much supervision and they could subsist on all kinds of wild plants. So the breed was a good fit for this "open range" approach to ranching. Furthermore, lengthy cattle drives over vast distances became a common sight by the 1850s. Longhorns had the physical stamina to survive the treks.

But the spread of railroads made prolonged cattle drives obsolete. At the same time, the popularization of barbed wire fences in the 1880s basically killed the open range era. Cowmen were now expected to confine their animals with sturdy fencing.

Texas longhorns had a reputation for being standoffish. It was an attitude that served them well out in the wilderness, but enclosed ranches created a demand for more docile breeds — and fattier ones to boot. Another strike against the longhorn was a national panic about Texas Fever, a historic disease linked to cattle from the Lone Star State.

An American Comeback Story

At the dawn of the 20th century, it looked like the breed's days were numbered. And then a funny thing happened. With the longhorn population plummeting, romantics started to eulogize the animals. They were compared to the American bison, another victim of modernization and railroad expansion. Songs like "The Last Longhorn" used the beasts to remind listeners of a — supposedly — simpler time when the West was considered wild.

The University of Texas further mythologized the breed in 1906, when the school's athletic teams became officially known as "the Longhorns." The current live mascot goes by the name Bevo XV.

Twenty-one years later, U.S. Forest Service Rangers scored federal funding to raise a (real) longhorn herd in Oklahoma's Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Combing the Southwest, the activists assembled 37 cattle. By 1929, the protected herd had expanded to 54 animals. Other herds were soon established in Texas state parks while private ranchers organized an ambitious breeding program.

By 1988, there were 125,000 registered Texas longhorns. Since then, this figure has risen to more than a quarter-million individuals. One thing that helped the breed stage its comeback was an emerging health food market in the 1980s, weight-conscious consumers developed an appetite for lean, low-fat meats — and longhorn beef fit the bill.

Even NASA got in on the action. Visit the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas and you'll find some magnificent steers grazing within a few hundred yards of a Saturn V Rocket. Launched in 1996, the Johnson Space Center Longhorn Project has set aside 60 acres (24 hectares) of grassy land for dozens of the iconic cattle. Here, grade school students lend a hand in both raising top-quality animals and showcasing them at livestock conventions.

Rocketry and longhorns. It doesn't get more Texas than that.

President George W. Bush hosted two Texas longhorns at his presidential inaugurations: the University of Texas' live mascot Bevo XIII at his first inauguration and Bevo XIV at his second.


Categorias:

O seguinte, adaptado do Chicago Manual of Style, 15ª edição, é a citação preferida para esta entrada.

Donald E. Worcester, &ldquoLonghorn Cattle,&rdquo Manual do Texas Online, accessed June 30, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/longhorn-cattle.

Publicado pela Texas State Historical Association.

Todos os materiais protegidos por direitos autorais incluídos no Manual do Texas Online estão de acordo com o Título 17 U.S.C. Seção 107 relacionada a direitos autorais e & ldquoFair Use & rdquo para instituições educacionais sem fins lucrativos, que permite que a Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) utilize materiais protegidos por direitos autorais para promover bolsa de estudos, educação e informar o público. A TSHA faz todos os esforços para estar em conformidade com os princípios de uso justo e com a lei de direitos autorais.

Se desejar usar material protegido por direitos autorais deste site para fins próprios que vão além do uso justo, você deve obter permissão do proprietário dos direitos autorais.


History of the Texas Longhorns Part Eight: Dodge City Citizens 'Welcomed' Longhorn Drives

As the railroads and quarantine laws steadily moved westward, they left in their wake towns that the Texas Longhorns had built and established into prosperous entities. But as the cattle trade left, these towns settled down to quiet farming communities, usually glad to get rid of the 'hell-raising' cowboys that had made them prosperous. Along with the reasons for westward movement previously mentioned, the annihilation of the buffalo was a major cause for the opening of the limitless grasslands in the West.

When the white man had first seen the Great Plains, it appeared to be one big pasture of buffalo that ranged from South Texas to Canada. Sometimes, herds hundreds of miles across covered the earth like a slowly-moving brown quilt. In spring, the buffalo moved northward across Kansas, close-cropping the grass as they went. Most cattlemen knew that where the buffalo had ranged, the pastures would be spoiled for two years.

Everyone except the Indian seemed to want to wipe out the buffalo, for one reason or another: the soldiers wanted destruction of the herds as a means to keep the Indian on the reservations the railroads, deeply hurting from the depression of the seventies, were glad to haul meat, hides and bones to eastern markets freighters and merchants loved the business that came from buffalo hunting.

The Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 gave the Indians the right to hunt buffalo in Kansas, but no white man could hunt south of the Arkansas River, which was then the southern boundary of Kansas. The Army never made any attempt to enforce the law, which highly upset the Indians.

In 1870, J. Wright Mooar asked the Commandant of Fort Dodge what might happen if he went hunting below the line. Officer Richard I. Dodge laughed and said, "Boys, if I were hunting buffalo, I would go where buffalo are."

Several efforts were made to save the buffalo, but they were turned down immediately. In 1872, the Kansas State Legislature passed an act to 'prevent the wanton destruction of buffalo,' but was countered with an executive pocket veto. Congress also tried in 1872 and 1874 to prevent 'useless slaughter of buffalo,' but were also vetoed. Meanwhile, the killing went on, setting the stage for the Texas Longhorn to take over the vast prairies being left vacated by the buffalo. During the heyday of the big hunts, one newspaper stated that a hunter from Dickinson County, Kansas, had killed as many as 658 buffalo in one winter. At seeing this, the editor of the Dodge City Times couldn't pass up the chance to prove the prowess of Ford County hunters: "Oh dear, what a mighty hunter! Ford County has twenty men who each have killed five times that many in one winter. The best record, however, is that of Tom Nixon, who killed 120 at one stand in forty minutes, and who, from the 15th of September to the 20th of October, killed 2,173 buffaloes. Come on with some more big hunters if you have any."

Finally, by 1877, Colonel Dodge wrote, "The buffalo is virtually exterminated. no legislation, however stringent or active, could now do anything for or against the trade of the 'buffalo products'." Colonel Dodge also believed that there was an Indian-dressed robe sent in for every five rawhides. In fact, during the years of 1872 to 1874, Dodge found a total of 1,215,000 buffalo killed by Indians compared to 3,158,730 killed by white men. In addition, because of fear that legislation would be passed to preserve the buffalo, the railroads conspired to keep secret the actual number of buffalo hides shipped over their lines. So with the buffalo exterminated and a majority of the warring Indian tribes 'loose-herded' on reservations, the Western United States was fair game for anyone wanting lush rangeland.

It is said that 'civilization follows the plow,' but if that is true in the western United States, then the plow followed the cowboys and the cowboys followed the Texas Longhorn steers. To understand the hardships endured by the Longhorns, along with their ability to endure just about anything, one must also understand the life of the American cowboy and the western cowtown. After all, it would be impossible, let alone unthinkable, to separate the cow from the cowboy in any historic narrative. Therefore, we will look at the hardships encountered by both the cattle and the men that drove them, along with the cowtown of all cowtowns----Dodge City.

Dodge City was different from the other cowtowns. It had been a boom town for buffalo hunters and bullwhackers for half a century. The men that followed the Santa Fe Trail were there. so were the soldiers from Fort Dodge. Everyone had a gun, in addition to excess of money and an abundance of liquor. The only thing on short supply in Dodge was women.

But from the first, the "citizens" of Dodge City were cattle-minded. As early as 1872, 19 year-old D.W. "Doc" Barton drove two thousand head of Longhorns to Dodge City. Because of Indian scares, he took a route through New Mexico and Colorado to the Arkansas River, following it downstream to Dodge City. At that time, there were no loading pens in Dodge, so he moved the herd on to Great Bend. It wasn't until 1875 that cattle started to be shipped out of Dodge on a regular basis. Then the town began working on her world-wide reputation as the Cowboy Capital. Many of the early citizens of Dodge were veterans of the other, earlier cowtowns: gamblers, gunfighters and prostitutes. Many of these were well-acquainted by the time they reached Dodge City, so they worked out a way of life that all could agree upon. As one historian said, "They knew how to raise hell and make it pay."

One summer day in 1876, a wagon train heading west came to Fort Dodge and camped on the prairie nearby. That evening, U.S. Army Surgeon, W.S. Tremaine and several other officers walked out to get the latest news from the travelers. They found the wagons deserted, with bullet holes and arrowheads stuck in their sides. Passing the wagons, they found the settlers kneeling with bowed heads, while their minister prayed: "Oh Lord, we pray Thee, protect us with Thy mighty hand. On our long journey, Thy Divine Providence has thus far kept us safe. We have survived cloudbursts, hailstorms, floods, strong gales, thirst and parching heat ----as well as raids of horse thieves and attacks by hostile Indians. But now, oh Lord, we face our gravest danger ---- Dodge City lies just ahead, and we must pass through it. Help us and save us, we beseech Thee. Amen."

This pretty well summed up the outsiders' view of Dodge City, also known as "The Deadwood of Kansas," "the rip-roaring burg of the West," "The Beautiful Bibulous Babylon of the Frontier," "Hell on the Plains." Dodge ---- a synonym for all that is wild, reckless and violent where was outfitted every expedition against Indians, horse thieves, outlaws where a saloon could be found for every fifty residents and where the only public buildings ever locked were the jail and the church.At first, Dodge had consisted of tents, small shacks and dugouts. Nearly everyone in town sold whiskey or opened a restaurant, but the town grew rapidly. A row of one-story frame buildings was built on both sides of the east-west railroad, forming the Plaza or Front Street. The nearest law was in Hays City, seventy-five miles away, with every imaginable danger between the two points.

Of course, not all of the residents or transients in Dodge were trigger-happy gunmen, gamblers, and "ladies of the evening." The majority of the citizens had come there to establish a new life and better themselves through farming, merchandising or ranching. But the public's imaginations was captured worldwide and forevermore by the American cowboys and the cattle they drove.

By the time Dodge City was established as a cowtown, the world's attention was on the massive cattle drives coming up from Texas and the Indian Territory. Most trail herds averaged twenty-five to thirty-five hundred and normally moved about 10 to 15 miles a day.

The Texas cattle didn't much resemble a 'modern' beef steer, which could never travel a thousand miles at that rate and gain weight at the same time anyway. Historian and author Stanley Vestal described the trailing Longhorns: "The Longhorn was wild, fierce, and sensitive, of mighty stamina, and muscled like a stag. There was nothing logy about him. He had narrow shoulders, a sharp backbone, tucked-up flanks, and a sway-back. There was more horn, hoof and bone to him, though he could get rolling fat. Most cattle get up slowly, hind end first, but the Longhorn ---- like the buffalo ---- seemed to spring up all at once, like a jack-in-the-box. He had a long tail, long legs, and was built to travel."

Buyers and owners reached Dodge well in advance of the herds. As soon as the brakeman on the slowing train shouted out "Dodge City," buyers from Wyoming to New York hurried across Front Street to either the Dodge House or the Alamo, where they immediately registered, then began talking about nothing but Longhorn steers, brands, cattle markets back East, cocktails and toddies.

The herds had started north as soon as the grass was high enough to feed them. Depending on their point of debarkation, they would reach Dodge City after 30 to 100 days on the trail.

For ten years, Dodge City was not only a cattle shipping point, but the greatest cattle market in the world. Many of the herds driven north to Dodge went straight on to Wyoming, Colorado, the Dakotas, Montana, and various Indian Agencies throughout the West.

Of 164 droves coming up the trail in 1880, 33 were herds of breeder cattle headed for the northern and western ranges. By the end of August 1880, 287,000 head of Longhorn had reached Dodge. In 1881, of 153,000 expected, over 100,000 had arrived by June 12. In the second half of that year, 100 railroad trains, made up of around 3,000 cars, each with a capacity of 20 head, carried 60,000 cattle out of Dodge.

In 1885, the last big year of the cattle trade, forecasts started to be made about the size of the Texas drive for the following season before the winter had even ended. Invitations were sent south to attract the cattlemen, and Dodge merchants got together to reduce prices on items in which the cowboys were interested.

While all of this was being advertised in Texas and the Indian Territory, Dodge went on it's annual cleanup campaign painting stores, replacing boards in the sidewalks (if they could be called that), and stocking up on supplies of every imaginable item. Cattle usually began to arrive around April and by May, a steady flow of Texas cattle and cowboys were blanketing the surrounding grasslands and the saloons (and even churches) of Dodge. By the middle of July, usually about 70 percent of the year's drive had been bought and sold.

But cattle would keep trickling in until mid-September, while cowboys who had been hired to drive "breeder herds" on to the north and west would be stopping back by to visit Dodge as late as October. So Dodge merchants found themselves catering to eastern buyers and speculators, northern ranchers, Texas cattlemen and drovers, and the ever-present shrill whistle of the locomotives about ten months out of the year. During the peak season, one thousand to two thousand cowboys would be found in and around Dodge. Many of these men would be busy branding, cutting out, and holding cattle for more fattening consequently, they might hang around Dodge for several months at a time.

Since these drovers received six month's to a year's pay as soon as the cattle were shipped out or sold, many of them worked off the boredom and hazards of the trail with liberal amounts of liquor, gambling, dancing with the saloon girls, or just plain having fun. The editor of the Dodge City Times, of course not knowing what these men had been through coming up the trail, wrote about the gun-toting Texas cowboy: "A gay and festive Texas boy, like all true sons of the Lone Star State, loves to fondle and practice with his revolver in the open air. It pleases his ear to hear the sound of this deadly weapon. Aside from the general pleasure he derives from shooting, the Texas boy makes shooting inside the corporate limits of any town or city a specialty. He loves to see the inhabitants rushing wildly around to 'see what all the shooting is all about,' and it tickles his heart to the very core to see the City Marshal coming towards him at a distance while he is safe and securely mounted."

"The program of the Texas lot then, is to come to town to bum around until he gets disgusted with himself, then to mount his pony and ride out through the main street, shooting his revolver at every jump. Not shooting to hurt anyone, but shooting in the air, just to raise a little excitement and let people know he is in town."

But the people of Dodge City seemed to put up with the minor hellraising by the cowboys, and even tried to protect them from gambling thieves, as is shown in this article from the Ford County Globe: "We believe that what is known as 'square games' are among the necessary belongings of any town that has the cattle trade. We don't believe there are a dozen people in Dodge who seriously object to this kind of gambling so long as this is a cattle town, but we appeal to our city officers 'to set down on' all showcase and other bare-faced robbing concerns. Keep them away from our town. They create more bad blood among both cattlemen and citizens than anything else. They are no good to any class of people in the community and they are even despised by gamblers themselves."

The common picture painted by television and Hollywood of the trail-drivin' cowboy has always been one of total independence, ruthlessness, rowdiness, drunkenness and extreme bravery, along with the willingness to shoot anybody down that got in his way or looked at him wrong.

A very few were that bad, but the majority of these men possessed qualities known primarily to mountain men, pioneers, and trailblazers. Their unflagging loyalty to their employer, to the point of dying to save the herd during Indian raids and floods, endeared him to all adventurous persons. Although the cowboy usually had little formal education, his "horse sense" more than made up for that. Like the tough Texas Longhorns he drove, he had found it most necessary to adapt to a wild and rough life, where danger could threaten his existence at any moment.

After being on the trail for months, then getting paid in Dodge City, the majority of these tough men (and the 15 to 18-year-olds which quickly became men) bought new duds, ammunition, possibly a new gun, and then got drunk until their money ran out or they had had enough of the high times of the wildest cowtown in the West. But these men, like the Longhorns, had adapted to the treacherous life of the Old West or they died trying.

James H. Cook, cowboy, plainsman, and author, described the role of the cowboy and plainsman in the West: "I desire to record one fact regarding those who made a success as good 'cowhands' or plainsmen or mountaineers, and who really aided, by their various activities, in paving the way for settlement in the West. Such men had to be known as men of deeds, men of action. No person, as far as I know, has ever accused Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, 'Bigfoot' Wallace, Jim Bridger, or others of their type whose names will remain indelible in the history of the West, of being either loafers, dance-hall artists, or desperadoes.

"The majority of the cowboys of the West were not a drunken, gambling lot of toughs. It required riders with clear heads, brave hearts, and strong bodies to do the work which was required in handling either the great trail herds or the cattle on the ranges. A drunken man riding one of those great herds of wild cattle was a sight I never witnessed. One could as well imagine a man being allowed to smoke cigarettes in a powder factory. A large percentage of the men who lived the life of the open chose and followed that life because they loved it."

One cowboy named Burt Taylor described one instance in which alcohol and cattle didn't mix: "There was another ferry that ferried across the Arkansas River a short ways back from the mouth before it emptied into the Virdigris. This ferry was run by Mrs. Lake Brewer, a Cherokee woman. After crossing the river, the trail from the ferry to Kansas was known as the Baxter Springs Road. Mrs. Brewer would at times, when the river was high, ferry cattle across the river on the ferry boat."

"One winter after I'd taken over the ferry, the river froze over real thick it had begun to thaw and the ice was slipping. Jeff and Floyd Nevins went to Ft. Gibson and bought a bunch of jake came back to the ferry pretty drunk. They got about a third of the way across the river, but because of the noise they were making, all the cattle got in one end of the ferry. Once there, the end the cattle were on, sank, throwing the other end away up out of the water. All the cattle drowned except one brindle steer."

"There was one man on the ferry that could not swim, the others had to hold him on the upper end of the ferry to keep him from jumping into the river as he got scared and lost his common judgment. All the men aboard got soaking wet a skiff was taken out to get Jeff and Floyd, on the way back to the bank, the skiff run upon a large snag and sank."

This same cowboy told of his experiences of swimming cattle across rivers, and the problems involved. "When the river was low, it wasn't much problem getting the Longhorns across, but when the water was high, it was a mightily hard job. The way we handled them when the water was high was, we would start two or three of them into the water, and after they got to where they had to swim, we would pull up beside and get on their backs. We had a stick, and when the steers tried to turn back or go in the wrong direction, we would beat them on the side of the head and make them go straight, after we got the first few started, the others were easy to make follow. A lot of times when the water was real high, it would take us three weeks and longer to get them across. Quite often, we would start a large bunch across the river, lose control of them and they would come out anywhere from one to two miles down the river on the same side we started from. We would ride the steers' backs, jumping from one to the other, we had to leave the steer we would be riding before he got to the bank for if we rode them out onto the bank they would turn and charge us. They were surely the old long horned Texas steers."

While researching this series of articles I drove thousands of miles to sift through court records and newspaper articles, and talked with people who let me glance through crumbling pages of the diaries of their cattle-driving forefathers in search of interesting materials which told of the ways of life--and death-- of the frontier cattlemen and their Texas Longhorns. These stories could be summed up into the dry "high school history book" style, but I would much rather use them in their entirety so as to preserve the colorful narrative that expressed the spirit, stamina, and the close-knit relationships between cowboy and cow.

I would once again like to quote cattleman and author James H. Cook, whose narratives captured the spirit and dangers encountered by the drovers: "I think I can understand how men whose spirits are fired by patriotism in time of war will stand all sorts of privations and hardships, as well as the most intense suffering, such as was endured at Valley Forge, and at times during the War of the Rebellion but what spirit fired and sustained the boys who drove the trail herds during the times of which I write is more than I can explain. I remember hardly an instance, and I think there were actually very few if any, in which men proved themselves to be quitters. To hold onto the stock seemed to be the first consideration with all engaged in the work."

"There are rough spots in the lives of all who have lived in the open, whether the life be that of a soldier, sailor, or plainsman but I think the wild and woolly 'cow waddie' received about as many rough knocks as anybody living on the sunset side of the Mississippi."

"During the storms, the cattle and horses would stampede, and to stay with them, we had to ride as fast as a horse could run. Sometimes it would be so dark that a rider could not see his horse's head. Then a flash of lightning would come, and we could see the cattle tearing madly along and locate their position. The next moment one would again be blinded by the flash. Many were the hard falls the boys had to take when a horse went down while running after stampeded stock on those dark and stormy nights."

"Many were the poor old 'leather-breeches' who came dragging themselves into camp the morning after a bad night, either with broken bones or carrying their saddle on their backs, because their pony had fallen and broken his neck or a leg. And I know personally a few of the boys who were crushed to death and had to be left by the side of the trail to wait for the call of the great trumpeter, Gabriel, because of those terrible runs at night."

The Texas cowboy had to endure hardships greater than any other type of frontiersman. Hunters, trappers, and soldiers could usually find some shelter from storms, tornadoes, and Indians, but the drover had to brave the elements in order to stay with the herd. The real cowboy would stay with the herd come 'hell or high water' because he had to. Many unmarked graves lie along the great trails because drovers froze to death in the saddle, were trampled by cattle stampedes or attacked from ambush by Indians. Others met their demise in the cowtowns by gamblers very efficient with their six-shooters, who oftentimes just for sport, prodded the proud cowpuncher into a fight he had no chance of winning.

Author's note: In the last part, I mentioned some investigation being done into the possibility of 'long-horned cattle' existing on the North American continent as early as the fifth century A.D.. Scientists are constantly searching for archaeological evidence to find out what type of life was here first. Some of the newest stories concern a Chinese legend found in the Llang Dynasty, telling of a Buddhist monk who discovered a land he called Fusang, about 13,000 miles east of China. Some persons researching this legend say this would have put the ancient explorers somewhere near southern California. Similarities between the empire noted by the monk and the highly developed civilizations of the fifth century Yucatan's in present Mexico do exist, but according to Professor of Geology, Stephen C. Jett, of the University of California at Davis, there is no substantial evidence to indicate these 'long-horned cattle' were indeed cattle. The animals might have been found to substantiate any claim that true cattle existed in America until Columbus brought that first small group on his second voyage in 1493 -- and those were Spanish cattle.

LONGHORN CATTLE

Longhorn are a breed of cattle descended from cows and bulls left by early Spanish settlers in the American Southwest. They are named for their long horns, which span about four feet (over one meter). By the end of the American Civil War (1861 – 1865) these cattle had multiplied and great numbers of them roamed freely across the open range of the West. Americans found the beef of longhorns stringy and tough. But ranchers in Texas bred the longhorns with other cattle breeds such as Hereford and Angus to produce better quality meat. As beef was in demand in the eastern United States, shrewd businessmen capitalized on the business opportunity, buying cattle for three to five dollars a head and selling them in eastern and northern markets for as much as $25 to $60 a head. Ranchers hired cowboys to round up, sort out, and drive their herds to railheads in places like Abilene and Dodge City, Kansas, which became famous as "cow towns" (raucous boom towns where saloons and brothels proliferated.) After the long trail drive, the cattle were loaded onto rail cars and shipped live to local butchers who slaughtered the livestock and prepared the beef. For 20 years the plentiful longhorn cattle sustained a booming livestock industry in the West: at least six million Texas longhorns were driven across Oklahoma to the cow towns of Kansas. However, by 1890 the complexion of the industry changed. Farmers and ranchers in the West used a new material, barbed wire, to fence in their lands, closing the open range. Railroads were extended, bringing an end to the long, hard, and much glorified cattle drives the role of the cowboy changed, making him little more than a hired hand. Big business took over the industry. Among the entrepreneurs who capitalized on beef's place in the American diet was New England-born Gustavus Swift (1839 – 1903), who in 1877 began a large-scale slaughterhouse operation in Chicago, shipping ready-packed meat via refrigerated railcars to markets in the East.

Veja também: Barbed Wire, Cattle Drives, Cowboy, Cow Towns, Chisholm Trail, Open Range, Prairie

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Longhorn Cattle - History

TEXAS LONGHORN BLOODLINE LEGACIES

From Near Extinction To Distinction

By the turn of the 19th century demand for the Texas Longhorn beef began to fade. It took less than 40 years of fencing,plows and demand for the fat English breeds to drive the Texas longhorn closer to extinction than the buffalo. Six cattle families along with the United States Government are responsible for preserving the Texas Longhorn as a breed.

The Butler family: Named for Milby Butler, a pioneer cattleman who began raising Texas Longhorns in the early 1900's. His cattle trace back to the wild cattle of east Texas and the Gulf Coast. Most of Milby's cattle were butchered after he died in 1971 but the best were saved by several selective breeders. The Butler line is known for exceptional horn growth. Perhaps the most famous Butler cattle were Bevo and Beauty. This sire and dam produced the bull, Classic among others.

The WR (Wildlife Refuge) bloodline: The WR line of Longhorns is a result of selective breeding that began with the acquisition of breeding stock in 1927. That year, the Wichita Refuge searched for Longhorn cattle to preserve the breed from extinction. Refuge employees(Earl Drummond,Heck Schrader, Joe Bill Lee and Elmer Parker Jr.) viewed thousands of cattle and finally located and acquired 20 cows and 3 bulls that were of the Longhorn type. Several bulls and cows were added to the original herd through the years. The success of the breeding program has made the WR line one of the most popular today.

The Peeler family: Named for Graves Peeler. Mr.Peeler raised longhorns, a tradition established by his father starting in 1931, extensively after losing many heads of English-bred cattle in a blizzard. One of the most well known of the Peeler cattle was YO Carmela I, the first cow registered by the TLBAA.

The Marks family: Named for Emil H. Marks. By 1920, Mr.Marks noticed that longhorns were disappearing from the marketplace. He began holding back some of his best animals just to keep the breed alive. The Marks line was among the oldest of the Texas Longhorn bloodlines.

The Wright family: Named for M.P. Wright. The Wright line originated in South Texas where the family had a ranching and slaughter business. When ranchers would bring in longhorns for sale, Wright would select the better longhorns for breeding stock. His first 100 animals were acquired in this way. In 1965, the Wright herd consisted of 222 registered Texas Longhorns.

The Yates family: Named for Cap Yates. Mr. Yates interest in Longhorns resulted in a bloodline known for purity toward the original "old type" Longhorn. Yates began developing an eye for cattle while working as a ranch foreman in 1910, and bought many cattle from Mexico after World WarI. At his ranches in south and west Texas, the only breed of cattle that could survive on the desolate, harsh land were Longhorns.

The Phillips family: Named for Jack Phillips. Jack followed his father and grandfather in raising Texas Longhorn cattle. Phillips had raised Longhorns for 30 years before the TLBAA was formed in 1964. Phillips always looked for long legs, long bodies, slender heads, long bushy tails and good horns. He used the selection rules of conformation first, followed by horns and color traits. Texas Ranger JP is perhaps the best known animals from this bloodline. Known as the sire for size.

OTHER IMPORTANT TEXAS LONGHORN BLOODLINES:
Scott - Developed by Walter B. Scott of Goliad Texas. A blend of Peeler and Marks bloodlines.
YO - Charles Schreiner III developed a blend of "WR" and Peeler along with the bull "BOLD RULER".
SPEAR-E - Elvin Blevins of Wynnewood, Oklahoma started this bloodline in 1952. Primarily "WR" with "YATES" influence.
SHAHAN - James T."Happy" Shahan line of Texas Longhorns is the result of selective inbreeding from the Marks, Butler, Peeler and Stanger bloodlines.
WOODS - Grady Woods, great-great grandson of Joshua Westbrook homestead in Newton County east Texas. These cattle are descendents of stock brought to Santo Domingo and Mexico by the Spaniards.
BLR - Bright Longhorn Ranch. Arthur Bright of Le Grand California. "WR" based heard on the west coast starting in 1962.
Ox Yoke T - This line of cattle was developed by Ken Humphrey of Okreek, South Dakota in 1950, utilizing the Fort Niobrara Refuge cattle for 50% with 25% "Yates" and 25% "WR".


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